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Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 22 Managing Human Resource Fedex
This Unit 22 Managing Human Resource Fedex Assignment is prepared in relation with managing human resource in which FedEx is taken into consideration to develop better understanding with various aspects of human resource management. FedEx is a US multinational courier delivery corporation headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee. For such a huge company it becomes necessary to manage its human resource because whole work could get affected if they will not being provide equal and fair treatment at the workplace. Information related with the procedures and policies followed by the human resource management of FedEx will be shared in this report and certain suggestions will be provided which will help the company to manage its work as well as its internal processing.
HRM is the most important and critical aspect of the firm. There are majorly two types of HRM practices:
Soft HRM: Soft HRM focuses on the activities that treat employees as the important asset and work on the practices that support human efforts.
Hard HRM: Hard HRM treat employees as the resource of the business that is exploited in order to complete the goals of the organisation.
In present scenario it could be seen that competition is increasing with the increase in industries sin the market and changing requirements and preferences of the people available in the market. In such a case it becomes necessary that FedEx should focus on investment in human resource because they are the assets of the company which helps in the growth and attaining competitive advantage in the market. However, developing business strategies for the means of competition has becomes a common conversation with the companies, but taking the strategic approaches into concentration could help the workforce (Martin, 2010). Applying the strategic approaches to the workplace requires the focus of the company towards human resource management. To apply the strategies FedEx is planning to use Guest’s Model which will help the company to use appropriate strategy at the workplace which will provide required benefits to the human resource of the company:
Guest’s Model: David Guest has made really effective contributions in making the HRM functions more appropriate and to help the human resource working in various organizations. There are several perspectives that are delivered by David Guests and John Storey. Certain aspects are:
HRM Strategies: Human resource strategies helps in ensuring that the people working in the organization could remain organized who can manage the work effectively. According to the model it is necessary that the appropriate strategies regarding human resource should be developed by the organization. There are certain policies that are developed by human resource management regarding workforce of FedEx like human resource planning, planning recruitment and selection process, developing the strategies which could help in motivating the employees, evaluation of the ways by which people could remain motivated, and developing the regulations regarding discrimination which could help in reducing discrimination from the workplace (Anon, 2016).
HRM Practices: Human resource practices helps the companies to manage the people working over there, in the same manner HRM practices helps the management of FedEx to manage them. Certain HRM practices that are practiced by the management of FedEx are providing training, appraisals, building relationship and providing fair wages to the employees.
HR Outcomes: Management of each and every company relies upon the outcomes provided by the human resource. In the same manner HRM of FedEx ensures that they should get positive outcomes from the human resource. FedEx has a flexible working environment which helps the employees to remain motivated and provides the outcomes according to the expectations of the company (Martin, 2010).
Behavioral Outcomes: There are various methods that are being used in FedEx to gain information related with the behavior of human resource working over there. One of the most effective methods used by the company is 360 degree method to gain information related with the behavior of people working and appraise them accordingly.
Performance Outcomes: Management of FedEx focuses on the performance of the employees and continuously remains in developing the strategies which could help in enhancing the performance of the employees. With the help of production report of the employees performance outcomes are evaluated on the basis of which appraisals are provided to the best performer and training is provided to the employees whose performance is required t be groomed in the organization (Powell, 2014).
FedEx believes in having an effective human resource management which could manage the people according to their behavior and requirements. It is also necessary for the firm like FedEx to align the strategic practices of HRM to the business strategies in order to make better decisions. FedEx believes in attaining the competitive advantage by making their workforce effective. In order to attain the employee competitive advantage, the firm needs to focus on the practices that make the balance between employee benefits and goal completion. Hence, to ensure that the HRM of FedEx is effective it is necessary to compare Storey’s definition of HRM with personal and IR practices:
Storey’s HRM at FedEx
Personnel Management / IR Practices at NOKIA
Storey’s HRM applied in FedEx is a distinctive approach which helps the company to attain competitive advantage in the market which includes implication of employee’s strategic deployment that remain committed to the work and perform accordingly.
On the other hand personal management of Nokia is the function which helps in the administration of the employees. It focuses on employee welfare and labor relations. Personnel manger does not have any involvement in strategic implementation of the employee processes. The personnel manager follows the pre existing techniques instead of making innovations in the processes.
Decisions are made frequently regarding human resource.
Decisions are made after several researches on human resource which makes it slow.
It focus on the motivation of the employees
It only focuses on making the employee work to complete the organisational tasks.
The management is transformational
The management is Transactional
It applies open door policy in which employees have freedom to share their views with the upper level management.
On the other hand Nokia applies restricted policies in which employees are not allowed to contact directly with the upper level management. (Saini, 2013).
Strategic planning is taken into consideration by HRM of FedEx
Strategic planning is not being taken into consideration by personnel management of Nokia.
HRM practices at FedEx focuses on completion of organisation goals with the attainment of individual goals as well.
Personnel management involves the practices that focus on attaining the organisation goal with the support of the human resource.
Practices of HRM reduce the communication barrier between management and the employees.
Practices in this case mainly focuses on maintaining the hierarchical structure that somehow restricts the communication between the upper and the lower management.
There are two approaches on which human resource management of any organization is dependent. These approaches are “Soft” developmental humanist approach and “Hard” contingent approach.
Soft humanist approach is applied by the line manager of the organization because it ensures that the employees should remain motivated, committed to work and should try to develop their skills and abilities to manage the work. Flexibility is brought to the organization and innovative ideas are discovered so as to maintain the internal decorum of the organization.Hard contingency approach is applied by the line manager so as to develop the strategic approach. In this employee are termed as the resources who can work dispassionately and formally in the organization. This approach helps in reducing the cost that is being indulged in human resource (Figueiredo, et. al., 2016).By assessing both the strategy it could be said that line manager of FedEx should focus on the Soft humanist approach so that workforce could get managed and remain motivated. Such type of approach helps in developing positive relationship between upper level management and the workforce. The growth strategies of the company suggest that company wants to grow its business at international level. This requires versatile and skilled workforce to adapt the changes that the company may face. Application of soft approach and relationship between line managers and employees allow effective managing communications between them. This in turn makes it easier for the employees as well as line managers at FedEx to analyze the training needs of the employees as well as the gap between the required and the present performance.
Other benefits that can be enjoyed by FedEx after implication of soft approach and effective relation between line manager and employees are:
2.1 Explain how a model of flexibility might be applied in your organization.
Change is one of the most important aspects which should be applied to every organization, it is very critical to manage the change because human resource resists changing. To manage the change it becomes necessary that the human resource management of FedEx should apply the best possible strategies. Adoption of the outstanding strategies could only help the in managing the changes in appropriate manner and helping the human resource in making decision for accepting the change (Saini, 2013). Aside from the competition it is also necessary that internal practices should be developed by the human resource management of FedEx.These were some of the strategies adopting which will help FedEx to remain flexible with the effect of which organization will be able to sustain and attain success in the market. Adoption of these strategies will help in managing the changes and overcoming from the challenges which could affect the human resource of FedEx.
Atkinson model of flexibility: This model suggests that there are three types of flexibility in terms of numerical, functional and financial flexibility. Atkinson argues that a flexible organisation should hire core group of employees that work as full time employees for the functional tasks of the organisation. Another group of employees is termed as periphery group that are high skilled workers to form the policies. The periphery group works with the core employees by making policies for them and maintaining their performance.
FedEx can use this model in order to make the changes in the policies for the core workers. The periphery employees than help them to adapt those changes. (Anon, 2016).
Core workers at FedEx: The core workers at FedEx are the permanent workers that work in the functional department of the company like finance, marketing, production department and alos the courier delivery boys that are permanent.
Periphery workers: The periphery employees of FedEx are those who works at contract basis such as some of the delivery boys.
Handy Shamrock flexibility model: This model suggests that the flexible organisation has three leaf employees. The first leaf is the core employees that perform all the functions of the organisation at full time basis. Another leaf is the contractual fringe that performs the non central activities like research, marketing planning etc. Last leaf signifies the flexible workers that perform at the time of requirements at seasonal basis.
This model supports the company like FedEx to hire the flexible workforce separately that work with the core employees at the time of changes.
It could be understood that it is necessary that FedEx should adopt flexibility at the workplace because it will help in managing the change and overcoming from the challenges which could affect the business. There are certain types of flexibilities that will help FedEx to manage the work more appropriately.
Functional Flexibility: It is the flexibility which helps in redeployment of the employees in other processes which will help FedEx in managing the emergency situation. Applying this strategy will help the employees to grow and understand all the aspects of the organization. Cross training is provided to the employees so that they could grab the changes in an effective and efficient manner (Powell, 2014).
Numerical Flexibility: This is the flexibility in the terms of number. This is the flexibility that helps the organization to manage the number of employees working at the workplace and estimating the number of employees required in near future. Numerical flexibility will help FedEx in the process of recruitment and selection of the employees. Requirement of the part time workers, full time workers and contract basis workers could be evaluated and selection could be done accordingly which will help in managing the work at peak time. (Saini, 2013).
Financial Flexibility: This flexibility helps the organization in managing its finances. Financial flexibility ensures that the payment systems of the organization could get managed. HRM of FedEx could evaluate the requirement of funds and could work towards to manage the finances accordingly which will give freedom to the organization to manage the work process in a proper manner.
Both employees and employer are being benefited by applying flexibility at the workplace. Flexibility gives access to accept the change to employer as well as employee and remain prepared to manage any kind of challenging situation. HRM of FedEx has developed certain set of flexibility working practices which will help employer as well as employee in managing the work. These practices are:
Part Time Employment: Part time employment is the process in which employees are hired to work for the half time in the organization. In this employees are hired to work for half of the shift time in which they are required to manage the work of the organization. This helps the employees in managing their earnings and living standard as well, in the same manner employer could manage the work process by paying less to then part time workers.
Temporary Staff: Candidates who are hired on the temporary basis on lower salary to manage the work process at peak time. Temporary staff reduces the work burden and help in processing out the work in and easy and effective way. When work got manages these employees are terminated by providing the pay agreed by the employer and these employees (Saini, 2013).
Zero Hour Contract: This is the contract agreed between the employer and the employee in which no set working times are provided to the employees. Employees enjoy the freedom of managing the work at the time they like. Target of the employees is to manage the work as well as working hours in month. In this employee could work comfortably and manage their other works accordingly.
Tele-working and Work From Home: It is the working practice in which work could be processed by the employee through phone. This includes solving queries of the customer. This helps the employer in building effective relationship with the customers and helps the employees to access the work from home and manage their earnings.It is necessary that according to the requirement of the work and the operations at the workplace flexibility practices should be adopted by FedEx (Figueiredo, et. al., 2016). Adopting such type of practices will help FedEx to build positive relationship with the employees and reducing employee turnover.
Employee perspective: Flexible practices at workplace like work from home and flexi hours support the employees to manage their personal as well as professional work simultaneously. This also helps in reduction of the work load for the employees and allows them to develop managerial skills. These flexible practices by the organisation help the employees to provide quality work to the organisation and also motivate them to perform effectively. At FedEx, there are many practices that support the employees and provide them the privilege to enjoy the flexible facilities by the company. Open door process is the practice that allows the employees to share their views and opinions with the management. This flexibility creates a environment of belongingness to the employees. Other programs like survey feedback, E-learning etc also help the employees to have a feel of satisfaction.
Employer perspective: As far as the employer perspective is considered, they also enjoy the benefits of flexible practices at workplace. Flexibility of working allows the employees to work in a free environment and thus they give improved performance to the organisation that in turn helps in completion of organisation goals. Improved performance of the employees leads to growth of the organisaton as a whole. It also helps the organisation to retain the great talent in the organisation as employees prefer to be in the organisation that provides them with more and more facilities. Some of the programs at FedEx that somehow supports the organisation are APAC e-learning, AiM etc. APAC e-learning supports the employees to get a chance to learn more for their personal development. This personal development of the employees helps the company to attain competitive advantage with the effective employees. AiM is the Advance into Management program that provides the learning chance to the employees to enhance their management and leadership skills. This also supports the organisation as the more skilled employees results in more effective performance.
Change is one of the most important as well as crucial aspect for every organization; reason behind it is that change has a great impact on the work as well as labor working in the market. Labor plays a very important role for every organization as there are various functions of the organization that could only be managed by the labor. Adoption of the positive changes will help FedEx to avail the opportunities to the labor. Labor could feel insecure due to adoption of changes at the workplace. In such condition management of FedEx will have to ensure that proper set of instructions should be provided to the labor and their jobs should get secured so that they could relax and help the management to adopt the change.
Changes in labor market: Aging population: Due to aging population and fall in birth rates, labor market is getting saturated with the older age people. Organizations like FedEx than have to make changes in their flexible policies according to the change in the age of the labor.
Gender: More and more involvement of women in labor market also expects changes in the flexibility policies of the organisation. FedEx need to adopt the policies that provide preferences and flexibility of work to the women.
Income: Income is also that factor that needs to be considered as the change. Change in income distribution and expectations of the labor forces the organisation to make the policies and flexible policies accordingly.
Globalization: Globalization is the process of expanding business at the international level. The growth strategies of the FedEx suggest that company wants to expand their functions at international level. This requires skilled and diverse workforce. Therefore company has to make policies according to the diverse labor in the organisation.
Impact of change in labor market on organisational practices: Positive changes always helps in making the work process more easy and bringing quality to the workplace, with the help of the change that is to be adopted labor got proper set of training. This helps in refining their skills and abilities to process out the work and help them to grow in the market. Frequent change in the labor market forces the company to bring the changes in the HR policies or flexible working policies. This is because; organizations like FedEx are totally depending upon the local labor support as they require delivery boys for the courier services. This labor staff generally works on contractual basis and thus the change in its market forces the organisation to change the policies as and when the contract gets over. (Saini, 2013).
The unfair and prejudicial treatment of different categories people on the grounds of race, age, caste, gender and religion is known discrimination. According to legislation no organization is allowed to do discrimination. For company like FedEx it is necessary that the discrimination at the workplace should get reduced. Equal treatment should be provided to the employees working in the organization rather than judging them on the basis of caste, religion, gender, culture, race, gender or disability (Cipd.co.uk, 2016). To reduce discrimination it is necessary that FedEx should understand various types of discriminations which could occur at the workplace these are:
Direct Discrimination:In direct discrimination employees are selected on the basis of the caste, Culture, religion, gender or age. Working on equal selection is necessary for FedEx. HRM will have to develop the strategies to avoid direct discrimination from the workplace (Bach, et. al., 2013).
Indirect Discrimination: Indirect discrimination is the discrimination in which several groups working in the organizations are being treated differently. All the employees are being treated equally except certain groups. There are several conditions in which discrimination could be done by the organization like if a company is working for children for which only female candidates are required who can manage the children effectively then in that condition company has a legal authority to hire only the female clients to the workplace
Types of discrimination: Age based discrimination: Employees or candidates can be discriminated according to their age factor. Management should ensure that any policies of the organisation should not be based on providing preference or benefits to any of the age group.
Religion related discrimination: This is the discrimination the takes place on the basis of religion of the individual. No religion should be given preference in the organisation as it can become the reason of conflicts in the organisation.
Disability based discrimination: Management of the organisation should ensure there should be no discrimination based on disability of any individual. Employees should also treat their disabled colleagues with equal respect
These are certain statistics which are availed by the ministry of Justice in which several figures related with the Employment Tribunal Claims are presented which were raised in Scotland, England and Whales (Powell, 2014). This table also includes the list of awards attached with the type of discrimination which could affect the whole process of the organization. The maximum award amount that has been stated in the table is £557,039. It is for sex discrimination practice by the organisation. This states that sex discrimination is the practice that is highly penalized.
For an organization it is important that it should provide equal treatment to the employees working over there. All the employees should be given the equal and fair treatment by the organizations. Some of the practical implications that will help in providing equal treatment to the employee are:
Some of the initiatives that have practiced in order to provide equal opportunities at the workplace include:
Practical implications of these policies and initiative are very important. The practical implication of these activities can be in the form of:
People of different diversities come together to work at a single place to attain common objectives. It becomes hard for the organization to manage the people of different organization. It is important for FedEx to prepare the strategies which could help to manage the people of different diversities and availing the opportunities to work together and grow in the market.It is necessary that the policies related with the recruitment and selection of the people should be developed at FedEx. These policies should ensure that all the candidates should get hired on the basis of the skills and abilities rather than the caste and their background (Figueiredo, et. al., 2016).HRM will have to work towards to bring the people of different diversities together because togetherness is the key to attain the targeted goals. Providing training to the employees will help in understanding the meaning of teamwork and will help in bringing them together.
Difference between managing equal opportunities and diversities: Managing equal opportunity at the workplace deals with removing the practices that can cause any discrimination of opportunities available for the candidates. In this case, management needs to ensure that equal opportunities should be available to all the employees regardless of their caste, religion and color. This considers the legal legislation by the government. Implementation of the policies that resist discrimination as well as implementation of the policies that provides equal opportunity to the employees is the approach that can be used to manage the same.
On the other hand, managing diversity deals with bringing togetherness in the organisation. As people from diverse place come and work together, it is necessary to remove the communication barrier between them in order to get effective performance. Internal approaches like informal meetings and team work are the practices that can help to manage the diversity. The decision and policies are made with internal concern and not by government legislations. Some of the practices that can be used to manage the diversity at the workplace include reduction of communication barriers, involvement of employees in decision making process, framing of policies considering the culture of diverse workforce. It is very mandatory for the management to educate the employees about respecting the norms and practices of every culture and background. (Bach, et. al., 2013).
FedEx uses the approaches like Employee communication program to remove the communication barrier between the employees. This helps the company to manage diversity. People Service Profit is the approach that focuses on taking care of employees at FedEx. This approach allows the company to provide rights to the employees without discrimination.
4.1 Select an organization you work or have worked for, identify and compare the performance management methods used.
Managing the performance of the employees is one of the most important aspects attached with the human resource management of every organization. Performance management will help FedEx to ensure that quality could be brought to the workplace. Performance management helps in promoting fair treatment to the employees. There are several methods that help in performance management they are:
There are several roles and responsibilities that are shared by every organization. Working towards the welfare of the employees is one of the biggest responsibilities that an organization has. According to Well Being Charter various opportunities that are being availed related with the employer which demonstrates their commitment to manage the health and well being of the workforce (Wellbeingcharter.org.uk, 2016). It is important for every employer to ensure that the employees working in the organization should remain healthy and safe. Some of the instructions that should be followed by the every employer are being provided by Well Being Charters they are:
Employee welfare can be classified under two categories:
4.3 Discuss the implications of health and safety legislations on human resource practices.
Health and safety legislations have both positive as well as negative impact on the human resource practices as sometimes these implications affects the work place as well as work process and sometimes helps in processing the work process in a smooth manner. To ensure that positive results could be gathered HRM should develop the policies and procedures according to the health and safety legislations like:
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, suggest that HRM of FedEx should organize trainings related with health and safety procedures and avail the information on how employees could remain healthy at work (Jones, 2009). According to the act it is necessary that all the health and safety equipment should be availed in the premises which could be used by the employees at the time of any disastrous situation. There are also some other regulations like working time regulation and parental leave regulations. Working Time regulations bring into practice for facilitating the employees to work for a particular hours and other regulation that is parental leave is the regulation that allow the employees to take parental leave when needed. These are the legal practices that need to be practiced in the organisation and should be involved in the employment contract as well.
Human resource planning helps the organization in providing a set direction to manage the human resource at the workplace. But there are certain aspects that have a great impact on the human resource planning of the organization. One of the topical issues that have its impact on the HR planning of the organisation involves issue of maintaining work life balance. Human resource department of the organisation need to introduce the practices and policies that support the employees maintain work life balance. HR department has to find out the needs of the employees to frame such policies. After assessing the needs of the employees, planning should be started. This in turn increases the work of HR department.To implement such practices that help the employees to maintain work life balance, proper HR planning should be done. With the change in the needs of the employees, policies also need to be changed accordingly. Contradiction between the policy and the employee needs lead to improper management of the employees and affect the performance of the same.
FedEx is the organisation that believes in providing the facilities to the employees that help them to maintain the work life balance in their professional as well as their personal life. The company has implemented work life balance programs that support the employees to acknowledge the priorities other than the workplace in their life. This program guides the employees to manage the balance between the personal life priorities and the professional life priorities. The practices of work life balance in turn improve the performance of the employee at workplace as well as improve the life of the employee as an individual.
It could be suggested that every organization should work towards to make effective human resource management system. Managing human resource will help the organization to maintain its internal decorum. It is necessary that human resource management of FedEx should follow all the legal and regulatory aspects to maintain the decorum of the workplace. It is also necessary that organization should work towards to reduce discrimination from the workplace so that fair and equal treatment could be provided to the workforce working.