Delivery in day(s): 5
Organization and Behavior Assignment - TESCO
Organization and Behavior assignment TESCO is a term to identify and learn about the behaviour of the human power in a workplace. Organizational behaviour is made up of micro-level, meso-level and macro level. This term is being applied to create more efficient business organization by using the specific approach for managing the workforce to maximize the output from the individual and group members. Organizational behaviour is combination of leadership, power, monitoring, directing and controlling the process of working of individual and groups. Comparison of structure and culture at CAPCO will be made with Tesco organization along with the identification of relationship between structural and cultural impact on organizational performance. Later, report will highlight the usefulness of different leadership styles in organizational context and explain the theories of management that can influence the management practices of CAPCO. CAPCO a leading United Kingdom based organization in finance sector. It is well known for the largest service areas with 2000 employees all over the world. CAPCO was in list of best companies of 2013 which was prepared by the Sunday times. CAPCO is also in leading news for the 50 top female employees. Moreover, report will discuss the impact of different leadership styles and motivational theories as well the importance of theories in workplace. At last, study will explain group dynamics and behaviour of groups in CAPCO and discuses various aspects that may restrain the development of effective teamwork.
1.1 Comparison of CAPCO’s structure and culture with Tesco
Table 1: Similarities in structure and culture of CAPCO and Tesco
CAPCO & TESCO
Hierarchical organizational structure
Both the organizations are similar in hierarchical distribution of power and responsibility. In other terms their structure at management is same.
Both the organization supports the task based culture to enhance the productivity per employee. Also the culture is motivational for the employees to meet the organizational as well as personal growth.
Both organizations are similar in role of leaders, employees management, competitive aspects and communication channels.
Employees are flexible to manage their work but need to meet the organizational goals within time.
CAPCO and Tesco are supports the efforts towards the social and professional image of the image. As a result both the organizations are similar to deliver the satisfaction to employees so that better cultural and structural values can be gained (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014).
Nature at workplace
CAPCO and Tesco make use of formal presentation to meet the objectives and informal communication to make the culture more flexible and responsive.
Table 2: Comparison of structure and culture at CAPCO and Tesco
Span of control
CAPCO supports the flat and wide span of control. Means there is more power at each level of organizational structure to manage the work and less communication with the managerial staff. Employees are driven by leaders to meet the goals.
At other side, Tesco supports the tall and narrow span of control which means that employees are less in number so that they can make direct communication with managers. There is a bit distance between employees and managers in hierarchy of levels.
CAPCO is decentralised in decision making means everyone is free to make their participation in decision for the personal rights and benefits. This is better than Tesco’s strategies.
Tesco is centralised in decision making. Organization believes that it is easy to make critical decisions and employees should concentrate on their work only.
CAPCO implements the democratic leadership style to listen from the employees to improve the culture and structure of the organization.
Tesco is autocratic in nature to keep the decision power centric. It is faster leadership style but may result in dissatisfaction in employees towards the work and workplace (Thornton.et.al.2012).
Structure of work process
Division method is used by CAPCO to divide the work among the group of employees those are dynamic in nature to accomplish the task.
Tesco’s employees are grouped for a static purpose and follow the bureaucracy structure to achieve a goal.
1.2 Relationship between CAPCO’s structure and culture and impact on performance
Culture at CAPCO is driven by its structural flexibility and strategies. As a culture depends on the behaviour and outlook of the employees, CAPCO structure is made with the objective to keep the organizational and personal growth parallel to each other. Therefore, CAPCO supports the horizontal and vertical division in distribution of power and responsibility so that more freedom in work can be delivered at each level. In this manner, flexible and adaptive workforce is built to meet the dynamic requirements of the organization. CAPCO believes that motivated employees can give more productivity and high quality in work. The innovative and motivational culture of CAPCO reflects the results in the performance of the organization. Individual is treated the best for skills and experience so that personal goals can be set as intrinsic and other benefits.
Organizational structure is modular so that the needs and expectations of the employees can be understood easily and effective strategies can be formed to meet the personal goals of employees. CAPCO organizes the training and development programs to enhance the skills of employees and to make them prepare for the dynamic nature and roles in workplace (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). Also the events and functions in workplace encourage employees to express their free thoughts and skills so that organization can observe the capabilities of employees more accurately. Flexible communication helps the employees to get into touch with management so that a better culture can be formed towards the achievement of objectives. Performance of individual is measured to rate the contribution in overall performance so that right benefits can be delivered in right hands. Rewards and remunerations are used to enhance the employees’ interest and capabilities in workplace.
Addition to it, the strategies and policies are clear to employees at employment time so that there is no need to justify against the procedure and the laws. Transparency at each level motivates the employees for better performance. Leaders are directed to behave humbly with employees and responsible to answer the queries and troubles in work. Attractive and effective group norms result in the consistency in presence in workplace, integrity in work and trust among the employees (Eccles.et.al.2012). As a result, the enhancement of individual performance makes the overall performance amazing.
1.3 Factors which influence individual behaviour in CAPCO
An employee’s behaviour in workplace can be driven by many factors like ability and skills of employee, attitude towards the work, perception nature, demographic factors and presentation.
- Individual’s ability and experience: This is the most important factor which influences the individual’s behaviour in workplace. Like others, CAPCO organization is seeking for the employees those are productive and skilled to accomplish the task in a creative manner. Thus, the ability and experience of employee play a vital role to decide the role and behaviour in workplace. CAPCO expects at least the starting level of knowledge in candidate so that it can be sharpened to meet the organizational objectives.
- Demographic factors: Second most valuable factor is the demographic reflection in the employee. Demographic factors like the sex, origin, beliefs and race etc play an impact on behaviour in workplace. However, CAPCO believes in equal opportunities and diversity but these native factors are behind the encouragement of employees to make advantages of opportunity (McShane and Von Glinow, 2015). For instance, some employees may not will to become supervisor because of their sex and origin. These factors are rarely changed.
- Positivity: Positive attitude of the employee always make it motivated towards the personal and organizational goals. Attitude towards the nature of the work and organizational structure decides the behaviour in workplace. Negativity in attitude kills the existing skills and reduces the performance of employee whereas positive employees perform their best and receives the expected results. Positive employees are valuable asset for CAPCO to decide the organizational culture and structure as a collaborative function.
- Perception: Perception means the ability of an employee to understand the operations in an organization. Better the perception better the results in work because perception ability helps to eliminate the mistakes in works and increases the productivity in a unit time. CAPCO expects good perception towards the problems in work so that shorten and fastest solutions can be identified to solve the problems. Organization encourages the employees those are good in perception to contribute in the structure and decision making process.
- Personal Presentation: It determines how employee presents himself before the organization. Management always monitor the behaviour and the personality of an employee in workplace (Alfes.et.al.2013). Effective and well-mannered personalities are attraction points for the management to promote them for a higher position so that they can represent the organization more effectively inside and outside the boundaries. Personality of employee reflects the attitude towards the job profile and workplace services.
2.1 Effectiveness of different leadership styles at CAPCO and TESCO
Leadership plays vital role in the operations of both the organization they assist manager to handle the labour to take the optimum utilization of human capital in the organization. All the operations in CAPCO and TESCO depend on the performance of the leaders and their styles. Sometimes leaders motivate the employees to improve the efficiency and manage them according to the need of the task. Leadership styles assist the leader to identify the need of the employee and try to fulfil the need as soon as possible. Manager is the solely liable to manage the employee to raise the productivity of the organization and maintain the good relation with the employees. Effectiveness of different leadership styles in CAPCO and TESCO are as follows:
- Autocratic Leadership Styles: CAPCO applies autocratic leadership style to manage the employees in better and effective way and take the decision according to the view of top management. Organization does not include the employees in decision making process by which decision are correct and effective (Du.et.al.2013). Autocratic leaders assist the organization to manage the critical situations very effective way and solve the problems in very genuine manner. On the other hand TESCO implement the autocratic leadership at all the levels to make the decision making process more effective and fast in which lower level employees needs to focus on work in spite of decision making process.
- Democratic Leadership Style: CAPCO use this leadership style at different levels to motivate the employees and try to collect the views of the subordinates. This kind of leaders distributes the work among the employees and tries to utilize the resources effectively. CAPCO applies this style to boast the morale of the employees. TESCO applies this style to maintain the good relations with the employees and try to increase their efficiency by including them into the decision making process (Yousaf, 2015). This kind of leadership style is followed at the middle level of the organization. For instance, for the development of employee leader take the periodical sessions about the use of new technology.
- Transformational Leadership Style: CAPCO use this approach in the operation for the effective teamwork and it can be achieved through transformational leadership style at the work place. This kind of leadership style assists the leader to bring the employees together and achieve the goal on time. This style facilitates the management to take the advantage of the multi skilled employees to achieve the different kind of task (Chou, 2014). TESCO apply this approach in order to make the employees perfect and assign them task to achieve with proper teamwork.
2.2 Organizational theory underpins the practice of management
Organizational theory plays crucial role in terms of management and helps the manager to increase the performance of the employees to achieve the organizational goal. The theory depicts the role of manager in the operations of the organization and act as a motivator. Organizational theories develop the skills of the employees by focusing on the training part of the employees. Following are the theories which CAPCO applies in the practice of management:
- Human Relation Theory: According to this theory employees should be the part of a supportive team that provides them the growth chance. CAPCO focus on the skills and need of the employees in order to encourage the morale of the employees to participate in decision making process. When employees becomes the part of decision making process it will results to high quality of work. The theory increases the employee retention and develops the good relation between employee and the management. Good working environment keeps the employees motivated and increase their efficiency for the achievement of the management goal (Argote, 2015). The main focus of the theory is the development of human capital in the organization and tries to get better the competence of the employees to elevate the productivity of the organization. The theory states that if an employee is the part of effective team then it creates the good relation among the team mates and it shows the impact of the theory. CAPCO apply the human relation theory to raise the attention of the individual on the work and keep them motivated by identifying their needs and wants. For example, management distributes the bonus among the employees to boast the morale of the employees.
- Scientific management theory: CAPCO applies this theory to enhance the efficiency by increasing the potential of the employee. The main intend of the theory is to decrease the misuse of resources and raise the productivity. Organization allots the task to the employees and instructs them to achieve the goal on time. The theory assists the manager to collect the data about the performance of the employees and covert in into mathematical data and evaluate the performance of the each employee.
At the end it can be said that both the theories applied by the CAPCO to conquer the organizational goals (Hicks, 2013). Human relation theory focuses on the behaviour of the employee where as other focuses on the performance of the employee. CAPCO applies this theory to achieve the organizational goals.
2.3 Different approaches to management
CAPCO use the management approaches to work effectively and achieve the predetermined goals. The management provides the guideline to the manager to deal with human capital issues in the organization. Approaches assist the ideas to the manager that how to raise the efficiency of the employee by making various approaches. Following are the approaches that help the manager to work successfully:
- Human relation approach: CAPCO and TESCO use this method to regulate the organizational operations. CAPCO motivate the employees with offer of various services to them like convenience facilities, accommodation, house rent allowance etc. Whereas TESCO make the employees self dependant because management thinks that if employees will put into comfort zone then it will decrease the efficiency of the employee and it will be the severe loss for the organization. This approach assists both the organization to identify the psychological needs of the employees and try to fulfil them (Bryman and Bell, 2015). TESCO focus on the task oriented approach and aim to meet the organizational goals.
- Contingency approach: This approach aid the management to supervise the operations in an appropriate manner that leads to the growth of the organization. By making use of approach, manager can identify the conditional factors and external factors as well. This approach facilitates the manager to identify the technological need of the organization and how to handle the different situations by taking proper use to allotted resources. The approach states that behaviour of the employee must be fluctuating according to the situations. The approach aid the manager to evaluate the self performance and try improve the necessary things (Manuj.et.al.2014). For example, a manager handle various groups and will not be able to interact with each group in a day so he should take the meeting and call all representative from each group in meeting and ask the problems they are facing. This kind of necessary steps a manager should take to evaluate the employee’s performance.
3.1 Impact of different leadership styles on motivation within period of change
Leadership is the capability of an organization to power, inspire and facilitate the workforce to give efforts towards the effectiveness and achievement of an organization of which they belong. The person who has the ability of bringing such positive changes among the workforce is called as a leader. There are various types of leadership styles used by the leaders for providing direction, implementing plans and motivating the workforce of the organization. Proper motivation of the workforce helps in achieving the goals and objectives of an organization in an effective and efficient way (Avolio and Yammarino, 2013). They perform their task in full devotion and commitment towards attainment of set targets.
During the period of change in CAPCO, the different leadership styles proposed by various authors have a significant impact on the on motivation of the workforce in the CAPCO. It is noticed that whenever any change take place in the organization, the people working over there resist such changes. The leadership style such as autocratic, democratic and transactional are followed by the CAPCO during the change occurred in an organization. These styles help CAPCO’s workforce to accept the change so occurred (Daft, 2014). These styles helps in removing the hesitation caused among the workforce due to such changes and motivate them to accept such changes willingly.
The autocratic style implied by the CAPCO within period of change, helps the leaders to make the employees to follow such changes strictly and accordingly without any denial or refusal. In this style of leadership, the employees are made with no choice. They have to accept the changes either willingly or forcibly (Devito.et.al, 2016). This leadership style ensures that the change is accepted in whole of the organization.
The democratic leadership style helps within period of change in CAPCO by motivating the workforce by giving opportunity to participate, to exchange freely their ideas about how to accept the change and the discussions are encouraged. This helps in bringing the positive attitude of the employees of CAPCO towards the change and also facilitates in removing the resistant of change in the organization (McColl-Kennedy.et.al, 2002). Employees feel happy and satisfied which help them to acknowledge the change in the organization willingly.
The transactional leadership style followed by the CAPCO during change helps in motivating the employees towards the change by using the reward and punishment system. This type of reward and punishment system encourages the employees to have a positive attitude towards the change and perform more effectively and efficiently according to the change.
3.2Comparison of the application of two motivational theories within the CAPCO organisation
Motivation helps in encouraging the workforce of CAPCO organization to be more productive and effective. Motivation is a procedure of inspiring employees to complete the goals and objectives of an organization. It provides a direction to the actions of the workforce. The psychological factors such as job satisfaction, success, desire for money, etc helps in stimulating the people’s behaviour in the organization. There are many types of motivational theories which are concerned with the processes that explain why and how human behaviour is activated. The two main motivational theories used in CAPCO for motivating the workforce are as follows:
Maslow’s Motivation Theory
Maslow’s motivation theory or Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was proposed by the Abraham Maslow in 1943. He describes the pattern of human motivations usually followed. According to this theory, there is a hierarchy of human needs which helps in satisfying and motivating the workforce in the organization. The hierarchy consist of physiological need, safety need, love and belonging need, esteem need and finally self actualization need. According to Abraham, these needs should be fulfilled in a sequence for directing the behaviour of human resources in CAPCO. CAPCO uses this theory to motivate the workforce over there by satisfying the needs according to the pyramid of Maslow’s theory (Maslow, 2013). CAPCO has been developed a variety of strategies to recognize employees’ needs appropriately so that they perform in more effectively and efficiently manner and high productivity can be attained by organization.
Herzberg Motivational Theory
The Herzberg motivational theory or Two- Factor theory was propounded by the Frederick Herzberg. Theory stated that there are certain factors present in the workplace which causes job satisfaction as well as job dissatisfaction among the employees. According to him, the job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction acts independently to each other. CAPCO uses this type motivational theory so that the workforce of the organization can be motivated with the help of job satisfaction. According to this theory, there are two types of factors present in the workplace which is responsible for bringing the job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction among the employees of an organization (Maslow, 2013). The two types of factors are as follows:
- Hygiene Factors: The hygiene factors are essential in the workplace for motivating the employees of CAPCO. Absence of hygiene factors in the workplace may result in job dissatisfaction among the employees. The hygiene factors include physical working condition, pay, fringe benefits, job security, etc.
- Motivation Factors: The motivation factors in workplace help an organization to motivate the employees in a right direction for achieving the goals and objectives efficiently and effectively. The motivation factors include promotion opportunities, recognition, achievement, opportunity for personal growth, etc.
3.3 Necessity of managers to understand and apply motivation theories within the workplace
Motivation is the process which helps in directing the way and providing a positive attitude towards the employees for successful attainment of organizational goals and objectives. In every organization like CAPCO, the process of motivation is must because it helps in guiding and satisfying the workforce in the organization which in result helps in improving and increasing their productivity level (Northouse, 2015). The employees in any organization are the most valuable asset of it and they form a basis for achieving the targets of the organization. Proper motivation of employees helps the organization to sustain in the competitive environment. Thus, there is a need of manager to understand the motivational theories properly and apply them within the workplace accordingly.
According to a study it is observed that if the internal factors such as human resources of CAPCO are satisfied and happy then it will automatically results in attaining customer satisfaction. The managers are the one in the organization who understand the employees or the workforce closely and it is his responsibility to study the motivational theories thoroughly so that it can be applied in the workplace accordingly for achieving greater productivity from the employees. Lack of proper understanding of motivational theory may results in unsuccessful attempt towards motivation of employees (Zhao and Zhu, 2014). Different motivational theories have different concepts and they have to be applied according to the situation prevailing in the organization. Like for example, if manager considered incentive as a factor for motivating the employees then this will result in unnecessary increase in cost of organization. It is responsibility of the manager to choose such factors which will bring the feeling of job satisfaction among the employees and also it does not add an additional cost to organization and increases the production level.
4.1 Nature of groups and behaviour of groups at CAPCO
There are majorly two types of groups have been identified within organization that has significant impact on the behaviour of organization and contribute in achievement of business objectives. According to analysis, it is been identified that CAPCO has formal and informal groups within organization that are responsible for managing the business activities according to define structure and culture of organization. The team members are performing the activities assigned by the top management which become mutually depended on the other for completing the action. Formal groups of CAPCO are define by the top management according to structure and common skill set of staff members as well their behaviour also stipulated according to organizational goals (Sinha and Trivedi, 2014). For example, the formal groups of CAPCO like accounts department are major part of organizations that are performing the task according to organizational structure. The level of communication and coordination is high among these groups as well deliberately performing the assign duties. This kind of approach of formal groups within CAPCO is key element of gaining the success as well developing the positive and healthy working behaviour of organization that helps to maintain the positive relations. Moreover the other formal groups of CAPCO are committees and task forces that are performing the specific project following the process to meet the objectives.
Informal groups are not formally build up and do not have organizational identity. These kinds of groups are formed by employees in workplace response to common interest of people along with work assistance and social interaction. For example, people who have similarity in interest, language and religion are connected with each other at workplace and completing the work by getting the support (Miner, 2015). These groups are not officially designed and developed by CAPCO but personal and social relations are respected and understood by the management. These kinds of groups have significant impact on the organizational behaviour as the coordination among the people from different departments improves the work culture, flexibility and environment of CAPCO which is essential for developing the object oriented approach.
4.2 Factors that promote and inhibit the development of effective teamwork
Team working is essential element for organization to develop the effective work culture and maintain the operational activities according to benchmarking standard to achieve the objectives. CAPCO is one of the leading financial sector organizations that offering the quality services with the help of different teams at workplace. According to evaluation of team working at CAPCO following factors have been identified that promote and inhibit the team work:
Factors that promote teamwork:
- Communication: An effective teamwork is being helped by the apparent and open-ended communication. The team member of CAPCO are offering the respect to the value of other and managing the work by supporting in tasks. Moreover, the managers of department and HR are organizing the meetings and events to improve the interaction of staff members or specific teams which helping to promote the team working (McEvily.et.al. 2014). The open conversation and input in the decision making process of CAPCO is encouraging the team culture at workplace which is beneficial for organizational behaviour and approach for achieving the targets.
- Leadership: For developing and managing a good team, leadership plays critical role. According to analysis, it is been identified that leadership inspire the staff members and support collaboration by coordinating the efforts of team members during the team meetings at CAPCO. Leadership is key factor for promoting the team working by encouraging the energy, stress tolerance, developing self-confidence and increasing the emotional maturity that helps to build integrity in the team functioning and improves the contribution of staff members in the team working (Harmon, 2015). For example, the managers of CAPCO are leading the teams by focusing on the needs of individual and groups and supporting them to involve in the planning of organization to achieve the objectives more convincing and professional manners.
Factors that inhibit the team-working:
- Group size: It is difficult for management to determine the fix size of teams at workplace. However the team capacity improves the process of working but the large size of groups increase the complexity as well the issues that might inhibit the team working. In general terms the smaller size groups are more effective than the larger ones. For example, large groups at CAPCO are creating the problem in decision making as team members have different opinions which creates the conflict situation (Carlson, 2013). Moreover, participation of formal and informal groups also affect the team working as interest of individual and organization objectives may differ sometimes which inhibit the team working.
4.3 Evaluation of impact of technology on team functioning
Organizations are being dependent on the power of technology. Various technological facilities such as mails, cell phones, computer systems are offering the efficiency in the operation of CAPCO. Technology based mediums are facilitating CAPCO members to communicate in time and effectively to regulate the organizational activities. For team function it is important to have the better communication and sharing of important information with key members of organization to maintain the flow of operations as well planning of issues that have major impact on the team working. CAPCO is using the advance communication and financial tools for managing the operations as well monitoring of staff members at work place which has positive impact on the process of working (Aydin, 2015). For example, CAPCO management has implemented the computers and having communication with the staff member using the emails which helping to directing the teams more appropriate manners and developing the two way communication within organization which is beneficial for analysing the perceptions of staff members as well influence the decision making at ground level.
Use of technology in operations of organization is reducing the effort and investment on approaches on traditional mechanisms. Cell phones are offering the mobility in communication and connecting peoples those are far away from each other. Addition to it, personal computing devices is helping employees to digitalize their task and methods to enhance the performance and the quality in work.
From the study, it is been considered that organizational behaviour has significant impact on the process of working and managing the operations considering the objectives. Report had provided the detail information about the difference and similarity in the structure and culture of CAPCO and Tesco as well identified the factors that have significant impact on the behaviour of individual. In the next task, report has discussed about the theories for motivation and management of work. Leadership plays important role in the planning of business and utilization of resources to set the positive behaviour of organization. Moreover, report has compared Maslow and Herzberg theories as well the nature of groups at CAPCO that have direct impact on the team working. At the end, report has explained the factors that promote and inhibit the team working as well use of technology for better team functioning.
Books and journals
Alfes, K., Shantz, A.D., Truss, C. and Soane, E.C., 2013. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The international journal of human resource management, 24(2), pp.330-351.
Argote, L., 2015. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm An Attractive Organizational Theory. Journal of Management Inquiry, p.1056492615572538.
Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Avolio, B.J. and Yammarino, F.J. eds., 2013. Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. Emerald Group Publishing.
Aydin, A.M., 2015. The influence of task and time on information behaviour in organisations (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leeds).
Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2015. Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA.
Carlson, M., 2013. Performance: A critical introduction. Routledge.
Chou, P., 2014. Does Transformational Leadership matter during Organizational Change?. European Journal of Sustainable Development,3(3), p.49.
Daft, R.L., 2014. The leadership experience. Cengage Learning.