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Unit 3 Factors of Organizational Behaviour Assignment
Every organisation has its different culture and every employee has to behave accordingly as per the prescribed rules, regulation, standards and work culture. Organizational behaviour is a wide term which studies the human behaviour in the organisation and its impact on the employees, organisational structure and groups. There are many factors which directly affect the organisation and it includes the employee’s behaviour at the workplace, their commitment towards the organisation, their leadership skills and management skills. All these factors can make or break organisational goal as employees are the human resources who directly work towards organisational goal and to achieve it in the best manner. If an employee is dedicated towards work and his behaviour towards the organisation is very good then he automatically contributes his skills to the organisation as well as motivates all the other employees to behave in the same way. In this way behaviour of an employee affects the organisation.
1.1 Compare and contrast different organizational structure and culture.
- Organisational structure and culture of CAPCO- CAPCO is one of the leading consultancy, managed service and technology solutions provider for financial services industry. Organisational structure of CAPCO is created to fulfill the needs i.e. to provide goods and services. There are many forms of organisational structure and they are mainly affected by some factors like its size, purpose, types of tasks to be performed. Its structure is according to the product and services provided. Every structure which is chosen has its own negative as well as positive impacts and the structure defines the way in which the organization is operated.(Diamond and Diamond, 2007) Organisational structure of CAPCO is team driven flat, and it consists of a few layers. The hierarchy from top to bottom is very short and the control over it is very strong. Due to the short layer, the communication is also effective and clear. Another type of structure is matrix structure and it is basically seen in project based organisations. The team consists of people with some technical skills; some special skills and they all work for achieving the goal. CAPCO’s organisational culture is innovative and open ended. It basically focuses on performance and rewards, learning, trainings and development. There is a flexible environment and it focuses on risk taking and creativity. This organisation has a proper vision and due to this, its employees are capable of facing challenges of financial industry. (Dugdale and Lyne, 2010)
- Organisational structure and culture of Cadbury- Cadbury is a company that produces chocolates of different varieties like sweet, chocolate, milk chocolate, dark chocolate etc. It is one of the leading chocolate providers in the world.(Tracy, 2014) Cadbury has a Hierarchystructure that is based on the instructions given to the lower level subordinates by managing director. Decision making is done by top level management after consulting with the other members. There is a democratic structure within the organisation as it necessary for every employee to understand that what they are doing and their motto and objectives. In Cadbury, its organizational structure and culture are related to each other as they all need to work with each other to achieve objectives. It has adopted some strategies to motivate the employees.It has an open work culture as all the employees work together in a group and decision making is also done by top level management with consideration to the views of all the employees
1.2 Explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business.
The main objective of every organization is to fulfil the needs of the customer by providing them goods and services. The organizational structure of CAPCO is very short as a result there is a close bonding between the employees and the managers. In decision making process the top level management consults with the other individuals of the organisation. This creates a sense of responsibility between them. Their organisation structure is temporary and based on the projects. If a project gets completed then the employees move to another project and then it creates a new organizational structure. (Goncalves, 2006) The structure of an organisation highly motivates the employees as their advice has been taken before making any decision and they also have an access. Employees in this organisation are free to ask any questions and give suggestions to the organisation for any improvements. It motivates the employees and affects them in a positive way. As a result, they give their all efforts to the organisation and work in an effective way for the success of it. CAPCO believes in working in teams as it collects all the skills of different individuals in the team which results in higher outcome and focuses on a number of goals at a same time and it gives more opportunities as to respond to new markets at the time when there is more demand for goods and services. Organisational structure explains that how the roles and responsibilities are given to the employees and chain of communication within the organisation between different levels. More the flexibility in the organisation, the more will be the openness between the managers and the employees. (Dyer et. Al., 2013) CAPCO has an open working environment in which managers are very familiar with the employees so the supervision has been work in an effective way as they have a good understanding with each other. In this culture, it becomes easy to delegate roles and responsibilities to the employees. There is a good communication between the employer and employee which creates a better control in the organisation. It contributes in improving quality of products and provides it in fair prices. They basically triesto satisfy the expectations of the customers by providing them with best quality products and services.(Dugdale and Lyne, 2010)
1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work.
There are many factors that affect the individual behaviour at workplace as every individual have different nature, different mental status and different personality. (Subba, 2010)Some of the main factors that affects are-
- Abilities – Abilities are the characteristics or qualities of a person that a person learns as per the environment as well as the qualities that gifted by birth. There are different abilities that affects an individual’s behaviour-
- Intellectual abilities- It is related with the intelligence of a person and his reasoning abilities and verbal qualities
- Physical abilities- It refers to the physical strength and stamina of an individual.
- Self-awareness abilities- It refers to the perception of an individual regarding any task and his thinking towards the same which defines his abilities and according to that only, the work has been allotted to him.(Coffey, 2010)
- Gender – As it is known as per the research that men and women stand on an equal position in terms of performing any job and their mental capabilities. Instead of this, societies treat both of them differently according to their gender. This is because that mostly women have responsibilities more than men as she needs to take care of children too. This affects the behaviour in the organisation and the allocation of work according to a discriminated perception.
- Race and Culture – Race is basically described as a different group of people who share similar traits, ideas, customs and religion. People with different race are usually discriminated in society as well as in organisations. People believe on a common stereotype about them which results in discrimination. For resolving this problem, management of every organisation should focus on learning different cultures and values so that they can make a person comfortable who belongs to the other culture.(Tracy, 2014)
- Perception- Perception means to interpret someone according to our mental capability and thinking or something we see or hear without even knowing the reality. It is different for every individual. (Aswathappa and Reddy, 2009)
- Attribution- It means to study the behaviour of an individual which is based according to his personality or situation. It includes three criteria-
- Consensus – This means the same consent of different people or the same reaction for anything.
- Distinctiveness- It is related to the behaviour of a person associated to different situations.
- Consistency- It refers to frequently observation of a similar kind of behaviour and how many times the same will happen.
- Attitude- Attitude refers to a person’s reaction towards a situation and how he reacts to a particular thing.(Subba, 2010)
2.1 Compare the effectiveness of the different leadership at CAPCO and any other organisation of your choice.
There are different leadership styles adopted by CAPCO as per different needs and situations while some other organization like Bentley, Audi etc., they use any particular leadership style. There are basically six leadership styles which are as follows-
- The pacesetting leader- This leader expects excellence and believes in self-direction. It basically works when there are skilled and motivated team members in a team, and the leader expects quick result. This style promotes innovative practices.(Diamond and Diamond, 2007)
- The authoritative leader- This style mainly focuses on the goals and objectives and a common vision which takes a team towards the goal. This style suits to a situation when a team requires a new vision due to change in circumstances or at the time when proper guidance is not needed. The authoritative leaders promote entrepreneurs. It is not suitable for a team in which there are so many experts who have knowledge more than the leader
- The affiliative leader- The affiliative leaders focuses on creating a bond and a feeling of belongingness within the organisation. This situation is helpful at the time of stress and when the team members are suffering from any problem or when they want to recreate trust. It is not effective when teammates are not interested to accept changes or learn something new.(Coffey, 2010)
- The coaching leader- It emphasizes on developing people for upcoming challenges. This style works when the leader wants to help his team members in improving their strengths which can make them more successful.(Dyer et. Al., 2013)
- The coercive leader- This leader demands immediate reactions for anything. It works the most at the situation of crisis like any emergency situation or takeover situation. This style is also helpful for a teammate when everything gets failed. Hence, it can be easily avoided in other cases as it promotes flexibility and inventiveness within the organisation.
- The democratic leader- The democratic leader believes in participation and builds a consensus via participation. This style is the most effective when the leader wants the team to have a responsibility of decision making or goal settlement. He helps the team members when they are confused and provides them with new ideas. It is not suitable at any emergency situation and when teammates do not require guidance from the leaders. (Osborne, 2008)
2.2 Explain how organisational theories (e.g. scientific management and human relations theory) have had influence on the practice of management.
There are many organisational theories that influence management aspects of an organisation. All theories have their different priorities and different beliefs.(Appannaiah et. Al., 2010) The theories are adopted as per the suitability and conditions in the organisation. The different approaches are-
- Bureaucratic approach- It focuses on the structure and the characteristics of the organisation. According to this, an organisation is a closed system. The principles are developed in this approach as per the experiences of the managers and individuals. Education programs and trainings are given to the employees for developing skills within them. It tries to increase efficiency of the employees and the structure of the organisation.
- Administrative approach- In this approach Henry Fayol has explained management in terms of 5 functions which are planning, organising, commanding, co-ordinating and controlling. Firstly planning is necessary so that plans can be implementing in a proper way. After those organising things is also necessary. Afterwards giving commands so that activities can be coordinate and there can be a control over the activities.(Dugdale and Lyne, 2010)
- Scientific approach- It is basically focuses on the things what the organisation expects from the human resource and how they can do the same in the effective and efficient way. It includes the betterment of tools and activities exist in a job. It results in the best way of doing a job.(Yoder-Wise and Kowalski, 2010)
- Human Relation Approach- This approach helps manager so that they can deal with people more effectively. This focuses on the individual’s social as well as psychological needs. Employees prefers to have self- control and do work according to them. It does not focus on productivity.
- Systems approach- This approach says that an organisation is a complex structure which includes connected elements, inputs, outputs, process etc. All these elements affect each other and perform all the functions collectively. This approach provides a framework which identifies the problems and defines the tools which can do the task in the best possible manner.(Coffey, 2010)
- Contingency approach- It describes that there is not any best way to perform any task, it only depends on the situation and circumstances at that time. Due to this, there is a requirement of knowledge regarding internal and external factors. Management theories and principles are applied in this approach.(Karthick, 2010)
2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by CAPCO and your own chosen organisation.
CAPCO mainly used classical management approach for the development of individual’s work which believesin practical aspects and approaches so as the selection and training of the worker has been done in a proper way and they can cooperate with the workers so that all the tasks has been done in a proper manner and as per the principles. There are many situations in CAPCO like conflict situation, delegation of responsibility and authority, power etc. and CAPCO uses different classical approaches as per the circumstances.
CAPCO believes in team building and in this scientific approach works in the best manner as all the group members knows that what are the tasks expected from them and in which way they need to do the task. This approach also defines the best and effective utilisation of tools and resources.(Aswathappa and Reddy, 2009) Principles are maintained in the organisation and the working and structure is applicable as per the principles. All the employees are provided with the best training and development facilities so that the efficiency of employees can be increased as per Bureaucratic approach. Henry Fayolhas given basic five principles for getting a task done in the best way so that all the commands can flow in a right direction. Administrative approach supports all the operational process of an organisation. CAPCO uses all these approaches for the betterment of the society by providing best products and services to the organisation.(Diamond and Diamond, 2007)
3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation within period of change.
Many employees’ works in an organisation but there are a few leaders within them. Most of the employees do not possess leadership skills and they are always afraid of being a leader. But as per the prevailing period of change there is a huge requirement of leaders within the organisation as leaders are the one who can make changes within the organisation and within the industry. Leadership affects the organisational culture as leaders are the one who directs the subordinates and also evaluate their performance.(Dyer et. Al., 2013)
Every manager can be a leader but it is not necessary that a leader is a manager. Leadership skills can be exist in a top level, middle level and lower level employee. There are so many differences between an employee and a manager. There are some changes in an organisation which are created by leaders only and managers basically react to the change. Leaders are responsible for creating teams while managers can only give some good ideas.
There are many qualities which an effective leader possesses and they are:-
It is important for a leader to manage everything in a proper and effective way. There are four types of management styles:-
- Autocratic – In this management style, the leaders are in control of them and always guide their subordinates regarding how to work. They never consult from other people and try to make their own decisions. They expect that subordinates always follow their instructions.(Osborne, 2008)
- Paternalistic- As per this management style, leaders have the responsibility for decision making and they are the one who are responsible for the same but they also care for their employees and consider their views in decision making process.(Subba, 2010)
- Democratic- This management style mainly focus on the more participation by the employees. They prefer to share all the information with the members of the team so that the team members can contribute in decision making process and they can influence the decisions.
- Laissez-faire- In this style, the decisions making is always done by employees as employees are free to make decisions. There are no instructions from the manager’s side, as employees are required to do everything on their own.(Dyer et. Al., 2013)
- Contingency approach of leadership - In this theory, it is described that the success of a leader depends on many factors which includes the performance of subordinates, task allotted to them and group variables. These are the variable factors which directly affects the performance of a leader so it is necessary for a leader to guide their subordinates in a proper way and instruct them accordingly.(Goncalves, 2006)
Leadership creates a successful change within the organisations, as the leaders are the innovators that provide positive factors to the organisation. Different managerial styles are adopted by them which make an organisation more flexible.(Appannaiahet. Al., 2010)
There are four types of leadership approach-
- Pluralistic - This approach says that leadership is an action which many persons can take. It is not necessary that only a few leaders can be there. With the help of leadership, one can take social and personal responsibility for any goal. It is an approach which makes people work in a group and it results in an effective way of working.
- Transformational - it is an approach that results in some changes in individual as well as in systems. It basically involves the positive changes in followers so that all the followers can be developed in leaders.
- Communication – It describes that communication helps a person in self- management. They set a standard for quality and it is mainly related to communication awareness, attitude, and ability of the leaders.
- Conflict- It is important to resolve conflicts within the organisation. Leaders, managers and supervisors are responsible for resolving the conflicts. The employee’s job performance gets affected from the prevailing conflicts.(Tracy, 2014)
3.2 Compare the application of two motivational theories (e.g. Maslow’s and Herzberg theories) within organizational setting.
Maslow’s motivational theories
Herzberg motivational theories
Maslow’s motivational theory is based on the needs and wants and the satisfaction level of the employees. It emphasizes on the employees and they tries to know about the needs of the employees and the gratification of employees within the organisation.
: (Karthick, 2010)
Herzberg’s Theory is basically for motivation and it considers that all the motivational forces works for the growth of an employee like rewards, recognition and opportunities. If all these things are provided to the employees then they get motivated and hence it contributes in the growth of the organisation.
Basis of theory
It is based on the needs of the individuals and it describes five needs of human being i.e. basic needs, security needs, social needs, self- esteem needs and self- fulfilment needs.(Yoder-Wise and Kowalski, 2010)
It basically describes some factors which motivate the employees and it can be used in an effective way. They are hygiene factors (pay and benefits, company policy, job security etc.) and satisfying factors (Achievements, responsibility, growth etc. )
Nature of Theory
This theory is simple and based on description. It is based on the deep experiences of human needs.
This theory is perspective and it describes the motivators. It is based on the real life situations which are seen by Hertzberg.
Applicability of theory
This theory is very important and widely used and has a wide applicability. This is adopted mostly by developing and poor countries.
It is an extended version of Maslow’s Theory. It is not widely applicable and is applied to mostly rich and developed countries wherein money is not a motivating thing.
Descriptive or Perspective
This theory is descriptive in nature.(Strongman, 2013)
This theory is perspective in nature.
In this theory, the need of the individual acts as a motivator for him while it is not satisfied.(Critchleyet. Al.,, 2007)
In this theory, only satisfiers can act as motivators for the employees and hygiene factors do not create any impact regarding motivation of the employees.
3.3 Explain the necessity of managers to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace.
It is important for managers to understand and apply motivational theories at workplace to improve the performance and motivate the employee relationship . Rewards and incentives are the monetary benefits given to the employees which results in increasing performance and productivity of the employees.
A vehicle needs fuel and oil to work in an effective way. Alike, an employee needs some motivation for the effective performance. Now days, companies are introducing many innovative motivation practices which improves the employee’s performance. Managers are responsible for motivating the employees to improve their level of performance.(Aswathappa and Reddy, 2009)
The different categories of motivation are-
- Monetary – This includes monetary benefits provided to the employees like incentives, bonuses etc. These are provided over a time period. They can be annually, half- yearly or quarterly basis. These factors mainly motivate the employees who are not financially very strong.
- Non- Monetary- It does not include any monetary benefits given to the employees. It consists of non-monetary benefits like perks and rewards of different types like flexible working hours for the employees, extra leave to them, new trainings etc.(Tracy, 2014)
- Employee recognition- It means a positive and appreciative feedback from the employer which results in encouraging the employees. This can be any verbal appreciation or maybe a certification or any announcement. Majority of the individual like this type of motivational factor rather that monetary factor.
4.1 Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within CAPCO or your chosen organisation.
Team means when individuals work towards the same goal and are equally responsible for the success while a group consists of two or more than two individuals who have common interests and they identify each other well as they share common traits. There are two types of group-
- Formal Group- Formal group is a group which is deliberately created for the accomplishment of a specific purpose. Its structure is well defined and mostly they are large in size. Communication in these groups moves in a particular defined direction. (Yoder-Wise and Kowalski, 2010)
- Informal Group- It is a group which is voluntarily created by the employees for their own reason. Its structure is ill defined and comparatively they are small in size. Communication moves in all the direction.
In CAPCO, there is a close bonding between the superiors and the subordinates as they believe on team building. They have formal groups which are created to fulfil a particular task. The main purpose of creating teams is to provide a proper structure that results in increasing efficiency of employees in participation, problem solving and decision making process. It creates a clear understanding between group member and they get more support from their group. Group members are selected as per the requirements of the project or goal. They should possess all the qualifications and skills which are needed for fulfilling the requirement and needs of the group. (Osborne, 2008)
Belbin’s Theory- Belbin has defined nine behaviours of individuals at workplace. They are known as Belbin’s team role.
- Shaper- These are the dynamic people in the team who always tries to improve the team and provide the best approaches for problem solving.
- Implementer- These are the one who really implement the things. They convert ideas in practical actions.(Goncalves, 2006)
- Completer- Finisher- They ensure that there is no error in the project and always focuses on every smallest detail of the project.
- Coordinator- These are the ones who plays the role of a traditional team leader and always guides the team regarding the objectives.
- Team- worker- The people one who always provide support activities to the group and who ensure the effective utilization of resources.
- Resource investigator- These are the innovative ones who always tries to explore new things and always acts in an enthusiastic way.(Karthick, 2010)
- Plant- They are the creative innovators who always introduces new ideas. Usually they are introvert and prefer to work apart from the group.
- Monitor- Evaluator- They are responsible for evaluation of the ideas that the other people introduces. They try to separate advantages and disadvantages of any idea.
- Specialists- They are the individuals who possess special knowledge which is required for the job.
4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork within CAPCO or your chosen organisation
Development of a team is a systematic procedure in which many things are considered for the effective outcome by the team. Its procedure consists of five steps and they are-
- Forming- it is the first step in which most of the members behave in a polite manner. In this step, members start to work with each other and try to know about other colleagues.
- Storming- It is the second step in which people try to cross the boundaries which are created in the forming stage. It basically starts when there are some conflicts between the team members.
- Norming- After storming, team moves towards the norming stage in which people start to become close to each other and remove all the differences which are in between. (Karthick, 2010)
- Performing- This stage comes when the members actually start doing hard work and move towards the goal. In this stage more delegation of work has been done.
- Adjourning- This is the last stage in which the time period for which the team was developed has been over. (Diamond and Diamond, 2007)
There are some factors that promote the effective development of the team or we can say they are the necessary elements without which a team cannot able to achieve its goal.
- Team building- Team building means undertaking the acts by which team members can be motivated and that can increase the performance of the team members. There must be some motivating factors and team building consists of various tasks which can add on in the grooming of the team members as well as motivate them.(Appannaiahet. Al., 2010)
- Team identity- Team identity means the image of individual team members who possess certain characteristics and have a positive attitude towards the team. After getting a team identity, team members need to consider the requirements of the team before considering their own requirements.
- Team Loyalty- Team Loyalty refers to the loyalty of team members towards the team and towards the other team members. Every individual needs to be loyal and honest while performing all the tasks for the benefit of the team.(Tracy, 2014)
- Multidisciplinary teams- It is a team of the individuals who are related with heath care for different areas like psychiatrists, doctors etc.
4.3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within CAPCO or your chosen organisation.
Technology plays an important role in a team functioning because it can help the team in many ways like effective allocation of resources, preparing budgets and saves time of team members as everything can be done in more effective way with the help of the technology.(Critchleyet. Al., 2007)
Technology helps in better communication between the team members and saves time and expenses both. It can facilitate a better and systematic communication which minimizes confusions. One of the main benefits of technology in functioning of team is, it can make possible to communicate for people having different schedules and locations by instant messaging, e-mails, and video conferencing.
There areproject management software in the market that can track the progress of a project. As per the program, you just need to enter the estimates, budgets and schedules and other related things of the project. It can be accessed by anyone and each member can acquire the information from it and upload the status of a task which is allotted to him. They help to keep project on a correct track.(Aswathappa and Reddy, 2009)
Technology also helps in managing virtual teams that include individuals who work apart from each other. Technology helps these teams by communicating through Internet or web technology. As they are far from each other and they are in a team that needs clear understanding between each other and it can become possible only with the help of an effective channel of communication like e- mails, fax, teleconferences etc. It is not possible for everyone to perform in a virtual team as all the members need to work in an independent way. They need to work without external control so the team members need to communicate clearly, positively with the limited available communication channels.(Goncalves, 2006)
Cross–cultural Teams- Cross-cultural teams are those teams in which the individuals belong to different cultures and it basically exists for international businesses. In these teams, there are many problems and one of them is communication problem. At present, everybody cannot understand and speak English which leads to misinterpretations. Working in a team means to understand each other and put collective efforts for the achievement of the goal. For resolving this issue, technology plays an important role as people exist in different countries may communicate via e- mail, and various other telecommunication facilities.(Aswathappa and Reddy, 2009)CAPCO’s employees are getting all technological facilities and they communicate in a well manner with the help of the technology. E-mail, Facebook, twitter etc., they all help the organisation in transferring the technology in a better way.(Appannaiah, Reddy and Kavitha, 2010)By using the technology the team members can save their data as today there are cloud facilities available by which your data can be kept save forever.(Yoder-Wise and Kowalski, 2010)
Organisational behaviour is an important part that affects the business of the organisation. It consists of the organisational structure, leadership styles and manager’s behaviour towards the employees. As employees are the most important resource in an organisation, the more open work environment provided to employees can create more sense of responsibility in them. Working in teams is also an effective way to maintain high standards in an organisation as a group consists of different individual who possess different employability skills and qualities within them. This results in effective working and higher productivity. Employees must be provided with motivational factors. They can be monetary as well as non-monetary. These factors motivates employee and creates a positive attitude within them and make them to perform well and improve their performance. All the employees have separate perception regarding things and they behave according to them. There should not be any discrimination within the organisation as it leads in negativity in organisational structure.
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