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Unit 21 Selection Techniques in HRM Assignment
Through Unit 21 Selection Techniques HRM Assignment different significant concepts and theories of human resource management have been evaluated. The personnel management and the human resource management concepts are differentiated through proper applications of Virgin Media. The ability of the human resource management functions in achieving the organisational objectives is assessed. The role and responsibilities of the line managers within the management of human resources are discussed. The legal frameworks which are related to the HRM functions are analysed. The reasons for human resource planning and the stages of it are outlined. The current recruitment stages of two different organisations are compared and their effectiveness is evaluated. Different motivational theories and the reward system of virgin media are discussed. Factors determining the payment along with job evaluation are evaluated. The effectiveness of the reward system in different context have been assessed by taking in the example of Virgin media. The methods of motivation of Virgin Media are also discussed. By considering the case study of Faisal different exit procedures and their effectiveness are evaluated.
1.1.Differentiate between personnel management and human resource management giving examples in two suitable organisations.
Personnel management and human resource management are developed on the same or similar purpose which is to maintain or manage the human resources or the people who are involved within the business. Personnel management system is the traditional approaches of the human resource management system. In 1970s with the people management policies and practices HRM or human resource management has been evolved from personnel management system. With the success of the HRM in different business the HRM system has been regarded as the superior to the personnel management system. (cipd.co.uk, 2011). Though the personnel and human resource management is based on similar conception there are key differences within the two managements:
The practices of the human resource management have been based on the core organisational strategy and policies. Through the HRM the organisations optimise the skills and the competency levels of the current human resources of the organisation. Within human resource management the HR manager or the line managers tend to motivate the human resources of the organisation towards the organisational core objectives. Human resource management has been using the people-centred approaches for achieving the corporate goals. Human resource management has been using the transformational management system and place focus on higher communicational `system to adequately convey the organisational objectives within all levels of the organisational structure. (accountlearning.blogspot.in., 2016).
Personnel management has the main intention to maintain the reasonable terms and conditions of the employment while administrating the people. The personnel management has the main focus on the compensation, integration, procurement in the management system. The main focus of the functions within the personnel management is laid on the labour relations, employee welfare and administration of employees. (cipd.co.uk, 2011).
Lime Tree Hotel in London has been practicing personnel management for the administration of people. Through the personnel management the hotel has been maintaining their employee relations. The management concerned over the employment terms and conditions.
Virgin media has been created by forming merger between NTL, Liberty Global Plc and Telewest and Richard Branson’s Virgin Mobile. It is the largest internal cable organisation. The HRM system of Virgin media placed focus on the motivation and engagement of the employees within the organisational goals. By connecting the employees with the organisational terms HRM department of the organisation has been marinating the connection with the customers. The organisation also offers career opportunities to motivate the human resources. Proper training is also provided for the enhancement of the skills along with rewards for motivation. (accountlearning.blogspot.in., 2016).
1.2. Assess how human resource management functions help your chosen organisation in achieving its purpose.
Human resource management is based on the higher skills and high motivation among the employees. Through motivation the HRM functions tends to enhance the capabilities of the human resources. There are different functions which are considered within the human resource management practices. These are recruitments, selection, training and development, employee motivation, human resource planning, employee relations, rewarding employees, performance management, resourcing the employees, communication among different levels of the organisation etc. (Whatishumanresource.com., 2016) These functions are also incorporated within the HRM practices of Virgin Media.
- Human resource planning: Human resource planning has been considered as the essential part within the HRM system. Through the HRM planning the organisation has been able to identify the current human resources and their abilities and the future needs of human resources. As Virgin Media has been operating in the global market with high technological implementations HR planning is necessary for the organisation. Through the HR planning the organisation can involve proper talents to achieve the future goals of the organisation and also able to meet the fastest changing trends within the technological world. (Whatishumanresource.com., 2016)
- Recruitment and selection: through recruitment and selection processes the organisation Virgin Media includes needed skills and competencies and new talents. Through different stages of recruitment and selection processes the organisation resources qualified human assets within the workforce. (Woods, 2012)
- Training and development: training and development are important functions in considering the current trends and changes within the business and preferences of the customers. Through the training and development sessions Virgin Media tends improve the current employees and their skills for implementing the current advanced technologies within the system and services. As the organisation has been dealing in eh technological world continuous development of knowledge is needed within the human resources.
- Performance management:through the appraisal system the performances of employees are monitored by the HRM of Virgin Media. The performance management is a significant function in HRM as through this the organisation and also the employees can be able to improve their current performances. (Whatishumanresource.com., 2016)
- Employee motivation and reward system:through reward system like bonus, increase in wages Virgin media provides rewards to the employees. This also creates motivation among them.
- Employee relations:through higher communicational system Virgin Media maintains the employee relation. (Woods, 2012)
1.3.Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in your organisation or familiar organisation and how it supports human resource management functions.
Line managers are essential parts within the human resource management of an organisation. The line managers have important roles and responsibilities in managing the human resources. The line managers are connected with the employees as they have the responsibilities to monitor and supervise the employees working providing the services to the clients and the customers. The line managers of Virgin Media have different responsibilities as they have the direct connections with the staffs. The line managers of Virgin media have the role within the performance management of the staffs. (Nickson, 2013) They also have to report to the higher management authorities on the daily supervision. By analysing the reports of the performance assessment of the individuals made by the line managers the higher management can acknowledge the requirements and basic needs of the individuals. Line managers have certain roles and responsibilities within the management of individuals:
- Supervision regular activities
- Management of the operational costs
- Conducting the performance appraisal to have performance management
- Tracking the progress of the work
- Allocating the basic tasks by assessing the individual skills and competency levels
- Ensuring services as per the customer specification or requirements
- Focusing on the team work and the involvement of the employees within the organisational objectives (Nickson, 2013)
- Checking the standards and the policy implementations within the work
- Provide proper technical guidance to the individuals etc
Within Virgin media the line managers have essential role in encouraging the employees and individuals towards better performances and help in implementing the desired standards within the performances. The line managers in sales and customer contact of Virgin Media also look after the induction for the frontline staffs. The line managers also provide feedback on the performances, coach towards betterment and support with proper training to the employees for shaping their careers. By maintaining and performing these roles and responsibilities the line managers of Virgin Media tend to provide beneficial management of human resources to the organisation and try to increase the organisational performances. (virginmedia.com., 2016).
1.4. Analyse how legal and regulatory framework impact on human resource management.
HRM system has been incorporated with different legal and regulatory system. These legal and regulatory frameworks are used as guidelines for the HRM functions and its practices and their implementations within the workforce. (Harris, 2012) These legal and regulatory frameworks are:
- Health and safety act: the health and safety of the employee within the organisational environment should be marinated by the HR managers. Through the implementation of this framework the managers of Virgin Media can be able to reduce the injuries and accidents in the usages of the machines and technical areas. This law is beneficial for the organisation as by implementing this law the organisation can maintain proper approaches within the working environment. (Harris, 2012) This law also places negative impact on the implementation of new technologies within the organisation premises.
- Anti-discrimination law: this act has been prohibiting the discrimination within the HRM functions. Within the practices of the employment and within other practices the organisation must follow this act to avoid discrimination in terms of race, gender, age, nationality, religion etc. (Harris, 2012)
- Equal employment opportunities act: by following this act the organisation has to ensure fair treatment to the employees. The law also enforce the organisation and its management to provide equal opportunities without considering the race, disability, gender, religion etc. Equality within the payment, employment, performance assessment, providing recognition etc is also enforced through this law. (Harris, 2012)
- National Minimum wage act 1998: by following this law Virgin Media has to provide minimum wage to all the employees. The law has enforced £7.20 per hour for employee age of 21+ and £5.30 per hour for employers of 18-20 age within the payment system. (Harris, 2012)
- Data protection act: this act emphasises on the protection of the personal as well as professional data of the employees. It also provide the accessibility of own data to the employees. This law also prohibits the unlawful use of data of employees and limits the access of the data. (gov.uk., 2015).
3.1 Assess the link between motivational theory and reward at Virgin Media or your chosen organisation. Your answer must show if you think there is a link, what connects the two.
Motivation is the psychological approach which enhances the individual’s way of acting. The management of the organisation focus this aspect in order to maximise the productivity in the organisation. It provides reason for the employees to behave in a particular way which is useful for the organisation. On the other hand the reward system is one of the techniques adopted by the management of the organisation to drive the motivation among the employees. (Price, 2011)
Maslow’s need theory can be assumed to relate the motivation as well as reward system at Virgin Media. Maslow’s theory gives emphasis on five needs which evolves after the fulfilment of one need. The organisation Virgin Media is a company that provides telephone, broadband, mobile services to the people of UK. The reward system of Virgin Media shows a clear link with Maslow’s theory of need in the following way:
- a) Physiological Needs:The very basic needs which the people will require to live his/her life. For example, food, medicine, shelter is those needs. Virgin Media provides competitive remuneration structure and job opportunities in the form of full time, apprenticeships, internships which will support the people to live his/her life and also that will increase their job experience.
- b) Security Needs:Security needs of the people are aligned with the benefits given by Virgin Media like life assurance, income protection scheme, accident insurance, eye care vouchers etc. All are these benefits implies the job security at Virgin Media which ensure the security needs of the employees. (Virgin Media, 2016).
- c) Psychological Needs:These needs derive when the people will like to see them as an affiliate of the group. The management of Virgin Media creates the groups of the engineer, maintenance team in order to give the best services to the subscribers. The cultural diversified team helps to give best services to the subscribers and also the employees who can be the part of the group which will help them to maintain the psychological needs.
- d) Self-esteem Needs:Self-esteem needs is mainly focused to the recognition where the employees are given opportunities for the promotion or providing the maintenance cost of the car, child care vouchers which will motivate the employees to give their best performances.
- e) Self-Actualisation Needs:Self actualisation needs relates the creativity and spirituality of the people. The management of Virgin Media are given the challenges for the critical work to those employees who want to fulfil their self-actualisation needs.
Reward system can be categorised in two ways which are monetary and non-monetary rewards. Monetary rewards at Virgin Media are the salary given which is very much related to the market standard. Non-monetary reward can be the season ticket loan, child care vouchers, eye care vouchers, life assurance, dental care plans and medical plan for the partner or spouse etc. Both the approaches of the reward system will enhance the level of motivation for the employees at Virgin Media. The management knows that the employees will implement the strategy and for that different motivational techniques are adopted.
3.2 Evaluate the process of job evaluation and other factors determining pay at Virgin Media or your chosen organisation
Job evaluation is done in order to determine the importance of the job offered by the organisation. Job evaluation will help the management as well as the employees to understand the roles and responsibilities based on the required capabilities. The management can link the job evaluation with the business objectives for ensuring high productivity. The process of Job Evaluation at Virgin Media can be evaluated in the following way:
- Job description: This is the section where the required performances are mentioned. The performances include the duties and responsibilities of the concerned post. For example for a B to B Community Sales Executive at Virgin Media certain duties like convincing the business clients for the subscription by mentioning the facilities and advantages that are provided by Virgin Media. The positive side of job description is the structured format where the roles and responsibilities are mentioned which will reduce the misunderstandings or conflicts. But the negative side can be the changing business environment where additional duties are needed to be performed which are not included in the job description and that can affect the communication between the management and employees.
- Job Specification: Job specification implies the necessary capabilities including the knowledge, skills which match the profile of the organisation. For example an efficient communicator with positive attitude along with the target oriented people are required for the post B to B Community Sales Executive at Virgin Media. The advantages of job specification will share the information to the candidates about their required skills but sometimes more skills are required to manage the concerned profile.
The external factors that determine the pay structure are as follows:
- Trade union: Trade Union like CWU is present at Virgin Media who lift the issues of the employees to the management. The negotiation regarding the pay structure is also done by this trade union with the management of Virgin Media.
- Legislation: The pay structure of Virgin Media is aligned with the Government’s minimum wage structure and they used to provide the salary which is much high than the other companies in this industry.
- Cost Of Living: The rate of inflation can determine the pay structure of Virgin Media where the management will recognise the general prices of the commodities in the market of UK. Currently the inflation has been reduced from 0.5 % to 0.3%. (BBC, 2015)
The internal factors that deter5mines the pay structures are as follows:
- Growth rate: The growth rate of the industry is high a\due to the mergers of the organisations in order to serve more customers. The demand of the communication is very high as most of the people are using the internet services that are around 90% and for that the industry has become competitive
- Company Policies:The policy of the company is to provide the employment opportunities while satisfying the subscribers. For that the management of Virgin Media has designed the pay structure which is comparatively high than other organisations in this same industry. The pay structure for the post of B to B Community Sales Executive the pay scale is around 18,867 pound to 45, 175 pound.
- Experience: The pay scale is determined by the experience and knowledge of the candidates for the required post. High experienced candidates will get more remuneration than the fresher.
3.3 Assess in different contexts (for e.g. attracting talent, retention, and motivation) how effective is the reward systems at Virgin Media or your chosen organisation.
Reward system is the mechanism that the management of the organisation adopt in order to motivate the employees and also to measure the performances. Performance Management is one of the functions which give emphasis to the productive performances of the employees. Reward system can be linked with the performance management in order to recognise the employees who are consistent in giving their performances and identify the skill gaps for the employees who are giving low performances. (Torrington, 2014)
The effectiveness of the reward system at Virgin Media can be assessed in the following way:
- a) Attracting Talent: In order to attract the talent, Virgin Media gives emphasis on the employment options like apprenticeships, internships, fulltime apart from that benefits like ticket loan, child care vouchers, eye care vouchers, life assurance, dental care plans and medical plan for the partner or spouse etc. Based on the structure of the reward system the candidates who are studying or like to change their jobs can apply the concerned post at Virgin Media. The effectiveness of reward system for attracting the talent is high as it will attract the young and dynamic candidates in their organisation.
- b) Motivation: Motivation is the factor which has been successfully identified by the management of Virgin Media in the form of several benefits given to the employees. A student can pursue their professional career and also the personal career by joining the apprenticeship schemes of Virgin Media. Securing the lives of the employees by offering the medical benefits, medical assurance, family plans will definitely motivate the employees to give their best performances as they know that their organisation Virgin Media is taking care of him/her and also to the family. (Virgin Media, 2016).
- c) Retention:Retention is the technique adopted by the management of Virgin Media to the candidates who are in the apprenticeships. The candidates who have given their best performances during the internships or apprenticeships are retained by the company for the full time based on the vacancy. Retention is one of the effective measures to reduce the cost of hiring the new candidates and the organisation like Virgin Media can retain the old candidates who are aware of their business process.
Thus we can say that reward system based on the attracting the talent, motivation and retention is very much effective at Virgin Media who involve the employees at the central point of the system. The benefits of the employees are given preference and also the organisation can also improve the productivity by ensuring the motivation as well as retention techniques followed by the organisation.
3.4 Examine the methods Virgin Media or your chosen organisation use to monitor employee performance
Employee’s performances are the important aspect which determines the productivity of the organisation as well as the business objectives. Basically there are two strategies that are adopted by Virgin Media to monitor the performances are what and the other one is how. What denotes the roles and responsibilities of the employees at Virgin media and How denotes the required skills and knowledge for the desired responsibilities.
- Performance Appraisal: Performance appraisal is the technique adopted by the management of Virgin Media to measure the performances of the employees. At this method the ratings are collected from the employees all over the department and based on the ratings the points are calculated for the employees to measure the performances. The positive side is the considerations of all the reviews will give a clear picture a\bout one employee. But the negative side can be the popularity of one employee can affect the ratings (Brudan, 2010).
- Observation: The senior managers of the departments used to observe the performances of the site engineers, maintenance engineers at Virgin Media. This will help the management to get the clear picture about the performances of the employees. But the negative side can be the biased reviews of the seniors due to the negative relationships. (Aswathappa, 2013).
- Management by objective: It is the process where the management has formulated the r\targets and based on the targets they used to evaluate the performances of the employees. The employees can be aware of the designed goal and they can give their best to achieve the goal. The positive side is the well design structure which will assist the management to track the progress of the employees and also can identify the skill gaps. In order to set the target sound techniques must be applied by the management to make SMART goals.
Thus there are both the positive and negative sides to monitor the employee’s performances. The management needs to understand the basic loopholes and try to undertake the measures to establish a best process for the monitoring function.
4.1 Identify the reasons for termination of Faisal’s employment contract with The Chicken Master and generally explain other reasons for cessation of employment.
Termination from the employment is the phenomenon when the employees breach certain rules of the company and the management ends the contract after giving warnings. Violating the rules of the company by the employees can bring the termination or the employee can terminate the contract due to the breach of the policies by the organisation.
The primary reasons for the termination of Faisal’s employment happens are as follows:
- Faisal was not conscious about the duties and the responsibilities in the restaurant. From the case study we have found that activities like cleaning was not done properly.
- Accessing the equipment of the office without asking the senior Bob is the another reason as the hand book provided by the restaurant Chicken master was clearly mentioned that accessing the office equipment are punishable offence.
- We have found that instead of giving continuous support by Bob in the training, the performances of Faisal was unproductive which was bringing the loss for the restaurant.
- Immoral activities of Faisal is the main reason that gives main reason for the cessation of the contract.
The secondary reasons can be:
- Inefficiency of Faisal was decreasing the productivity and giving training to him is also increasing the cost as well as time which influence Bob to terminate him. Productivity of the restaurant was going down due to the inefficiency shown by Faisal after giving him certain trainings which may result to the cessation of the employment.
- Accessing the equipment and creating a own business plans was a punishable offence and for that the termination was done.
- The code of conduct was mentioned in the hand book of Chicken Master but Faisal was not following those and instead of he has violated the norms that triggered Bob to terminate him. (Belcourt&McBey,2012),
- Reduction in the turnover is the additional reason which influence Bob for taking the decision to terminate Faisal.
There are several reasons that are been diagnosed for the termination of contract between Faisal and Chicken Master. The prime reason is the unethical and immoral activities of Faisal in the work place and the additional reason can be the hampering of the productivity which in turn damages the turnover of Chicken Master.
4.2 Describe the employment exit procedures used by The Chicken Master and another organisation of your choice
Exit Procedures are the obligations that are maintained by the organisations in order to end the contract between the employer and the employee. There are different process followed by the organisations to meet the norms of the exit procedures. (Bohlander and Snell, 2010).
Based on the case study the organisation Chicken Master do not follow any process in the exit procedures. They have terminated their employee Faisal due to the ineffective performances, immoral activities, accessing the office gadgets for the personal use, low productivity, not matching with the requirements etc. Based on these grounds Faisal was directly terminated in replacement of a women having her age around 40. Exit procedures are not maintained by the organisation Chicken Master.
But if we observe the exit procedures of Virgin Media then they used to follow a structured exit procedure in order to end the contract successfully. The steps are mentioned below:
- At the first step the company will try to retain the employee by negotiating
- But after the negotiation if the employee refuse then three forms are needed to be filled up the employee like the exit form, feedback form and the resignation letter form.
- After the submission of the forms the accounts department will clear all the dues of the employees as soon as the employees will submit all the office equipment that he/she has taken
Based on the ACAS code of conduct all the employees must be given an official warning in te form of the letter. The management have to conduct a meeting where the employee, trade union and the management will be present. All the parties will speak and come to a decision regarding the termination of the contract. Apart from that a notice period has to be given by the management to the concerned employee to find the alternatives. But none of the process are been followed in Chicken Master. But at Virgin Media there is a structured process which adheres to the rules and regulations set by the Government. This shows a difference between the big company and a small company by relating the exit procedures of Virgin Media with The Chicken Master.
4.3 Consider the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation arrangements with an organisation such as The Chicken Master if Faisal’s claim was proven to be true.
The legal and regulatory framework based on the employment cessation influence the organisation in the designing of the policies and procedures.
Equality Act 2010 gives emphasis on the discrimination which is banned on the areas like the age, gender, recruitment, training etc. But over the case study, Faisal claimed that there was a discrimination done by the employer Bob by terminating him and recruits women of an age 40 years. Equality Act 2010 mentioned that if any employee feels that have been discriminated then he/she may appeal to the trade unions or directly to the management to solve the issues. Other than that they can also directly appeal Employment Tribunal against the discrimination. (Gov. UK, 2016). Other than that Equality Advisory Support Services body is there who can provide advices to those employees.
Employment Tribunal will consider both the employer and employee for giving their explanations and proofs. Based on the proofs and justification, the tribunal will decide the final judgement which has to be followed by both the parties. The justification will be asked from Bob regarding the termination of Faisal and to recruit a woman of an age of 40 years.
ACAS code of practice ensures that there is norms where the employer must give a notice period before terminating the contract. Apart from that the employer also called a meeting to hear the opinion of the trade union and also the concerned. But nothing was followed at Chicken Master where Faisal was terminated due to the unethical and unproductive duties he was doing in the work place.
This report will give the essence of the human resource management in the organisation. Human resource management gives emphasis on the structure and the policies of the organisation which can establish a sound communication process and that will reduce the conflicts and misunderstandings. One of the important consideration is Motivation which determines the psychological approach that enhances the individual’s way of acting. The management of the organisation focus this aspect in order to maximise the productivity in the organisation. Other than that the job evaluation process and the pay structure is also the important consideration for the human resource management which helps the employee to understand their roles and the management can also trace the progress of the employees.
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