Unit 7 Research Skills Assignment

Unit 7 Research Skills Assignment

Unit 7 Research Skills Assignment

Program

Diploma in Computing System and Design

Unit Number and Title

Unit 7 Research Skills

QFC Level

Level 4

Task 1 Understand different research methodologies

1.1 Assess different research methodologies with regard to the case study; online Shopping in the United Kingdom

Research methodology: The research skills program covers the detailed explanation of the techniques or methods used for the purpose of gathering the data required for conducting the research in a better manner. For the purpose of collection of data related to online shopping in United Kingdom mixed approach has been used.

Research approach: for the collection of information mixed approach has been selected which contains use of qualitative as well as quantitative approach. It uses primary as well as secondary sources of data collection for the purpose of collection data so as to produce reliable results (Charoensuk, et. al., 2014).

Research questions: Research questions are framed with a motive to gather information related to the research topic. Research questions for this program are as follows:

  • What are the impacts of online shopping over the buying patterns or preferences of the individuals and families in United Kingdom?
  • What are the impacts of online shopping on the different stakeholders?
  • Which factors affect the buying patterns of the customers in United Kingdom?

Data collection and analysis: 

  • Primary data: primary data can be understood as the raw form of data which has been gathered directly from the respondents. It has helped in the presentation of the views of the respondents about the research. It is less reliable form of data as it is based on the judgement of the respondents.
  • Secondary data: secondary data can be understood as the data which has already collected, analysed by others for their work.Secondary sources have helped in providing reliability or authenticity to the research by providing authorised data which has been collected from the internet, books, journals or notifications issued by different authorities. It provides more reliable form of data.
  • Data collection: for execution of the research, data related to the research gets collected so as to present the data.
  • (Questionnaire is in appendix)
  • Targeted market: data gets collected from the respondents and for this there is a need to identify the targeted market. For the purpose of this research the targeted market is the customers.
  • Limitations: The major limitations faced during the execution of this research include short span of time due to which sampling technique has been used for the analysis, evaluation and interpretation of the data, lack of resources has affected the process of data collection and permission for using the data and limited financial resource.
  • Ethical issues: This research has been carried out from the data collected from the customers and from the offline stores and the confidentiality of the data of these respondents have been maintained so as to provide safety. The interest of the society or any stakeholder has not been harmed during the execution of this research and the data is presented in a fair manner.
  • Access issues: for the use of the data collected in the research, permission is required so as to execute the research by accessing the data. This permission is required as the data collected by others can’t be used within their permission.
  • Time scale: Research need to be completed within the time frame so as to execute in a successful manner.

Action plan

Sequence

Activities performed

Initiation date

Time slot

Completion date

Description

A)

Formulation of plans

05 July 2016

3 days

07 July 2016

Plans are framed so as to execute the further activities.

B)

Implementation of plan

08 July 2016

12 days

19 July 2016

Plans are implemented as per the framed plans

C)

Collection of data

20 July 2016

8 days

27 July 2016

Data required for the research is collected by using primary and secondary sources.

D)

Evaluation

28 July 2016

4 days

31 July 2016

The data collected is evaluated.

E)

Conclusion and recommendations

01 August 2016

3 days

03 August 2016

Conclusion is drawn and recommendations are made.

Gantt chart

Gantt chart

1.2 justify the use of a research methodology to be used for the research proposal

There are various methods or approaches used for the collection of data in this research. These methods and approaches have helped in the completion of the research. Mixed approach has helped the research by providing benefits of both qualitative as well as quantitative data. Random sampling technique has been used for the analysis of the data has helped in drawing the conclusion on the basis of the analysis and evaluation of the research. An action plan has been prepared so as to cover the guide which helps in providing a direction to the research.

1.3 discuss the importance of both qualitative and quantitative data in research.

Quantitative data refers to the source of data which helps in the collection of the data in large quantity so as to produce the variety of information gathered for the research. For the collection of quantitative data primary sources of data collection have been used which helps in the collection of the variety of reactions directly collected from the respondents. Qualitative data refers to the source or form of data which helps in the collection of data of high quality. It uses secondary sources of data collection which helps in the collection of reliable and authentic form of data.

1.4 explain the problems that can arise when undertaking research

While executing this research few problems can arise. These problems can be due to the lack of the availability of the resources and access to the resources. Time available for the execution of the research was limited due to which sampling techniques were used. The responses of the respondents were based on their own judgement which has affected the data collected for the information. Another problem faced during the execution of the research program was of the authority to use information of the others as the permission was not given.

Task 2 Know how to conduct a literature review

2.1 justify the use of research sources

Literature review: Online shopping can be understood as a form of electronic commerce which facilities an individual to make purchases over the internet from the sellers directly. In the recent years, the number of customers using online shopping is increasing at an increasing rate due to variety of reasons. The concept of online shopping was introduced by Michael Aldrich in 1979. It is becoming important element in the lives of people. The availability of the products or services is not limited to certain types of products or services. Every type of product or service is available over the internet (Ramachandran, et. al., 2011). It provides various benefits to the customers. With the change in the environment and technology online shopping is getting more importance in the lives of people. It has both negative as well as positive impacts over the various stakeholders. Online shopping sites are using various measures or ways for the purpose of attracting the customers. These measures include offering wide variety of products or services at a single place which helps the customer by providing easiness and comfort for buying the product or service (UK, 2012).

Internet has various uses and online shopping is one of those uses. Online shopping has changed the perceptions of people towards the use of internet and shopping over the internet while sitting at home. The aspect of contract related to online shopping affects the different stakeholders of the society in different ways. This research focuses over the identification of the buying behaviour or preferences of the individuals or families in United Kingdom. There are various factors of online shopping which affects buying behaviour of the individuals (Kim, et. al., 2013). Online shopping is the innovation in the offline shopping patterns which has influenced the customers. With the changing environment, technology is changing and in the behaviour of individual there is an increase in the number of people preferring online shopping as it provides flexibility and easiness to the customers for buying a product. Variety of products and services are available over internet which can be compared with the other products so as to evaluate the most suitable product or service (UK, 2010).

This research program has been conducted on the online shopping in the United Kingdom so as to analyse the popularity of online shopping and its impact over the market and over the preference or buying patterns of the individuals and families of United Kingdom. For the better understanding of the different elements related to online shopping in the United Kingdom an online store located in United Kingdom has been chosen named as “Debenhams” which was founded in 1778 by William Clark and renamed in 1813 as Clark & Debenhams(Debenhams UK). Its headquarter is located in London, England, United Kingdom. It is operating its stores at 178 locations in UK, Denmark and Ireland as well as online. It offers variety of products to its customers and these products include clothing, furniture and household items. 

Online shoping

This section of the report discusses the various positive impacts and negative impacts of online shopping over the stakeholders, factors which affects the buying behaviour and preferences of the individuals and families in United Kingdom.

Positive impacts of online shopping

  • Easiness, flexibility and safety: online shopping offers services to the individuals while sitting at home which provides easiness. And the products can be exchanged or refund can be taken if the product is not as per the requirement (Dai, et. al., 2014).
  • Saves time and efforts:Shopping at home reduces the time, efforts and money involved in visiting an offline store.
  • Variety of products and services: the products available at online store have different features and large number of products helps in selection of the most appropriate product.
  • Fewer crowds: Online stores have fewer crowds in comparison to the offline stores (Mosteller, et. al., 2014).
  • Facilitates comparison: The products available on online stores facilitate comparison with the same type of products.
  • Virtual money: it is safe as the payment methods are different and it involves virtual money.
  • All time availability: the services of online store are available at every time of the day (Tsao & Tseng, 2011).

Negative impacts of online shopping

  • Hidden charges: there are hidden costs involved such as shipping charges or delivery charges.
  • No bargaining: it reduces the bargaining power of the customers or of an individual.
  • Quality of the product: Quality of the product can be different from the one shown on the site (Hasan, 2016).
  • Lack of Instant Gratification: the product takes at least one day time to get delivered to the individual.
  • No sales assistance: in online stores no sales assistance is provided to the individuals.
  • Security threat: there is a threat to the confidential data or the details of the cards in online shopping (Nili, et. al., 2013).
  • Lack of tangible nature: The products or services offered in online shopping are in virtual form which cannot be touched or felt till the delivery of the product takes place (Salehi, et. al., 2011).

Factors which affects the buying pattern or behaviour and preference of the individuals

  • Purchasing power: the purchasing power of the individuals affects the buying behaviour of the individual (Gong, et. al., 2013).
  • Group influence: the buying behaviour or preference of the individual gets affected by the groups, culture or trend prevailing in the market or business environment or surrounding.
  • Personal preferences: The choice or taste of every individual differs from each other and the buying behaviour also gets affected due to it.
  • Economic conditions: economic conditions of the country affect the buying behaviour of an individual (See-To, et. al., 2014).
  • Marketing campaigns: the promotional techniques used by the online shopping sites also affect the buying pattern of the individuals.
  • Offers and discounts: discounts or offered provided by the online shopping stores attracts the individuals towards it.
  • Prices: the pricing policies of the online shopping stores affect the buying behaviour of the individual(Bralic, et. al., 2014).

2.2 evaluate the importance of using primary information sources

The main motive behind using primary data is to gather and use the data or information collected from the respondents directly. Primary sources help in the collection of the information or reaction of the respondents which is based on their own judgement and decision. This form of data collection has helped in the data collected from the respondents with the help of surveys. Surveys get conducted in different forms which collect information related to the research. Survey gets conducted with the help of interviews and questionnaires.

2.3 describe a recognised system for referencing

There are various systems for the purpose of referencing the source. Referencing the source is an important aspect which helps in the identification of the source from where the data or information has been taken and used in the research. For the purpose of this program, Harvard style of referencing has been used in this research. References help identification of the source of the data used in the program. Referencing helps in provides protection against the plagiarism and shows an understanding of the program.

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Task 3 Be able to present a research proposal

3.1 present a research proposal to a defined audience utilising appropriate survey techniques

Research proposal

Research title: Online shopping in the United Kingdom

Background to the research: online shopping can be understood as a form of electronic commerce which facilities an individual to make purchases over the internet from the sellers directly. In the recent years, the number of using online shopping is increasing at an increasing rate due to variety of reasons. The concept of online shopping was introduced by Michael Aldrich in 1979. It is becoming important element in the lives of people. The availability of the products or services is not limited to certain types of products or services. 

Online shoping 1

Research problem: the trend of online shopping in United Kingdom is increasing at a very fast speed. It has different impacts over the different stakeholders. Information need to be gathered so as to understand the impacts. For the better understanding of these impacts of online shopping over the society this research program has been carried out

Aim: the aim or motive behind the execution of this program is to understand the increasing popularity of online shopping in the United Kingdom.Online shopping has various aspects which affects the society in a positive as well as negative way.

Objectives: objectives are the goals decided so as to gather information about the research and to complete the research program in a successful manner. Objectives for this research are as follows:

  • To evaluate the buying trends and preferences of the individuals and families in United Kingdom.
  • To identify the factors that affects the buying trend or preference of the individuals and families in United Kingdom.
  • To analyse the effect of online shopping over offline shopping and over the market.

Literature review: Internet has various uses and online shopping is one of those uses. Online shopping has changed the perceptions of people towards the shopping. The aspects related to online shopping affects the different stakeholders of the society in different ways. This research focuses over the identification of the buying behaviour or preferences of the individuals or families in United Kingdom. There are various factors of online shopping which affects buying behaviour of the individuals. Online shopping is the innovation in the offline shopping patterns which has influenced the customers.

For the better understanding of the different elements related to online shopping in the United Kingdom an online store located in United Kingdom has been chosen named as “Debenhams” which was founded in 1778 by William Clark and renamed in 1813 as Clark & Debenhams(Debenhams UK). Its headquarter is located in London, England, United Kingdom. It is operating its stores at 178 locations in UK, Denmark and Ireland as well as online. 

Online shopping 2

Positive impacts of online shopping

  • Easiness, flexibility and safety
  • Saves time and efforts
  • Services at home(Mosteller, et. al., 2014)
  • Variety of products and services
  • Less crowd
  • Facilitates comparison
  • Virtual money(Tsao & Tseng, 2011)
  • All time availability

Negative impacts of online shopping

  • Hidden charges
  • No bargaining
  • Quality of the product (Nili, et. al., 2013)
  • Lack Of Instant Gratification
  • No sales assistance
  • Security threat(Salehi, et. al., 2011)
  • Lack of tangible nature

Factors which affects the buying pattern or behaviour and preference of the individuals

  • Purchasing power(See-To, et. al., 2014)
  • Group influence
  • Personal preferences
  • Economic conditions
  • Marketing campaigns
  • Offers and discounts
  • Prices (Bralic, et. al., 2014)

Online shopping 3

  • Research methodology:  This section of the program covers the detailed explanation of the techniques or methods used for the purpose of gathering the data required for conducting the research in a better manner.
  • Research approach: for the collection of information mixed approach has been selected which contains use of qualitative as well as quantitative approach(Charoensuk, et. al., 2014).
  • Research questions: research questions are framed with a motive to gather information related to the research topic. Research questions for this program are as follows:
    • What are the impacts of online shopping over the buying patterns or preferences of the individuals and families in United Kingdom?
    • What are the impacts of online shopping on the different stakeholders?
    • Which factors affect the buying patterns of the customers in United Kingdom?

Data collection and analysis

  • Primary data: primary data can be understood as the raw form of data which has been gathered directly from the respondents.
  • Secondary data: secondary data can be understood as the data which has already collected, analysed by others for their work.
  • Data collection: for execution of the research, data related to the research gets collected so as to present the data.
  • Targeted market: data gets collected from the respondents and for this there is a need to identify the targeted market.
  • Limitations: the major limitations faced during the execution of this research include short span of time, lack of resources and permission for using the data and limited financial resource.
  • Ethical issues: This research has been carried out from the data collected from the customers and from the offline stores and the confidentiality of the data of these respondents have been maintained so as to provide safety.
  • Access issues: for the use of the data collected in the research, permission is required so as to execute the research by accessing the data.
  • Time scale: research need to be completed within the time frame so as to execute in a successful manner.

Action plan

Sequence

Activities performed

Initiation date

Time slot

Completion date

Description

A)

Formulation of plans

05 July 2016

3 days

07 July 2016

Plans are framed so as to execute the further activities.

B)

Implementation of plan

08 July 2016

12 days

19 July 2016

Plans are implemented as per the framed plans

C)

Collection of data

20 July 2016

8 days

27 July 2016

Data required for the research is collected by using primary and secondary sources.

D)

Evaluation

28 July 2016

4 days

31 July 2016

The data collected is evaluated.

E)

Conclusion and recommendations

01 August 2016

3 days

03 August 2016

Conclusion is drawn and recommendations are made.

Gantt chart

Gantt chart 1

3.2 Discuss the role of ethics in research

Ethics plays a vital role in every aspect. Research need to be conducted in a fair and true manner so as to execute the activities of the research within the ethical framework. Execution of the activities of the research within the ethical framework helps in complying with the ethical rules and operating in a fair manner without creating adverse impact over the others. For this program the concept of ethics have been followed as the data collected has been used and presented in a fair manner so as to maintain the reliability of the data and to present the actual data or views or reactions of the respondents.

References

"UK: Online clothes shopping reaches new high", 2012,just-style.com, 
"UK: Online fashion shopping grows despite recession", 2010, just-style.com, 
Bralic, A., Jadric, M. & Cukusic, M. 2014, "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH STATIC-PRICE ONLINE GROUP BUYING", Ekonomska Misao i Praksa, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 65.
Charoensuk, S., Wongsurawat, W. & Khang, D.B. 2014, "Business-IT Alignment: A practical research approach",Journal of High Technology Management Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 132-147.
Dai, B., Forsythe, S. & Kwon, W. 2014, "THE IMPACT OF ONLINE SHOPPING EXPERIENCE ON RISK PERCEPTIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE INTENTIONS: DOES PRODUCT CATEGORY MATTER?", Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 13.
Debenhams UK. (n.d.). Retrieved August 03, 2016, from Debenhams: http://www.debenhams.com/
Gong, W., Stump, R.L. & Maddox, L.M. 2013, "Factors influencing consumers' online shopping in China", Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 214-230.
Hasan, B. 2016, "Perceived irritation in online shopping: The impact of website design characteristics", Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 54, pp. 224-230.
Kim, H., Suh, K. & Lee, U. 2013, "Effects of collaborative online shopping on shopping experience through social and relational perspectives", Information & Management, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 169-180.
Mosteller, J., Donthu, N. & Eroglu, S. 2014, "The fluent online shopping experience", Journal of Business Research Project,vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 2486.
Nili, M., Delavari, D., Tavassoli, N. & Barati, R. 2013, "Impacts of Utilitarian and Hedonistic Values of Online Shopping on Preferences and Intentions of Consumers",International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 82-92.
Ramachandran, K.K., Karthick, K.K. & Kumar, M.S. 2011, "Online Shopping In The UK", The International Business & Economics Research Journal (Online), vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 23.