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Unit 22 Managing Human Resources Copy Assignment
Managing human resources is process of identifying the potential of staff and maintain the flow of operations by keeping them motivated. By using the process of managing human resource, HR department of organization managing the employees according to skills, capabilities and requirements that helps to develop plan for selection and recruitment. The unit 22 managing human resources copy assignment will explain the guest model of HRM and provide the definitions of Personnel and IR practices according to Storey. It will also explain the flexibility model and types of flexibility that have been used for developing the positive working environment. Moreover, report will compare the approaches of managing equal opportunities and diversity within organization. At the end, report will discuss about the implications of health and safety legislations and topical issues that faced by Waitrose.
1.1 Guest’s model of HRM as applied to Waitrose
Guest model of HRM is based on creating the relationship between the employer and its employees. The Guest model recognises the link between business strategies and HR strategies. According to this model, high employee commitment is needed for achieving critical HR outcomes with the goals of employees working in the organization. Binding employees to organization would help in achieving full cooperation and ethical behaviour in Waitrose (Guest, 2012). The management of Waitrose is following the six dimensions of analysis of Guest’s model of HRM for achieving the cooperation and commitment of employees in the organization which are as follows:
- HRM Strategy: The HR department of Waitrose organization is planning and making various effective strategies for managing the workforce in the workplace to improve the production and performance for achieving growth and goodwill. The strategies made are based on product differentiation, quality products and cost reduction.
- HRM Practices: HRM practices helps in defining the duties and responsibilities to an individual on the basis of their skills and capabilities. The HRM practices include selection, training, appraisal, rewards, involvement, etc.
- HRM Outcomes: The HRM outcomes needed by the Waitrose are quality, commitment and flexibility which would help in increasing the performance and production level with employees’ growth and development.
- Behaviour Outcomes: The behaviour outcomes are those outcomes that an organization can achieve by its employees through motivation, cooperation, involvement and organizational citizenship (Edgar and Geare, 2015). These all help in achieving full commitment and dedication of the workforce in Waitrose.
- Performance Outcomes: Performance outcomes includes achieving innovation, high productivity, quality work, low absenteeism, less conflicts, labour turnover and customer complaints.
- Financial Outcomes: Waitrose can achieve financial outcomes with respect to increase in profits and high return on investments. Achieving these financial outcomes helps in growth of the business and good name in the market.
1.2 Difference between Storey’s Definitions of HRM, personnel and IR practices
Story’s definition of HRM: Storey has defined HRM as a strategic and logical approach to the management of an organization. Storey states that the employees are the most valued asset who individually and collectively contributes in achieving the goals and objectives of an organization. The HRM is a very important and has significant impact on the functioning of the Waitrose. Storey further describes the hard and soft forms of HRM.
- Hard HRM: According to Storey, Hard HRM mainly focuses on the need of managing the people in ways that help in obtaining added value from them and thus it facilitates in achieving the competitive advantages (Renwick, 2013). For this purpose, hard HRM concentrates on measurable criteria, quantitative, control and performance management.
- Soft HRM: The soft HRM is based upon human relation and it focuses on treating employees as valued asset of the organization. They are determined as a source of achieving competitive advantages through their commitment, adaptability and high quality.
Personnel management: Storey seems personal and professional management as management of workforce in the workplace to comply with rules and policies of the Waitrose organization. Personnel management is mostly concerned with the activities such as selection, recruitment, payroll and employment laws. Personnel management helps to set priorities for achieving and encouraging individual performance in the organization.
IR Practices: According to Storey, IR practices are the study of the employment relationship. Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field. The IR practices are helpful in maintaining the effectiveness of managerial decisions (Wright and McMahan, 2010). IR practices are the proper consideration of rules and regulations for managing the human resources of organization that help in promoting brand image of the organization such as Waitrose. The Waitrose organization is following IR practices for science building, solving problems and maintaining ethics.
1.3 Implications for line managers and employees in order to develop strategic approach to HRM for Waitrose
Strategic approach is basically creating a planned approach for the development by focusing on the opportunities and challenges. Development and implementation of strategic approaches to HRM for Waitrose can be done by through implication of line managers and employees. Waitrose is following the HRM practices for managing its human resources but due to lack of proper planning and communication it is not implemented effectively in the organization (Robinson, 2014).. For proper execution of plans and proper follow-up of strategies, Waitrose is considering implication of line managers and employees.
Implication for Line Manager in developing Strategic Approach to HRM: The line managers are responsible for carrying instructions from top level of management to the low level and to workforce of the organization. Line managers in Waitrose are responsible for communicating information and providing guidance and motivation to the workforce over there. The benefits of implication of line managers in developing strategic approaches to HRM are as follows:
- Line managers are specialized in day-to-day management of people.
- They manage operational costs effectively.
- They easily evaluate and monitor the work process.
- Line managers’ deals directly with the clients and customers.
Implication for Employees in developing Strategic Approach to HRM: Employees play an important role in HRM because they are the key valuable asset for any organization and they help in growth and maintaining sustainable position of the organization in the market. For any organization like Waitrose, high performing and innovative employees are the foundation of high productivity in the organization. Some of the major implications are as follows:
- Employees help in developing performance metrics for continuous improvement.
- Effective leaders set direction and execute strategies that build commitment.
- Effective communication and feedback from employees removes errors and frustration at work.
- Effective reward system brings better performance.
2.1 How a model of flexibility might be applied in Waitrose
Flexibility is concerned with the ability of the organization and its people to adapt to the changing business and work environment. Flexibility to employees and employer is become important consideration for Waitrose organization. Employment flexibility gives employee flexibility on where, how long and when they work. Employees access flexible working through human resources policies, which helps in maintaining the growth and to meet their personal requirements (Fowler, 2013). Flexibility also helps organization in achieving goals and objectives in more convincing manner. There are different models of flexibility that can be easily applied in the workplace. The flexibility includes flexible time, job sharing, part-time working, shift swapping, full time working, etc. Waitrose can apply sequential flexibility model in their organization for providing flexibility to the employees and employer. Sequential flexibility model can be applied simply through proper introduction of plans, multiple shift timing, overtime schedule and involvement of employees to achieve the desired standard and objectives. Waitrose can also apply functional model of flexibility in its organization (Cummings and Worley, 2014). For applying functional model of flexibility, Waitrose has to make some changes in the roles and responsibilities of the staff according to the time and conditions which would be beneficial for both, the staff as well as for the organization too. This flexibility helps the employees of Waitrose to be comfortable in undertaking the task easily when the nature and type of work changes.
2.2 Types of flexibility which may be developed by Waitrose
Flexible working arrangement helps in maintaining work-life balance. This would help employees in improving the balance between the demands of their work and the demand of their home life which ultimately develops work satisfaction and they become more productive. There are number of types of flexibilities that a Waitrose can develop in the workplace which helps an organization to retain their talented and skilled employees in the organization task (Atkinson and Hall, 2011). The types of flexibilities are as follows:
- Flex time schedule: In this type of working flexibility allows employees to vary their start and finish times around predetermined core hours or to work for a fewer than five days by varying the length of each workday.
- Job sharing arrangements: According to this arrangement, employees are given freedom to split their full time job between two employees on agreed hours decided by them.
- Telecommuting/home working: This arrangement helps employees to work from a location other than the employer’s premises. This would help in reducing the cost, time and stress of commuting for employees (Bratton and Gold, 2012).
- Part-time arrangement: It enables employees to work less than the standard full time schedule by working fewer hours per day or fewer days per week.
- Shift swapping: This flexibility allows employees to swap their shifts according to themselves ensuring that all the shifts are covered.
- Career break: This allows employees to take time off for extended period either on the basis of paid or unpaid.
2.3 Use of flexible working practices from employees and employer perspective
Having the right work-life balance is increasingly important these days. Flexible working practices help Waitrose in retaining their talented and skilled employees in the organization and also to attain effective and quality in the operations with increase in production level and employee’s work satisfaction. Using flexible working practices helps Waitrose to provide 24 hour services to their customers. Applying flexible working practices in sales of Waitrose would motivate its employees towards right direction and improves their performance level (Eichhorst and Marx, 2011). Introduction to flexible working practices in organization such as Waitrose would be beneficial from both the perspective i.e. by employer as well as employees.
Benefits of use of flexible working practices from employees’ perspective:
- Use of flexible working practices help in increasing the quality of life
- Helps in balancing the work and home commitments more readily.
- Improves the knowledge and understanding of different tasks and operations
- Flexible working practices helps in reducing stress of employees caused by commuting
- It helps in maintaining career development and personal growth
- Reducing stress and better physical and mental well being
Benefits of use of flexible working practices from employer perspective:
- Improve d competitiveness by responding to the changing markets by using employees more effectively
- Gives a chance to extend business operating hours which ultimately increases the profit
- Better employee morale which leads to job satisfaction (Kalleberg, 2013)
- Reduce the level of absenteeism
- Ability to attract and retain a more diversely skilled workforce and reduce recruitment cost
- Increased customer satisfaction due to lower staff turnover
- Access to a pool of talent which ,might otherwise not be available
2.4 Impact of changes in the labour market on flexible working practices
Labour market is the place where employees and workers interact with each other. Labour market may be local or national or even international market with diverse knowledge, skill and geographical locations. Changes in the global market as well as changes in the labour market had a significant impact on the flexible working practices at Waitrose. The changes in the global and labour market is due to rapid growth of technology, increase in graduate and post graduate recruitment, demographic changes, etc (Sturm, 2001). These changes in the labour market is one or in another way beneficial to the Waitrose organization. Migration and change in demographic has impacted Waitrose as they have now increasing group of individuals from different background and culture and with different skills and innovative ideas that are willing to take on part time jobs after completing their main job. In UK, the labour market is changing due to economic growth and increase in self employment. Now, workers prefer more flexible employment patterns. Changes in the labour market, demands flexible working practices in the organization. Due to industrialization, globalization, deindustrialization and liberalization markets are changing deliberately. Due to these changes, now women are also willing to work and they are provided jobs with flexible working practices in Waitrose. There is also a negative impact on the flexible working practices due to changes in the labour market (Fowler, 2013). Due to introduction of flexible working practices in Waitrose creates greater job insecurity and stress among the employees. Organization like Waitrose are providing part time employment because of this proper trainings are not provided to the temporary workers which results in reduction in quality of work performed.
3.1 Forms of discrimination at workplace
Employment discrimination is the form of discrimination based on gender, physical or mental disability, national origin, race, religion and age by employers. There are different forms of discrimination at workplace which affects the brand name of the organization in the market (Card.et.al, 2010). Various authorities and government has proposed many different rules and legislations to stop the activities related to discrimination at the workplace.
The forms of discrimination identified in Waitrose organization are as follows:
- Gender Discrimination: Gender discrimination is identified in Waitrose where certain rules are imposed on the female or male employees against their wish for the interest of organization. Like for example, female employees are required to wear makeup all the types while on the shop floor.
- Age Discrimination: Another type of discrimination that occurs at Waitrose is age discrimination. The organization is now recruiting only the young and energetic talents with graduate and post graduate degrees which help the organization to remain the best british supermarket in the world (Albrecht.et.al, 2003).
- Disability Discrimination: The discrimination based on disability is also identified at the workplace. There is a case previously where the employee of Harrods with disability was told to leave the organization. A 22 year old girl was removed from the shop floor when management recognises her disability. She sued for disability discrimination after she was left. In 2009, a tribunal awarded her with £8,000 for unlawful harassment.
- Religious Discrimination: Today, religious factor is considered as major form of discrimination at the workplace. Especially on hotel organizations people are discriminated on the basis of religious.
3.2 Implications of equal opportunities legislation for an organisation
In order to maintain equality at the workplace the Equal Opportunity Act, 1998 is introduced. According to this act, an organization does not has a right to judge or discriminate its staff or employees without any justified and legal reason. This regulation helps the employees to claim against any type of discrimination prevailing at the workplace of the organization and to prevent them from such type of injustice. Waitrose supermarket is following the Equality Act at their workplace for the safeguard of the interest of their employees (Aswathappa., 2013). Like use of harsh language and unethical manners to the employees of the organization is not accepted. Implication of Equal Opportunity Act from the organization perspective may affect the HRM policies of the organization but from the employees’ perspective, it is useful for encouraging their benefits and effectiveness. Waitrose in order to live up its reputation as an equal opportunity organization in the market that opposes discrimination, they have to displays this through their policies and procedures as well as in the composition of its staff. It should provide equal opportunity to all the eligible candidates in the recruitment process despite of their gender, age or religion. Besides of this, it also encourages the level of competition among the employees which is good for the Waitrose organization (Roberts.et.al, 2014). Implication of equal opportunity legislation will help an organization to have a sustainable position in the market.
3.3 Comparison of approaches to managing equal opportunities and managing diversity
Equality and diversity in the workplace can be promoted by using various approaches. The equal opportunity and diversity are two different approaches which have a considerable impact on the management activities of the Waitrose organization. The approaches for managing diversity and equal opportunity are working simultaneously in Waitrose. For example, Waitrose conduct recruitment process where HRM search talents from all over the country using various modes of advertisement with employment and equality legislation (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). This offers opportunity to all eligible candidates despite of their nationality or geographical location. Another approach used in Waitrose organization is the flexible working arrangements like part time, full employment and confession temporary workers. Another approach used by the Waitrose is the application of equality on gender in their senior management team and line managers. There is no discrimination made on the basis of gender and appointments are made to fill the position on the basis of their skill, talent and knowledge. All these approaches represent Waitrose as an equal opportunity organization which promotes diversity (Albrecht and Joles, 2003). They believe that each and every individual should get an equal chance to gain opportunities in Waitrose organization irrespective of factors such as age, culture, gender or nationality.
Table 1: Comparison of equal opportunity and diversity
Managing Equal Opportunity Approach
Managing Diversity Approach
The main aim of this approach is to provide equal chance to the entire individual and motivate them by creating favourable and competitive environment.
The main aim of this approach is to concentrates on the practical capitalization of diverse skill and qualities.
The criteria of super market organization requires being equal for each and every staff working over there.
This approach requires to motivate the managers to avoid any kind of inequality.
Equal opportunity approach has implication over sex and race and other social issues.
Diversity approach has no implication over sex or race or any other social issues.
4.1 Methods of managing the performance
For any organization to grow and prosper, it is important to analyze the performance of its employees. The HR department of Waitrose is analyzing the performance of its employees. And its main aim is to encourage the employees or motivate employees by providing high skilled training to them so that the organization can achieve its pre determined goals. Following are the methods used by HR department for managing the performance of employees:
- 360 Degree Feedback: By using this method the organization can analyze the performance of its individual. For example, the HR manager of Waitrose is collecting the feedback about an individual from its customers, senior staff members, colleagues and supervisors, to know the relation of an individual with all the people inside the workplace and the people outside the workplace (Robinson, 2014). This method is helpful in knowing the communication skills and commitment level of an individual towards the organization.
- Rating Method: This method is very helpful in evaluating the performance of employee. By using this method, the HR manager collects the feedback about an individual from its customers and suppliers regarding the behavior of an employee and also how an individual manages the time and is good in communication approach or not. After analyzing all the important information the HR manager rates the employee and trains the employee to improve its communication skills, time management skill etc.
4.2 Welfare approaches followed by organization
Welfare approaches in the organisation will lead to increase in the satisfaction level of employees. To promote the marketing strategies and brand image of Waitrose organisation, it is important for the organisation to provide highly secured environment to the employees where every employee feel safe to work (2015). Also it is important to provide clean and healthy environment to the employees. The approaches followed by HRM department of Waitrose organisation are as follows:
- Extra-mural facility: All the facilities which are provided outside the administrative centre like better housing accommodation, educational facilities, healthy environment and any kind of welfare programme by the government.
- Intra-mural facility: All the facilities which are provided within the organisation like hygienic environment, safety and security of employees, medical facility.
- Clean drinking water
- Clean and hygienic environment
- Adequate lightning
- Various safety measures like first aid facility
- High level of security like availability of fire extinguisher at work place
- Providing loans to employees
- More safety measures like fencing and covering of machines
All the welfare approaches discussed above are used by the HR department of Waitrose to provide high level of satisfaction to its employees (2015). All the approaches will help the employees to perform their task more efficiently and effectively. It will encourage and motivate employees towards the achievement of organisational goals.
4.3 Implications of health and safety legislation on human resources practices
There are certain rules and regulations related to health and safety which are needed to be followed by the organization in regards to the employees of the organization. The government has implemented health and safety legislation to protect the health and safety of employees in the organization. This will lead to increase in the satisfaction level of employees and they will feel protected and secured. Legislations are having a huge impact on the Waitrose. Management of Waitrose is strictly following the universal principles defined by the government for the employees in the organization (Bratton and Gold, 2012). Development programme will be organized for employees to check their current health status. This will lead to reduction in the risk at workplace. Also employees will feel motivated. The legislations implemented by the government have helped the Waitrose to establish healthy environment for employees. Various safety measures have been taken in the consideration of employees so that they feel safe and secure. It will increase their satisfaction level which will lead to increase in the smooth functioning of business. All approaches are helping the organization to maintain good relationship with their employees. Good coordination among the employees helps to discuss about various issues related to safety measures and health measures. In Waitrose, every employee is asked to give their feedback about the working environment so that new measures regarding health and safety can be taken and can be implemented. The evaluation of all the approaches and feedback will help the manager to take decisions in right direction (Atkinson and Hall, 2011). Good facilities will be provided to employees like clean drinking water or healthy work environment. For safety, technically advanced tools will be used which will protect the employee from any major accident.
4.4 Impact of other issues on the human resource practices
There are various issues which creates huge impact on HR practices of Waitrose:
- Labour under supply: HR practices get affected due to this. When the labour has insufficient skill or when he is not able to supply according to required demand, the situation of under supply is created. If the organisation will have unskilled labour, then it will create a barrier in the achievement of organisational goals (Fowler, 2013). Therefore, it is important for the HR manager to gain the attention of skilled manpower and hire them.
- Technology Issue: The technology is improving day by day. Change in technology has affected the HR practices of Waitrose. The organisation is required to adapt to new technical tools. Technical tools are mainly used for safety purpose. The HR manager needs to understand the change in technology and should design training programs for employees accordingly. The manager must also look after the use of technical tools because if they are used improperly there can be a major accident.
- Labour over supply: It is the situation when the organization faces the low production demand. Whenever the company hires more than the required employees it results in over supply. It is having a huge impact on the HR practices of Waitrose (Kalleberg, 2013). It is not a major problem still the services of Waitrose get affected due to oversupply. Due to this impact it becomes difficult for the organisation to achieve desired goals.
From the study it is been considered that managing human resources is important process of organization that helps to arrange the resources and maintain the positive working environment considering the needs of staff members. Report has explained Guest model and implications of line manager for implementing the plan as well analyzed the models of flexibility for Waitrose organization. Moreover, report has provided the information about the form of discrimination and implication of equal opportunities for staff members at Waitrose. At the end, report has evaluated the methods of managing performance and welfare approaches that has been used by organization to motivate the staff and maintain the flow of operations.
Books and journals
Albelda, R. and Drago, R., 2013. Unlevel playing fields: Understanding wage inequality and discrimination.
Albrecht, S.F. and Joles, C., 2003. Accountability and access to opportunity: Mutually exclusive tenets under a high-stakes testing mandate. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 47(2), pp.86-91.
Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Aswathappa, K., 2013. Human resource management: Text and cases. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Atkinson, C. and Hall, L., 2011. Flexible working and happiness in the NHS.Employee Relations, 33(2), pp.88-105.
Bamberger, P.A., Biron, M. and Meshoulam, I., 2014. Human resource strategy: Formulation, implementation, and impact. Routledge.
Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012. Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Bunse, K., Vodicka, M., Schönsleben, P., Brülhart, M. and Ernst, F.O., 2011. Integrating energy efficiency performance in production management–gap analysis between industrial needs and scientific literature. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(6), pp.667-679.
Card, D., Kluve, J. and Weber, A., 2010. Active labour market policy evaluations: A meta?analysis. The Economic Journal, 120(548), pp.F452-F477.
Cummings, T. and Worley, C., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning.ss
Edgar, F. and Geare, A., 2015. HRM practice and employee attitudes: different measures-different results. Personnel review, 34(5), pp.534-549.
Eichhorst, W. and Marx, P., 2011. Reforming German labour market institutions: A dual path to flexibility. Journal of European Social Policy,21(1), pp.73-87.
The unit 22 managing human resources copy assignment will explain the guest model of HRM and provide the definitions of Personnel and IR practices according to Storey, We are posting free Locus units solutions so scholars can explore the our Assignment Help in UK and get review the quality of our work.