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Unit 3 Organisation Behaviour Assignment - Sony and Coca Cola
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 3 Organisation Behaviour - Sony and Coca Cola
With the verification of various aspects, the report is prepared in concentration with organisational and behaviour in which essays is presented to develop better understanding with the fact. These essays include information of two organisations namely Sony and Coca Cola. Both the organisations are well known organisations working in a competitive market. Information regarding behaviour of employees will be shared in the report and organisation’s roles towards the employees will be discussed. This Unit 3 Organisation Behaviour Assignment Sony and Coca Cola will help the organisations in implementing new approaches, which will help them in attaining success in the market.
1.1 Explain and contrast different organisational structure and culture.
Structure and culture are the aspects that are necessary to be managed by every organisation doing business in the market. Coca Cola and Sony are the two organisations that are included in the report so as to develop better understanding with the culture and structure of the organisations. Both the organisations use different structures and follows different culture (Giltinane, 2013). Structure of Coca Cola is organised by function on the other hand structure of Sony is organised by product. Coca Cola marketing has the structure in which there is an executive director who manages marketing and outreach manager, program and training manager and Finance and administration manager. Marketing and outreach manager of Coca Cola handles marketing and communication, fund development and membership, program and training manager handles 6 areas of the organisation and finance and administration manager handles 4 areas of the organisation. Organisation ensures that the work process could be managed by dividing different groups and department (Parumasur, et. al., 2013). Working on such structure helps the organisation to maintain the decorum of the workplace and helps in attaining the targeted goals within the planned time. On the other hand structure of Sony is organised by the product it include CEO of the company, under whom CFO and CSO of the company works, CEO of Sony has divided different departments based on the products named as electronics department, entertainment department and financial services. Under different departments, there are different managers who manage the work process according to the tasks provided to them.
Coming on to the culture, culture of the organisation is made up of the people working at the workplace. Culture of the organisation defines the working environment and the values shared at the workplace by the management and the people working in the organisation (Robbins, et. al., 2009). Coca Cola believes in helping the employees working at the workplace and ensures that people of different diversity should meet each other and work with the feeling of togetherness. Coca Cola believes in teamwork and use to make team of the people coming from different diversities. Coca Cola believes that making the team and indulging people in that team helps in understanding the culture, which develops the feeling of togetherness and ensures that the work could be managed in a proper manner. On the other hand, Sony believes that organising cultural activities like fun games and employees meet helps them in bringing them together. Sony has culture of working with fun and ensures that the people working in the organisation should enjoy their work and could work accordingly. Sony believes that happy people could make the environment of the organisation happy. This ensures that the targets of Sony can be achieved within the prescribed time and it could attain competitive advantage in the market (Mullins, 2010).
1.2 Explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can affect the performance of business.
Organisational structure and culture both have the great impact on the performance of the employees. It is necessary that organisations like Sony and Coca Cola should focus on the culture and try to bring changes in them so that assurance could be made that employees working at the workplace will perform effectively. It could be evaluated that organisations having formal culture and have a set hierarchy, which restricts the flow of communication, is less productive (Huczynski, et. al., 2007). Coca Cola have such type of structure as well as culture as people who are at the upper level gives the instructions to the people at lower level and people of lower level do not have the authority to contact directly with the upper level management. This creates a loop in the relationship between employees and the management due to which staff members do not perform effectively. On the other hand Sony have a cool environment and have a culture of working with freedom and open door policy with the effect of which innovative ideas are created at the workplace and staff members works more effectively and perform according to the requirements of the organisation (Saeed, et. al., 2014).
1.3 Discuss the factors that influence individual behaviour at work.
There are various factors that influence the behaviour of the employee working in the organisation. These factors are attitude of the individual working at the workplace, ability and skills of the people, perception of the employees and of the management regarding the employee working at workplace, diversity and heredity to which people belong. It is necessary that both the organisations Coca Cola as well as Sony should focus on these factors. Focusing on such factors helps organisation in understanding the behaviour of the people working and helps in assisting them accordingly. Human behaviour is unpredictable and information regarding the behaviour of human can be obtained juts by assuming the things and activities done by the person working at workplace (Saeed, et. al., 2014). Gaining the information regarding the behaviour of an employee will help the organisation in developing the strategies with the effect of which organisation can develop the strategies which will help in managing the people. These kind of strategies helps in attaining the organisational objectives.
2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organisations.
Different organisations adopt different leadership styles to lead the employees. There are majorly five forms of leadership styles that have been discussed below:
- Autocratic: The leader takes all the decisions without any consideration of the follower’s views and opinions in the style.
- Paternalistic style: The leader treats his employees or followers as extended family and led them accordingly in the leadership style. The leader in this expects obedience from his followers.
- Participative: This style involves the engagement of followers in the decision-making practices by sharing of views with the leaders.
- Delegate: It is the type of leadership that deals with delegation of the work by the leaders to the followers. Employees themselves have the sense of responsibility to perform the task effectively.
- Free reign: It is the leadership style in which leaders act as the guide and employees are free to work according to their will with partial concern of the leaders.
Coca Cola uses paternalistic leadership style in which it treats employees as a family of a large organisation. Coca Cola feels that the building such type of relation with the employees will help in building trust and will ensure that they will work like a family at the workplace. Using such kind of leadership styles helps in reducing employee turnover ratio as employees feels like home at the workplace and wants to stay attached with the organisation (Parumasur, et. al., 2013). Paternal leadership style helps the employees in understanding their responsibilities, which helps them in focusing on the work. On the other hand, Sony uses the delegative as well as participative leadership styles. Sony wants to ensure that all the work process of the organisation should be managed and its targets should be achieved which could help it in attaining competitive advantage in the market. In delegative leadership style, authority is delegated to the employees who build the feeling of responsibility among the employees, which ensures that employee should work effectively, and provide quality in the work.
On the other hand participative leadership style helps in enhancing the decision-making skills of the people working at the workplace (Saeed, et. al., 2014). Sony uses participative leadership style which help in bringing new ideas to the organisation, employees working at the workplace are asked to provide lean ideas which helps in making the work process simple and easy with the effect of which people can help the organisation in attaining its targets and obtaining competitive advantage in the market. Therefore, it could be seen that both the organisations uses effective set of strategies to maintain the decorum. It can be seen that focusing on the needs and wants of the employees working at the workplace helps in refining their work and helps in attaining the target objectives with quality (Giltinane, 2013).
2.2 Explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management.
Theories related with the organisation are provided to educate various aspects of organisation and organisation behaviour. Different organisational theories have been introduced according to the change in the structure and cultures of the organisation. Some of them are discussed below:
- Scientific Management Theory: Scientific management theory is the theory, organisation using which focuses on the productivity and ensures that the targets of the organisations can be obtained within the time limits provided. This is the theory in which organisation wants to increase its economic efficiency so that it could generate more revenue and profit (Larsson, et. al., 2010). This is the theory, which leads to de humanity as no focus is made by the organisation on the employees working in it and the main motive is the work done by them. No appraisals or motivation is provided to the employees who work to enhance the productivity of the organisation. This is the theory in which smart people are considered as the wastage of time but the people who have the efficiency to produce more are being taken into consideration.
- Bureaucratic theory: This theory is based on the principle of specialisation and structure. The organisation that believes in this theory works on the ore decided rules and regulations without concerning the situation. The focus only remains on the specialised way of performing the tasks. The type of organisation with this approach does not accept innovation.
- Human Relation Theory: Human relation theory helps the organisations in building relation with the employees. This theory deals with managing the human resource by considering their benefits and views first. All of the focus reams on the benefits of the employees and the relation between them.
Sony and Coca Cola both focuses upon human relation theory, for both the organisation employees are treated like the precious assets of the workplace (Yahaya, et. al., 2016). Both the organisations work on the verge to motivate the employees and providing those regards and recognition so that they can work effectively at the workplace. Sony and Coca Cola ensures that the manager working in the organisation should focus upon the needs and wants of the employees working at the workplace. This type of approach helps in building trust among the employees working in the organisation. Both the organisations rely upon human relation theory because it helps in reducing employee turnover ratio and helps in processing the work with quality (Wadongo, et. al., 2014). Staff turnover ratio is reduced because people of the organisation are emotionally attached with the organisation, which does not let them to leave the organisation. With the help of human relation theory work could be processed with quality because people working in the organisation using such type of approach works with responsibility and ensures that the work they are doing must be processed with quality. Both the organisations Sony as well as Coca Cola provide appraisals to the employees working in them and provide rewards and recognition to the employees. These kind of activities helps in motivating the employees at workplace, which helps in influencing them to work more hard and work with quality so that organisations can attain its targeted goals and objectives (Davidova, et. al., 2014).
Modern theory: Modern theory consists of their approaches to management.
- System approach: this approach deals with management of the organisation by linking the goal of the individual with the objectives of the organisations. This deals with maintaining the balance between the employee benefits and the task completion.
- Socio-technical approach: This approach considers organisation as a social and technical system. This concentrates on the relative environment of the organisation and maintains the balance between the environment and the organisation.
- Contingency approach: The approach deals with dynamic environment. The organisation with this approach changes their policies according to the situation.
2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organisation.
Contingency approach is the approach, which develops the understanding that the organisations should not rely upon single approach. According to contingency approach, organisations should not show their rigid behaviour at the workplace. Organisations showing the rigid behaviour cannot sustain in the market as it is being analysed that market trends, needs, and wants of the people present in the market keeps on changing. It becomes necessary that the organisations should remain flexible. It becomes necessary that Sony as well as Coca Cola should use the flexible plans, which could help in making the changes according to the requirement of the people and requirement of the market. Working on contingency theory will help the organisations to succeed in the competitive market (Parumasur, et. al., 2013).
Accepting complexity is another aspect that will help the organisations present in the market. Organisations should accept the challenges of the market and should work on the strategies, which could help them in attaining competitive advantage. Sony and Coca Cola should develop the competitive strategies so that they can attain success in the market. Both the organisations should indulge their employees in the decision making process so that new and innovative ideas could be presented which can help the organisation to accept the complexity and to fight back with the issues. Importance of independency should be there at the workplace. Every employee working in the organisation should be independent and should have the freedom of decision-making. This kind of approach helps in motivating them (Huczynski, et. al., 2007). Boundaries in the work process hinder in the process of the safety workplace and affect the quality of work. Employee working independently develops self-responsibility and works accordingly at the workplace. Sony works on this approach on the other hand Coca Cola does not work on the approach of understanding the importance of interdependency. Interdependency should be there in the organisation and Coca Cola should adopt such approach so that people could work more effectively and process out the quality work at the workplace.
3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change.
Motivation is the driving force of employee’s performance. There are many motivational theories that have been discussed below in brief. These motivational theories are adopted by many organisations in order to inspire their employees to work efficiently.
Maslow hierarchy needs theory: This theory states that there is a hierarchical need of the individuals that can change with time. These needs are as follows:
- Physiological needs: These are the most basic needs of the individual, which involves the necessities. In terms of employment, employee’s basic need is the salary.
- Safety needs: Safety needs of an employee is related to the need of the good and safe working environment.
- Social needs: This is the need of the human to work efficiently. Social belongingness and love can make an employee work more efficiently as humans need love to live.
- Esteem needs: Esteem needs are related to the recognition and the benefits of performing well. Some of the employees feel motivated if they are appraised for their work.
- Self-actualisation needs: this is the last phase of the need of the employee. At this phase, employee starts realising his worth and start growing.
Herzberg two-factor theory: This theory suggests that there are two factors in the organisation. Every organisation should include the factors whose absence may dissatisfy the employee working there. These factors can be celebrations at workplace. The presence of this factor does not motivate employees but absence may dissatisfy an employee. Leadership styles help the organisation to provide a set direction and it is necessary that an organisation should use appropriate leadership style because it helps in motivating the employees and ensuring they could work effectively at the workplace. To understand the relationship between the leadership styles and motivation of employees, it is necessary to gain information related with various leadership styles.
Participative Leadership Style: It is the leadership style that ensures that employees working at the workplace should participate in some or the activities and in the decision making aspects. Such type of activity helps in encouraging the employees and ensuring that they should get motivated and make effective set of decisions (Robbins, et. al., 2009).
Delegative Leadership Style: Responsibilities are delegated on the employees with the effect of which they get motivated to manage the work more effectively and build effective set of relationship with the organisation in the leadership style.
Free Rain Style: Free rain leadership style is the style in which freedom to communication and work is given to the employees. This leadership styles helps the employees to work freely which ensures that they could remain energetic and remain motivated at the workplace (Saeed, et. al., 2014).
3.2 Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace.
Motivation is one of the most important aspects attached with every organisation. It is necessary that organisations should indulge in the activities, which could help it in motivating its employees. Comparing different motivational theories will help the organisations to understand the importance of motivation at the workplace. Maslow’s theory of motivation suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs for which an individual gets motivated at the workplace. According to Maslow’s it is necessary that organisation should understand the hierarchy and should help the individual to fulfil the needs accordingly so that it could remain motivated at the workplace.
On the other hand, Herzberg theory of motivation suggests that there are certain hygienic factors due to which employees gets motivated. It is necessary that organisation should maintain the hygiene factors like providing appreciation to the employees, availing proper wages, managing health and safety of the employees, involving the employees in decision making and developing effective set of relationship with the employees. These kind of activities helps in motivating the employees and ensuring that they could remain with the organisation and could help the organisation to attain success.
3.3 Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers.
Managers play a very vital role for an organisation. It is necessary that an organisation should have the knowledge of important of the motivation theories and should apply it to the organisation and the employees. Quality of a good manager is to motivate the employees and to help the employees to perform effectively at the workplace. A manager should try to build effective set of relationship with the employees and should help them in indulging in decision-making aspects. Several motivational theories like Herzberg and Maslow, provides the manager with the idea to motivate the employees. Adoption of any of the theories gives a framework of motivational approaches that can be used in the organisations. Managers can use these approaches to understand the motivational needs of the employees at different level. This is because the employee’s dies not have same motivational needs at every level. These needs are changed according to the designation and the time of the employment.
Developing effective set of understanding with various aspects indulge in both the essays it could be concluded that every organisations should focus on the employees working in it. Organisations should indulge in the activities, which could help in making different set of strategies to motivate the employees working in it. Working on fulfilling the needs and wants of the people working in the organisation will help the organisation to enhance the performance of employees, which will lead to enhance the performance of the organisation.
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Giltinane, C.L. 2013, "Leadership styles and theories",Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987), vol. 27, no. 41, pp. 35.
Larsson, J. & Vinberg, S. 2010, "Leadership behaviour in successful organisations: Universal or situation-dependent?", Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 317-334.
Parumasur, S.B. & Govender, P. 2013, "The Importance of Teamwork, Continuous Top Management Support and Training in Bringing About TQM", Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 639.
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