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Managing human resources is process of identifying the potential of staff and maintain the flow of operations by keeping them motivated. By using the process of managing human resource, HR department of organization managing the employees according to skills, capabilities and requirements that helps to develop plan for selection and recruitment. The unit 22 managing human resources copy assignment will explain the guest model of HRM and provide the definitions of Personnel and IR practices according to Storey. It will also explain the flexibility model and types of flexibility that have been used for developing the positive working environment. Moreover, report will compare the approaches of managing equal opportunities and diversity within organization. At the end, report will discuss about the implications of health and safety legislations and topical issues that faced by Waitrose.
Guest model of HRM is based on creating the relationship between the employer and its employees. The Guest model recognises the link between business strategies and HR strategies. According to this model, high employee commitment is needed for achieving critical HR outcomes with the goals of employees working in the organization. Binding employees to organization would help in achieving full cooperation and ethical behaviour in Waitrose (Guest, 2012). The management of Waitrose is following the six dimensions of analysis of Guest’s model of HRM for achieving the cooperation and commitment of employees in the organization which are as follows:
Story’s definition of HRM: Storey has defined HRM as a strategic and logical approach to the management of an organization. Storey states that the employees are the most valued asset who individually and collectively contributes in achieving the goals and objectives of an organization. The HRM is a very important and has significant impact on the functioning of the Waitrose. Storey further describes the hard and soft forms of HRM.
Personnel management: Storey seems personal and professional management as management of workforce in the workplace to comply with rules and policies of the Waitrose organization. Personnel management is mostly concerned with the activities such as selection, recruitment, payroll and employment laws. Personnel management helps to set priorities for achieving and encouraging individual performance in the organization.
IR Practices: According to Storey, IR practices are the study of the employment relationship. Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field. The IR practices are helpful in maintaining the effectiveness of managerial decisions (Wright and McMahan, 2010). IR practices are the proper consideration of rules and regulations for managing the human resources of organization that help in promoting brand image of the organization such as Waitrose. The Waitrose organization is following IR practices for science building, solving problems and maintaining ethics.
Strategic approach is basically creating a planned approach for the development by focusing on the opportunities and challenges. Development and implementation of strategic approaches to HRM for Waitrose can be done by through implication of line managers and employees. Waitrose is following the HRM practices for managing its human resources but due to lack of proper planning and communication it is not implemented effectively in the organization (Robinson, 2014).. For proper execution of plans and proper follow-up of strategies, Waitrose is considering implication of line managers and employees.
Implication for Line Manager in developing Strategic Approach to HRM: The line managers are responsible for carrying instructions from top level of management to the low level and to workforce of the organization. Line managers in Waitrose are responsible for communicating information and providing guidance and motivation to the workforce over there. The benefits of implication of line managers in developing strategic approaches to HRM are as follows:
Implication for Employees in developing Strategic Approach to HRM: Employees play an important role in HRM because they are the key valuable asset for any organization and they help in growth and maintaining sustainable position of the organization in the market. For any organization like Waitrose, high performing and innovative employees are the foundation of high productivity in the organization. Some of the major implications are as follows:
Flexibility is concerned with the ability of the organization and its people to adapt to the changing business and work environment. Flexibility to employees and employer is become important consideration for Waitrose organization. Employment flexibility gives employee flexibility on where, how long and when they work. Employees access flexible working through human resources policies, which helps in maintaining the growth and to meet their personal requirements (Fowler, 2013). Flexibility also helps organization in achieving goals and objectives in more convincing manner. There are different models of flexibility that can be easily applied in the workplace. The flexibility includes flexible time, job sharing, part-time working, shift swapping, full time working, etc. Waitrose can apply sequential flexibility model in their organization for providing flexibility to the employees and employer. Sequential flexibility model can be applied simply through proper introduction of plans, multiple shift timing, overtime schedule and involvement of employees to achieve the desired standard and objectives. Waitrose can also apply functional model of flexibility in its organization (Cummings and Worley, 2014). For applying functional model of flexibility, Waitrose has to make some changes in the roles and responsibilities of the staff according to the time and conditions which would be beneficial for both, the staff as well as for the organization too. This flexibility helps the employees of Waitrose to be comfortable in undertaking the task easily when the nature and type of work changes.
Flexible working arrangement helps in maintaining work-life balance. This would help employees in improving the balance between the demands of their work and the demand of their home life which ultimately develops work satisfaction and they become more productive. There are number of types of flexibilities that a Waitrose can develop in the workplace which helps an organization to retain their talented and skilled employees in the organization task (Atkinson and Hall, 2011). The types of flexibilities are as follows:
Having the right work-life balance is increasingly important these days. Flexible working practices help Waitrose in retaining their talented and skilled employees in the organization and also to attain effective and quality in the operations with increase in production level and employee’s work satisfaction. Using flexible working practices helps Waitrose to provide 24 hour services to their customers. Applying flexible working practices in sales of Waitrose would motivate its employees towards right direction and improves their performance level (Eichhorst and Marx, 2011). Introduction to flexible working practices in organization such as Waitrose would be beneficial from both the perspective i.e. by employer as well as employees.
Benefits of use of flexible working practices from employees’ perspective:
Benefits of use of flexible working practices from employer perspective:
Labour market is the place where employees and workers interact with each other. Labour market may be local or national or even international market with diverse knowledge, skill and geographical locations. Changes in the global market as well as changes in the labour market had a significant impact on the flexible working practices at Waitrose. The changes in the global and labour market is due to rapid growth of technology, increase in graduate and post graduate recruitment, demographic changes, etc (Sturm, 2001). These changes in the labour market is one or in another way beneficial to the Waitrose organization. Migration and change in demographic has impacted Waitrose as they have now increasing group of individuals from different background and culture and with different skills and innovative ideas that are willing to take on part time jobs after completing their main job. In UK, the labour market is changing due to economic growth and increase in self employment. Now, workers prefer more flexible employment patterns. Changes in the labour market, demands flexible working practices in the organization. Due to industrialization, globalization, deindustrialization and liberalization markets are changing deliberately. Due to these changes, now women are also willing to work and they are provided jobs with flexible working practices in Waitrose. There is also a negative impact on the flexible working practices due to changes in the labour market (Fowler, 2013). Due to introduction of flexible working practices in Waitrose creates greater job insecurity and stress among the employees. Organization like Waitrose are providing part time employment because of this proper trainings are not provided to the temporary workers which results in reduction in quality of work performed.
Employment discrimination is the form of discrimination based on gender, physical or mental disability, national origin, race, religion and age by employers. There are different forms of discrimination at workplace which affects the brand name of the organization in the market (Card.et.al, 2010). Various authorities and government has proposed many different rules and legislations to stop the activities related to discrimination at the workplace.
The forms of discrimination identified in Waitrose organization are as follows:
In order to maintain equality at the workplace the Equal Opportunity Act, 1998 is introduced. According to this act, an organization does not has a right to judge or discriminate its staff or employees without any justified and legal reason. This regulation helps the employees to claim against any type of discrimination prevailing at the workplace of the organization and to prevent them from such type of injustice. Waitrose supermarket is following the Equality Act at their workplace for the safeguard of the interest of their employees (Aswathappa., 2013). Like use of harsh language and unethical manners to the employees of the organization is not accepted. Implication of Equal Opportunity Act from the organization perspective may affect the HRM policies of the organization but from the employees’ perspective, it is useful for encouraging their benefits and effectiveness. Waitrose in order to live up its reputation as an equal opportunity organization in the market that opposes discrimination, they have to displays this through their policies and procedures as well as in the composition of its staff. It should provide equal opportunity to all the eligible candidates in the recruitment process despite of their gender, age or religion. Besides of this, it also encourages the level of competition among the employees which is good for the Waitrose organization (Roberts.et.al, 2014). Implication of equal opportunity legislation will help an organization to have a sustainable position in the market.
Equality and diversity in the workplace can be promoted by using various approaches. The equal opportunity and diversity are two different approaches which have a considerable impact on the management activities of the Waitrose organization. The approaches for managing diversity and equal opportunity are working simultaneously in Waitrose. For example, Waitrose conduct recruitment process where HRM search talents from all over the country using various modes of advertisement with employment and equality legislation (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). This offers opportunity to all eligible candidates despite of their nationality or geographical location. Another approach used in Waitrose organization is the flexible working arrangements like part time, full employment and confession temporary workers. Another approach used by the Waitrose is the application of equality on gender in their senior management team and line managers. There is no discrimination made on the basis of gender and appointments are made to fill the position on the basis of their skill, talent and knowledge. All these approaches represent Waitrose as an equal opportunity organization which promotes diversity (Albrecht and Joles, 2003). They believe that each and every individual should get an equal chance to gain opportunities in Waitrose organization irrespective of factors such as age, culture, gender or nationality.
Table 1: Comparison of equal opportunity and diversity
Managing Equal Opportunity Approach
Managing Diversity Approach
The main aim of this approach is to provide equal chance to the entire individual and motivate them by creating favourable and competitive environment.
The main aim of this approach is to concentrates on the practical capitalization of diverse skill and qualities.
The criteria of super market organization requires being equal for each and every staff working over there.
This approach requires to motivate the managers to avoid any kind of inequality.
Equal opportunity approach has implication over sex and race and other social issues.
Diversity approach has no implication over sex or race or any other social issues.
For any organization to grow and prosper, it is important to analyze the performance of its employees. The HR department of Waitrose is analyzing the performance of its employees. And its main aim is to encourage the employees or motivate employees by providing high skilled training to them so that the organization can achieve its pre determined goals. Following are the methods used by HR department for managing the performance of employees:
Welfare approaches in the organisation will lead to increase in the satisfaction level of employees. To promote the marketing strategies and brand image of Waitrose organisation, it is important for the organisation to provide highly secured environment to the employees where every employee feel safe to work (2015). Also it is important to provide clean and healthy environment to the employees. The approaches followed by HRM department of Waitrose organisation are as follows:
All the welfare approaches discussed above are used by the HR department of Waitrose to provide high level of satisfaction to its employees (2015). All the approaches will help the employees to perform their task more efficiently and effectively. It will encourage and motivate employees towards the achievement of organisational goals.
There are certain rules and regulations related to health and safety which are needed to be followed by the organization in regards to the employees of the organization. The government has implemented health and safety legislation to protect the health and safety of employees in the organization. This will lead to increase in the satisfaction level of employees and they will feel protected and secured. Legislations are having a huge impact on the Waitrose. Management of Waitrose is strictly following the universal principles defined by the government for the employees in the organization (Bratton and Gold, 2012). Development programme will be organized for employees to check their current health status. This will lead to reduction in the risk at workplace. Also employees will feel motivated. The legislations implemented by the government have helped the Waitrose to establish healthy environment for employees. Various safety measures have been taken in the consideration of employees so that they feel safe and secure. It will increase their satisfaction level which will lead to increase in the smooth functioning of business. All approaches are helping the organization to maintain good relationship with their employees. Good coordination among the employees helps to discuss about various issues related to safety measures and health measures. In Waitrose, every employee is asked to give their feedback about the working environment so that new measures regarding health and safety can be taken and can be implemented. The evaluation of all the approaches and feedback will help the manager to take decisions in right direction (Atkinson and Hall, 2011). Good facilities will be provided to employees like clean drinking water or healthy work environment. For safety, technically advanced tools will be used which will protect the employee from any major accident.
There are various issues which creates huge impact on HR practices of Waitrose:
From the study it is been considered that managing human resources is important process of organization that helps to arrange the resources and maintain the positive working environment considering the needs of staff members. Report has explained Guest model and implications of line manager for implementing the plan as well analyzed the models of flexibility for Waitrose organization. Moreover, report has provided the information about the form of discrimination and implication of equal opportunities for staff members at Waitrose. At the end, report has evaluated the methods of managing performance and welfare approaches that has been used by organization to motivate the staff and maintain the flow of operations.
Books and journals
Albelda, R. and Drago, R., 2013. Unlevel playing fields: Understanding wage inequality and discrimination.
Albrecht, S.F. and Joles, C., 2003. Accountability and access to opportunity: Mutually exclusive tenets under a high-stakes testing mandate. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 47(2), pp.86-91.
Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Aswathappa, K., 2013. Human resource management: Text and cases. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Atkinson, C. and Hall, L., 2011. Flexible working and happiness in the NHS.Employee Relations, 33(2), pp.88-105.
Bamberger, P.A., Biron, M. and Meshoulam, I., 2014. Human resource strategy: Formulation, implementation, and impact. Routledge.
Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012. Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Bunse, K., Vodicka, M., Schönsleben, P., Brülhart, M. and Ernst, F.O., 2011. Integrating energy efficiency performance in production management–gap analysis between industrial needs and scientific literature. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(6), pp.667-679.
Card, D., Kluve, J. and Weber, A., 2010. Active labour market policy evaluations: A meta?analysis. The Economic Journal, 120(548), pp.F452-F477.
Cummings, T. and Worley, C., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning.ss
Edgar, F. and Geare, A., 2015. HRM practice and employee attitudes: different measures-different results. Personnel review, 34(5), pp.534-549.
Eichhorst, W. and Marx, P., 2011. Reforming German labour market institutions: A dual path to flexibility. Journal of European Social Policy,21(1), pp.73-87.
The unit 22 managing human resources copy assignment will explain the guest model of HRM and provide the definitions of Personnel and IR practices according to Storey, We are posting free Locus units solutions so scholars can explore the our Assignment Help in UK and get review the quality of our work.