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Unit 22 Managing Human Resource Assignment - ASDA
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 22 Managing Human Resource
ASDA is the multinational organization that is headquartered England and contains more than 1lakh employees. It is the second largest organization that provides retail services in the world which provide services through smart apps and through online platform. The current study identifies Guest’s model of HRM in the organization and also compare difference between Storey’s definitions of human resources management, IR practices and personnel management to achieve the goals and objectives. The report evaluates model of flexibility applied in the organization. It identifies the types of flexibility that is developed in the organization and evaluate the benefits of flexible working practices for both staff managers and management as well the impact that changes the in the labour market have flexible working activities. The study explains the forms of discrimination faced the employee at the workplace and provide the information about the benefits of developing and implementing the equal legislations for ADSA. Moreover, report compares the process of maintaining equal opportunities and diversity in the business and compares the performance management methods used in organization and asses the approaches used to manage the employee welfare in the organization. At the end, report will analyze the significance of other topical issues that have major impact on the Human Resources practices and explain the implications of health and safety legislations.
1.1 Guest model of HRM in ASDA Organization
HRM is generally used by every organization. It organization differentiate HRM from personnel management. By using this model managers are able to find the skill and potential in the employees (Sanders.et.al.2014). ASDA as a large supermarket retail store use this model of HRM so that the employees can trust the organization and improves their productivity. Human resources are important to every organization like take the example of ASDA therefore managing the same is also necessary need. The guest model of HRM:
The model mainly analyse the result and if any problem is analysed then suitable course of action is followed to solve the problem. The brief explanation on the above model that is applied in ASDA:
- HRM strategy- In ASDA retail organisation the HRM strategy has three main criteria i.e. differentiation, focus and cost. Differentiation means always provides something new and innovative products and focus should be on consumer with the cost control criteria.
- HRM practices- For the appointment of human resource in ASDA the practices such as selection, training, appraisal, reward, involvement, status etc is used.
- HRM outcomes- The main motive in ASDA is commitment of employees towards their work. Knowledge and information and skilled sales person usually provide better services to client as well to the organisation.
- Behavioural outcomes- The behaviour of the employee in the retail stores plays the important part in the organisation. Ethics and cultural values should be clearly defined in the model.
- Performance outcomes- Performances should be measured with the expected ASDA organisation performance (Guest 2011).
- Financial outcomes-For any organisation whether retail or service sector the final outcome is important i.e. profitability and return on investment.
- For the success of the ASDA retail organisation, the model should be applies in the efficiently manner and it would have benefits like less absenteeism and turnovers. The objective of the model is proper utilization of HR with higher quality and commitment with reduction in cost.
1.2 Comparison between the Storey’s definitions of HRM, Personnel and IR Practices in two organisations
Storey has defined the human resource management as the management approach for achieving the desired objectives through skilled workforce, using cultural and ethical techniques. He has divided the model in two parts i.e. hard form and soft form. Hard form evaluates the objectives of the employees to achieve the competitive advantage. And soft form means treating employees as a valuable and precious asset of the organization.
In personnel management, it includes management of the employees to follow the guidelines according to the requirement of the organization. It gives more emphasis on the number of employees rather than on other issues.IR practices maintain efficiency of the management decisions according to the needs of organization. It emphasis on the need of the employees and provide flexibility in working (Story.et.al.2014). The comparison in HRM, personnel and IR practices between the two leading people supermarket stores i.e. ASDA and Tesco.
In ASDA, Storey’s HRM model is applied; it recognizes the needs of the employees and treats them as precious asset of the organization. It follows the guidance provided by the Storey by which the performances of the employees are improved and follows leadership where management role is important whereas if we take other leading organization such as Tesco it follows Storey’s personnel and IR practices where employees follow the guidelines given by the management and maintain efficiency of the decision made by the management and follows transformational leader where employees participate in decision making (Antonacopoulou, 2016).
1.3 Implications of Line Manager and employees for developing the strategic approach in ASDA
Line managers are responsible for the all the activities of the staff. The implications of line manager are important to execute the plan. ASDA use the benefits of line manager in their retail business by their expertise in the variety of the products and manages the coordination between the top and lower management. ASDA line managers also deals with the customer directly and providing a quality services to satisfying their customer and this only possible because they have quality to control cost, allocate the work to the employees and also check their performances (Pearlson.et.al.2016). The role of employees in ASDA is also important. The employees are given roles and responsibilities for their work and they are encouraged and trained to provide the services in the dynamic environment. This type of initiatives would bring the ASDA with the competitive edge to deals in any situation by providing effective services to their customers.
2.1 Model of Flexibility in ASDA
Flexibility at workplace is important to helps to encourage the performance of staff members by manage the functional activities of the ASDA. The term flexibility is providing the luxury to top management to assign different role and responsibilities to the employees through proper training and monitoring. Two types of flexibility model are functional and sequential flexibility. Functional flexibility is key aspect to organization that helps in changing in roles and responsibility according to change in environment to learn the new task. By using this model organization could be able to maintain the functional skills of staff members and to assign them responsibility. The main focus is on the individual trainings and development programme so that the efficiency can be improved and expected outcomes can be generated.
In ASDA, workplace flexibility helps in objectives and goals in appropriate manner but execution and acceptance of change affects the whole working. The model involves the proper implementation of the plan, overtime schedule and involvement of staff members to achieve the standards (Hill.et.al.2014). The different models of flexibility applied in workplace are flexible time, work from home, job sharing, mobile working etc. For ASDA functional flexibility is appropriate.
2.2 Types of Flexibility in ASDA
Flexible working at workplace increased productivity as employees are more attentive and committed to their jobs. In the current organization ASDA uses two main types of flexibility for managing the operations and development of new phase in the organization process. ASDA using this flexibility would have positive impacts on the entire functioning department like accounts department, sales and marketing department etc. Types of Flexibility:
- Functional flexibility- For organization, this type of flexibility is important to have proper utilization of resources and maintain the effectiveness in working. The manager of ASDA can use the different types of flexibility due to non availability of human resource at the urgency in that situation moving of staff from other department will be better option available at the time. According to analysis this flexibility improves the efficiency of the staff as the managers have trained staff for performing the similar task (McCracken and Morley, 2014). Training the staff could be done by frequent transfer of the staff from one department to another. In ASDA, this type of flexibility is helpful to deal with different types of customers.
- Numerical flexibility- This type of flexibility is considered important in the business where short term contract law are done depends on the number of worker input and flexible working hours. Through analysis it is been also be understood that process of organization get changes according to time and trends of target market which cannot be maintain as per the benchmarking standard. Although ASDA is using functional flexibility, but by using this flexibility, management can make use of the number of employees according to the requirements of the organization. By using numerical flexibility the organization can hire talented and skilled employee for the short term when there is peak season in the market to overcome the economic fluctuation. The demand and supply activity would also be maintained in the market by using this flexibility (Bock.et.al.2012). ASDA is also working on the development and the training of staff to fulfill the staff demand to meet the required output.
2.3 Use of flexible working for employer and employees
For any organization, it is important for employer and employees to have flexible workplace. Team work is important element in ASDA to achieve the desired objectives and profits. And proper utilization of available resources also plays a critical role in the contribution made by employer and employees. Both employer and employees have different flexibility perspective that would be dependent upon the work profile and need of the organization. Use of workplace flexibility for the organization and for the employees:
It has been observed in ASDA that organizational approach about the flexible working have both positive and negative impacts. However organization is offering flexibility in working but lack of monitoring and quality candidates organization is facing issues in self owned services or business. In the current situation due to change in labour market it has significant impact on human resource planning and development. The retention of the labour is also becoming difficult due to other similar organisation are offering higher wages to attract them to their organisation. This impact affects the prosperity and growth of the business due to shortage of the human resource. More turnovers to one department to another would too have negative impact because employees don’t prefer to move from their comfort zone and to work in complex department (Dancaster, 2014). They would happy doing the same daily constant work rather than to adopt the new challenges.
However organisation could overcome the impact of labour by knowing their needs and requirement and anticipating the market demand and supply. And its normal when the demand would be higher for the labour supply would not be available for labour both have inverse relation that can be seen in above figure 5. The only solution to the impact is that to prepare the existing staff with training and educating them to work in flexible working. The other impact networking technologies changes in the HRM have both positive and negative impact in the flexibility workplace. The ASDA is facing this problem and spending the huge money to resolve this issue due to which the financial activities are affecting the business. By bringing in life cycle expectancy there would be rise in supply of group of matured working people for a longer period of time after retirement. The other impacts are changes in salary, promotion policies and use of excess online tools and techniques. Women more participant would have positive and negative impacts like negative impact would be that organisation has to adjust and change its HR theories, policies and flexibility facilities and positive impact would be that inequalities would be eliminated and women or female staff are generally more loyal to their jobs (Shaw.et.al.2016). With flexibility staff could improve their balance between the demand of their work and demand of their home life and would be more satisfied at work and be more productive.
3.1 Forms of discrimination at the work place
Discrimination is the term under which employees are not able to work properly. It is a type of injustice with the subordinates from senior employees thus they are not able to perform better in the organization. Discrimination at the workplace is the biggest drawback for the organization and also de-motivates the employees. Following are the forms of discrimination at the workplace:
- Discrimination of gender: Under this form of discrimination seniors in the organization do injustice with the female employees and did not give the opportunity to perform the task. It is the biggest drawback of the organization thus they are not able to perform well in the organization. According to the law business should give equal chance to all kind of genders but due to some irrelevant perceptions of manager they do such kind injustice with the female employees (Dipboye, 2016). For instance superior in ASDA have the mentality that female employees are not able to give more than 8hours so they are not productive for the organization. This mentality indicates the gender discrimination in the organization.
- Discrimination on the basis of education:Top management recruits the candidates on the basis of qualification of the candidate but due to lack of qualities in the candidate management reject the candidate. For example different groups are formed in ASDA to increase the sales but many time new entrants in the groups are discriminated by the subordinates.
- Discrimination on the basis of disability: Applicants are discriminated on the basis of disability thus they are not able to show their talent. Employees are discriminated because of their diseases like cancer, aids etc (Krieger, 2012). For example ASDA reject the candidates on the basis of their infection diseases thus it becomes drawback of the organization.
3.2 Practical implication of equal opportunity act in ASDA
The main aim of equality act is to provide equal opportunities to the employees in organization but in some cases superiors or recruiters did not follow this kind of protocol thus it becomes cause of discrimination. Managers have the liability to follow the act in the organization and also make the other superiors to follow the act. Government of UK binds all the government to follow the guidelines given by the law. The act protects the right of all the employees thus they did not feel discriminated in the organization. The act gives guidelines to the organization to the entire employer that does not discriminate with the employees. The act outlaws discrimination on seven levels in addition to those of gender and marital status. The act also defines guidelines that employer should not commit any form discrimination with any gender (Morden, 2016). Thus it can be said that the main implication of equality act is to protect the rights of all the employees and guide the employer to give equal opportunities to the employees. While legislation prohibition discrimination in the organization management must identify that all the levels in the organization must get the equal opportunity. The act assists the employment contracts that deemed to contain equality contracts to the employees thus they are able to give equal chances to the employees.
3.3 Approaches to managing equal opportunities legislation in ASDA
The terms equal opportunities and diversity are having the significant impact on the changing liability of organization and individual at workplace. The own policies and regulations are affecting the human rights of staff members and organizational procedure. On contrary diversity is influenced with the internal and external factors in the ASDA. The work place culture is influenced by the behaviour of the employee in the organization. External forces include customers, government forces, retailers etc (Moore.et.al.2013).
Another difference attached with the goals of the organization that operates the function of ASDA. The main aim of equal opportunity act is to operate the balance in the business by allotting the equal opportunities to confirm their efficiency to the get the job. The act reveals the mistakes that are committed by the employees at the work place in the last quarter. The main role of act is to check the errors in the organization to give justice to the employees. The act affects the employees in order to raise the efficiency and correct the mistakes by allotting the effective solution.
Equal opportunity act binds the business to follow the regulation of the law for the development of the subordinates. For instance, ASDA create the groups under which rights of the employees can be protected. The committee monitors the actions of the employees and gives instruction of the employees. If any employee found any kind of discrimination in organization they can complain to the committee. On the contrary diversity approach creates the pleasant environment at the work place that promotes the employees to stay with the organization for the good growth (Wilson, 2013). Equal opportunity act indulgence the entire employees united whereas diversity approach resolves the troubles of all the employees.
4.1 Identify the performance management methods used in ASDA
Performance of the employees depends on the task allotted to the employees and also based on the experience of the candidate. If employee has the burden of the work then is not able to work in the organization it is the duty of the employer to reduce the burden of employee at the work place. Management has to monitor the performance of the candidate thus they can easily evaluate the overall performance of the candidate. Management se various techniques to measure the performance of the candidates like 360 degree feedback, graphic rating scale, management by objective etc. ASDA instruct the superiors in the organization to take the review of the employees in the organization (Inman.et.al.2014). The following kind of methods used by the management to measure the performance of employees:
- 360 degree feedback:Under this method superior or leader of the team collect the feedback of the employees in the organization. The leader collects the feedback of the feedback of the employee from the clients handle by the employee and subordinates of the employees. HR manager have the liability to collect the feedback of the employee to judge the overall performance of the candidate. This technique of feedback collection helps the management to get the review of overall performance of the candidate. If review gives the negative response of clients are not satisfied with the performance of the employee than management inform to the candidate for the improvement in performance.
- Graphic rating scale: ASDA have adopts this technique according to the situation to evaluate the performance of the candidate. Rating scale give the rating to the candidate in the organization. Thus they are able to judge the performance of the candidates in the organization.
- Management by objective: As per this technique organization set the objective for the individual candidate in the organization that needs to be achieved in the given time. If employee reached that objective in the given time than management appraises his performance otherwise in case non-achievement of the objective management asks the candidate to improve the efficiency (Leat and Revoredo, 2013).
4.2 Approaches used to managing employee welfare in ASDA
ASDA adopts different programs in the organization for the growth of employees in the organization. The welfare of the employees is the most important task for the superiors in the organization. The first program launched by the ASDA is employee welfare program under this program ASDA gives different kind of rewards to the employees thus they fell motivates in the organization and able to motivate other employees in the organization. This program helps the management and other team leader in the organization to decrease the burden of other employees in the organization (Baker, 2013). It solves the personal issue of the employees in the organization and reduces the stress level of the employees. These kind approaches help the management to keep the employees motivated in the organization. Different kind of approaches is adopted by the employees in the organization by which they are able to maintain the efficiency of employees. Another approaches is adopted by the management is job welfare approach under this approach if any employee is working more than 10 years will get the promotion in every year. Management also offers the attractive policy to the employees that will get the pension after the retirement. This kind initiative helps the organization to retain the employees in organization (RAJA, 2015). The main aim of ASDA is to keep the employees motivated in the organization by launching different kind policies.
4.3 Implication of health and safety legislation on human resources practices in ASDA
ASDA adopts the health and safety programs at the workplace thus employees did not feel unsafe in the organization. Management has the liability to maintain the health and safety legislation program in the organization. Government of England binds the organization to maintain the health and safety implication in the organization. Under this implications organization has to follow the safety standards in the organization. Safety standards help the management to eradicate the accident in the business and help the management to protect the employees at the workplace. The main role of European community Directives is to guide different organization to follow the safety measures in the organization. ASDA follows the implication of European community Directives thus it help the management to protect the employees from any danger thus they feel safe at the work place and give their best to achieve the organizational goals (Akbar and Ahsan, 2014). It is the most important aspect for the employees in the organization that management gives priority for the safety of employees in organization. The main role of this kind of community is to give the safety instruction to the employees.
4.4 Impact of another topical issue on human resource practices
Various topical issues faced by the management while operating the function of organization like recruitment, e-learning etc. This kind of issues helps the management to give the growth business in different aspects. Nowadays organization is taking the help of technology to give training to the employees thus they are able to achieve the management goals. Technology is the best way to give training to the employees in organization. E-recruitment is another technique that helps the management to hire the candidates in the organization with the help of online website of the ASDA hr department place the hiring post on the website and interested candidates give their concern on the post. Thus technology helps the organization to hire the suitable candidate from organization and hire them according to the need (Stone, 2013). Another term is pension scheme under which organization provides pension to the employees thus they are able to do the job in the effective manner.
As ASDA is the leading supermarket retail stores it very well follow the Human Resources Management practices, strategies, approaches, leadership styles and flexible workplace environment and also keeps in mind the welfare of the employees. Equal opportunities, health and safety legislation has been followed. The guest model of HRM actively participates in the ASDA by HRM practices, HRM strategy, HRM outcomes, behavioural and financial outcomes. Storeys model of HRM, Personnel and IR practices is also considered but ASDA is applying Storey’s HRM model more. Functional flexibility is involved where utilisation of effectiveness and efficiency of the employees is involved. The organisation is having both positive and negative impact of labour that has been discussed above. Employer’s discrimination was there due to disability and gender conflicts but can be overcome by the positive factors. Workplace policies and practices in ASDA are there to improve the well being and health of the employees. And employers are committed to their health and well being through self assessment standards in ASDA.