Delivery in day(s): 5
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 3 Organisation and Behaviour – CAPCO Ltd
This report is developed in concentration with Organisation and Behaviour. Information regarding various aspects of organisational behaviour will be discussed in this report. This unit 3 organisation and behaviour assignment– CAPCO Ltd will provide information related with the employees of the organisation, importance of motivation at the workplace, importance of team work. Information regarding nature of team and team dynamics will also be shared in this report. With the help of this report organisation will be able to manage its internal process and will make sure that it could move on the path of success and sustainability.
CAPCO is a cutting edge company which serves the financial sector of UK on an international marketing basis. It employs over 2000 people in all over the world. Therefore, for such a big organisation it becomes necessary that it should manage its internal as well as external work process. Focusing on the internal process will help the organisation to maintain its decorum (Davidova, et. al., 2014). Serving such huge sector requires proper structure and culture so that work of the organisation could be managed in a proper manner. Structure and culture defines the work management system of the organisation and helps in building trust among the companies available in the market. Brief discussion and comparison of structure and culture of CAPCO will help in framing better understanding with the two aspects of organisational behaviour.
Organisational structure is the structure that defines the way in which activities are to be held like allocation of task, supervision of the employees and managing the coordination among the workers and work so that organisation could achieve its aims and objectives. There are various types of organisational structures like functional structure, divisional structure, matrix, process based structure and network structure (Wadongo, et. al., 2014). CAPCO uses functional structure so as to manage its workflow and workforce. Functional structure of CAPCO include headquarters of the company which manages different departments and people working in those departments like research and development, production, marketing, and account and finance department.
On the other hand TESCO is an organisation which holds the retail chains in the internal market. TESCO is working in a high competitive market as there are various key players in the retail market. Therefore, to ensure that work of TESCO could e managed in an effective manner it focuses on keeping a refined organisational structure so as to manage the workforce in a proper manner. Division structure is used by TESCO which is different from functional structure of CAPCO. Organisational structure of TESCO is divided into certain divisions in which it have a hierarchy of the people which defines the work of every individual working at the workplace. Structure of TESCO has a president who manages division of every product. Like division of product X, division of product Y and division of product Z. Each division has its R&D department, Manufacture department, Marketing department and Finance department and these departments looks after the work allotted to them and people working under them (Coffey, 2010).
Coming on to the culture of the organisations, to understand the culture followed by both the organisations it is necessary to gain information related which actually organisational culture is? The system that describes shared assumptions, values, and beliefs of the organisation and which helps the organisation to govern behaviour of people is known as organisational culture. CAPCO is a company which has a culture of hiring people from different diversity who are being chosen on the basis of their skills and abilities rather by the race, religion or community they belong. CAPCO believes in providing employee satisfaction and allow people to work freely in the organisation. Employees of CAPCO have freedom to talk with any of the authority and to share their issues. Authority of CAPCO believes in helping the employees and keeps them on priority (Karthick, 2010). These kinds of activities help the organisation to motivate its employees which ensures that they could help the organisation in attaining its goals and objectives. There are four basic cultures that are used by the organisations at workplace they are power, role, task and person. In these four basic cultures organisation focuses on person and tries that the people working in the organisation should work like a team and manage the work in a proper manner. On the other hand marketing planning of TESCO has a different organisational culture. TESCO believes that focusing on the work and role of the people will help in attaining the objectives of the company. Every individual working in the organisation is provided certain roles on which they have to work upon. This type of activity helps in managing the work effectively. TESCO has the culture of providing responsibility and certain roles which help them in managing their own work with the effect of which work could be processed more effectively and objectives of the organisation could be attained (Grublien?, et. al., 2014).
Organisational structure and culture are the two aspects of the business and are interconnected with each other. Both culture and structure have a great impact on the business. Link between the culture and structure of CAPCO is organisational behaviour. Both the aspects show the working behaviour of the organisation and works on the verge to manage the workflow as well as workforce. It can be seen that CAPCO has a formal structure but on the other hand its culture is to make people comfortable at workplace by providing them freedom to share their views and issues with the management. This shows that people working in the organisation will have to maintain the formal environment and will have to share their views in a formal boundaries (Ammersley, 2014). CAPCO believes in building effective relationship among the people and so believes that if people would work as a team then they will work more effectively and bring quality to the work.
This type of structure and culture of the organisation shows positive behaviour and helps in building trust among other companies present in the market. Structure and culture helps in developing positive perception of the company in the mind of the target customer with the effect of which company could ensure its success in the market (Aladwan, et. al., 2015).
In CAPCO individual behaviour gets influenced by various factors. These factors include:
There are various leadership styles that are used by CAPCO which are being used on the basis of the situation of the organisation. To manage the workforce, organisations can choose several leadership styles as it helps in managing internal decorum of the workplace. Gaining brief explanation regarding various leadership styles and comparison between them will help in developing better understanding with the aspects. Therefore, various leadership styles are as follows:
These were some of the leadership styles in which democratic and affiliative leadership styles were used by CAPCO (Wadongo, et. al., 2014). Comparing all the leadership styles the results that could be gathered are that all the styles focus on managing the work process and workforce. All the styles have single aim i.e. to maintain the decorum of the organisation and to help organisation to attain its targeted objectives.
There are various organisational theories that have had influence on the practices of management. These theories are provided to ensure that organisations could sustain and could manage its workforce as well as work process in a proper manner. A brief explanation of various theories will help in developing better understanding with various aspects.
1. Classical Approach
2. Human Relation Approach: This is the approach in which organisation focuses on building effective relation with the workforce. This approach aims at providing motivation to the employees working at workplace. Human relation approach helps the workforce at every step whenever is required. Keeping the employees happy is the main aim of this approach.
3. Contingency Approach: Contingency approach is a flexible approach in which modification at the workplace can be done according to the situation. To apply contingency approach it is necessary that management should gain information regarding the internal as well as external factors of workplace (Saini, 2013).
CAPCO focuses on human relation approach and believes that building healthy relation with the employees is one of the necessary aspects for the organisation. Management as well as leaders of CAPCO believes that helping the employees at every step will ensure effective productivity and will reduce employee turnover ratio with the effect of which organisation will be able to move on the path of success and sustainability.
Human relation Approach: Human relation approach is the approach in which organisation focus on the needs and wants of the employees. This approach aims at motivating the employees with the effect of which they could remain happy and a happy internal environment could be framed (Davidova, et. al., 2014). CAPCO believes that using human relation approach it will be able to help the employees and will be able to reduce employee turnover ratio. Such kind of activities helps in improving the image of organisation in the market. Healthy environment is build and people work more effectively and bring quality to the work they are processing out for the market. Organisational objectives can be obtained in an effective manner with the help of such approach. CAPCO ensures that each and every employee working in it should get motivated and appraise the employees for their hard work (Wadongo, et. al., 2014). Employees are appraised for their hard work and appraisal is provided in the form of rewards and recognition. These rewards could be either monetary or non monetary.
Contingency Approach: Contingency approach is the approach in which organisation focus on the performance of employees and aims at increasing the productivity of the workplace. Contingency approach is used by TESCO which aims at being more productive. TECSO uses flexible approach as the market of retail keeps on fluctuating so as to ensure that the sale of its products and services could be managed it remains productive and aims that its employees should work effectively. To fulfil the requirements of market CAPCO train its employees and makes sure that they should work more hard so that its objectives could be fulfilled. Such type of activity helps TESCO to fulfil the demands of the people present in the market and manage the supplies according to requirement of workplace (Nwankwo, et. al., 2013).
Different leadership styles helps in motivating the workforce. There are different leadership styles used by the leaders of organisation. It is required that leaders should make wise decision while choosing the leadership style as these styles are applicable according to the requirements of the organisation. Understanding various aspects of leadership style will help the leaders to choose appropriate leadership styles. Organisational change is an aspect which could affect the whole process of the organisation as well as employees working in it. It depends on the leader how he manages the situation and help employees to motivate in such kind of situation. A leader have to ensure that he should use appropriate leadership style so that he could motivate the employee and help them in performing better at the workplace. At the period of change leaders will have to work on various leadership styles (Karthick, 2010). These leadership styles are:
These were some of the leadership styles that have a positive impact on employees. These leadership styles help the organisation to motivate is employees and ensures that they could accept the change occurred in the organisation. At the period of change motivation becomes one of the most important aspects that helps to influence the people to accept the change (Saini, 2013). It depends upon a leader how he analyse the situation and use appropriate leadership style at workplace so as to motivate the employees to accept the change occurred or going to occur at workplace.
Motivation is the factor that stimulates the desires of an individual so that he could continually remain interested and committed to his job. These are the efforts made by the management so that an employee could help the organisation to attain its goals and objectives. It is necessary that management should work to motivate the employees so that they could ensure that employees of the organisation could work effectively and could remain attached with the workplace. There are certain motivational theories that are developed so as to provide information regarding why motivation is important at workplace (Davidova, et. al., 2014). Management of CAPCO should have proper set of information regarding these theories. It will help management to build effective relation with the employees working in CAPCO with the effect of which organisation will be able to bring quality in the work and will be able to attain its goals. Management of CAPCO will be able to develop better understanding by gaining information regarding Maslow’s theory of motivation and Herzberg theory. Comparison between both the theories will provide effective and appropriate information regarding what motivation is and how it helps the organisation to move on the path of success and sustainability.
Maslow’s theory of motivation is the theory which provides information regarding needs and wants of the people and how important it is for the organisation to fulfil them. According to Maslow needs of the people are attained in a hierarchy. After attaining each need employee moves to another stage of need (Ammersley, 2014). It is necessary that CAPCO should focus on the hierarchy which is being provided by CAPCO. This hierarchy will provide information regarding all the need that employee have while working at a workplace. This will help management to help the employees to attain objectives with the effect of which management can expect improved and quality work from the employees. Fulfilling the needs according to the Theory of Maslow will also help in building effective relationship between the employees and management of the organisation. Having good relationship with the employees creates healthy environment of the organisation. These kinds of activities also help in reducing staff turnover ratio and ensure smooth functioning of the business.
Coming on to the theory of Herzberg, this theory focuses on the hygiene factors attached with the employees working in the organisation (Coffey, 2010). According to Herzberg people working in the organisation gets motivated when there hygiene factors get fulfilled. These Hygiene factors include relationship of the management with the employees, job security, work conditions and salary/wages of the employees. According to Herzberg it is necessary that management working in CAPCO should try to build effective relationship with the employees, they should provide appropriate wages to the employees and should provide job security so that employees could remain motivated to work effectively in the organisation and could help the organisation in attaining its targeted goals and objectives. These are very simple aspects which are to be worked upon by the management. Management should try to involve the employees in decision making aspects and should take feedbacks from the employees on regular basis. Such kind of practices will help the organisation to build good relationship with the employees and will help in ensuring the success of the organisation (Saini, 2013). People getting emotionally attached with the organisation works more effectively at workplace and tries that the target and objectives of the organisation could be attained and do not prefer to leave the organisation.
Hence with the comparison of both the aspects it could be said that both the theories have same intention and motive for the organisation. Both the theories works on same base and somewhere have a common link. it is necessary that management of CAPCO should prepare the strategies so as to ensure that employees working at the workplace could remain motivated and work effectively at the workplace. Doing so will help the organisation to sustain and attain competitive advantage with the effect of which organisational objectives will be fulfilled and employee turnover will reduce (Grublien?, et. al., 2014).
Manger of an organisation works as a leader at the workplace. He plays a very vital as well as crucial role at the workplace. There are various aspects that are attached with the manager. He is a person in the organisation who has proper information regarding the employees working in the workplace. A good manager is one which could resolve all the issues of the employees and could motivate the employees to work more effectively at the workplace. For a manager it becomes necessary that he should have knowledge regarding each and every aspect of organisation and activities done by the employees working in the organisation. Understanding the importance of motivation is another aspect that is necessary for a manager. A manager should try to motivate the employees working in the organisation. Doing so will help the manager to build good relationship with the workforce (Aladwan, et. al., 2015). A manager should have good relation with the employees as if manager would have positive relation then employees will share their views with him and will provide information regarding internal processing of the business. A manager has a responsibility to motivate the employees working under him so that they could work effectively and could remain happy at workplace. To motivate the employees it is necessary that manager should have proper information regarding motivational theories and should apply the theory at workplace.
Manager of CAPCO should work on Maslow’s Theory of motivation. Understanding various aspects provided by Maslow will help the manager of CAPCO to understand the importance of motivation at workplace. Manager of CAPCO should try to gather the information regarding needs of people working at the workplace (Yahaya, et. al., 2016). Doing so will help the manager to prepare appropriate strategies in relation with fulfilling those needs and motivate the employees. Manager should try to focus on every step of the hierarchy and should match it with employee needs and performance of the employees. Such type of activities will help the manager to motivate the employees. Motivating employees will ensure that they will perform with quality at the workplace and will try to bring quality at the workplace. Such type of activity of manager will help in building positive relation between manager and employees working at the workplace. Therefore, It could be said that motivating employees is a most important aspects attached with the duties of manager (Davidova, et. al., 2014). It is necessary that manager should work various motivational theories and try to help the employees to motivate.
People working together in an organisation to attain same targets and objectives so that organisational goals could be fulfilled on time are known as group or a team of an organisation. It is a known thing that people in a team works more effectively and provide more quality to the organisation. It is necessary that organisation should on managing the groups and make sure that people working at the workplace should prefer to work in team rather working individually. Bringing people together to work as a team becomes very difficult for an organisation as at workplace people from different diversities works together, due to this reason they do not prefer to work with others and wants to work individually at the workplace. It is necessary that CAPCO should try to make employees understand that teamwork is necessary for the growth and will help in attaining their goals and objectives related with workplace (Wadongo, et. al., 2014). At the same time it is also necessary that CAPCO should understand nature of group behaviour within the workplace:
Nature of Group: Every individual working in the organisation has different set of objectives and targets understanding the behaviour of individual and nature CAPCO will have to form the groups. Groups in the organisation are of different nature these are as follows:
Dynamics of Group Formation: There are various reasons due to which groups are formed in the organisation. People work in the group to complete critical tasks and to bring quality in the work which they are processing out tp attains the objectives of organisation. Classical theory helps in developing better understanding with group dynamics. Manager could use classical theory to develop the group as well as group dynamics. Theory of proximity is another aspect that will help manager to develop effective set of understanding with the group dynamics of the workplace. Proximity theory helps in building emotional relationship among the people working in the organisation. Proximity theory develops the feeling of togetherness among the employees working at workplace with the effect of which they prefer to work together in the organisation (Pegler, et. al., 2012). Hence, it is necessary that manager of CAPCO should try to build effective relationship among the people working in the organisation and should try to build team according to the behaviour of people working at the workplace.
To promote effective teamwork at the workplace there are various factors that could help a manager in CAPCO. Teamwork makes the work easy and simple and brings quality in it. Therefore it becomes necessary that manager of CAPCO should work on building effective team and should try that people working in the organisation should understand the criticality of working together and help in improving the internal decorum of the business (Nwankwo, et. al., 2013). Various factors that may promote the development of effective teamwork at workplace are:
Technology is one of the aspects which help in improving the process of the organisation. Using appropriate and effective technology at workplace helps in improving the internal process of the organisation. In the same manner technology also helps in improving team work and helps the team to work effectively at the workplace. Using various technological aspects team could improve its internal aspects and could bring quality in the work which they are processing out. Some of the technological aspects that help in improving team work are:
It could be concluded that organisation should understand every aspects of the people working at the workplace. It is necessary that organisation should collect appropriate information related with the behaviour of people working at workplace. Manager of organisation should understand the criticality of motivation and team work at the workplace. He should try that people working in the organisation should remain motivated and should try to work in a team rather working individually. Organisation should appraise the workforce and should try to gather information regarding the issues they are facing at the workplace. A focus on behaviour of employees working at the workplace and providing appropriate solution to the issues of employees will help the organisation to move on the path of success and sustainability.
Aladwan, K., Bhanugopan, R. & D'Netto, B. 2015, "The effects of human resource management practices on employees’ organisational commitment", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 472-492.
Ammersley, R. 2014;2013;, "Constraint theory: A cognitive, motivational theory of dependence", Addiction Research & Theory, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1-14.
Coffey, V. (2010). Understanding organizational culture in the construction industry. London: Spon.
Davidova, J., Kokina, I. & Zarina, Z. 2014, "from knowledge management theories to practice in public organisations: towards a transdisciplinary approach (theoretical background)", European Scientific Journal, vol. 10, no. 31.
Grublien?, V. & Urbonait?, A. 2014, "Organizational culture strengthening and employee motivation improvement",Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 507-515.
Karthick, K. (2010). Organizationalbehavior. Mumbai [India]: Himalaya Pub. House
Nwankwo, B.E., Obi, T.C., Sydney-Agbor, N., Agu, S.A. & Aboh, J.U. 2013, "Influence of Pay Satisfaction and Length of Service on Organization Citizenship Behaviour of Bankers", International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 238-244.
Osborne, C. (2008). Leadership. London: DK Pub.
Pegler, Chris. 2012. Herzberg, hygiene and the motivation to reuse: Towards a three-factor theory to explain motivation to share and use OER. Journal of Interactive Media in Education 2012 (1): 4.
Saini, D.S. 2013, "Human Resource Management", Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 98-98.
Tracy, B. (2014). Leadership. New York, NY: AMACOM.
Wadongo, B. & Abdel-Kader, M. 2014, "Contingency theory, performance management and organisational effectiveness in the third sector: A theoretical framework", International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 680-703.
Yahaya, R. & Ebrahim, F. 2016, "Leadership styles and organizational commitment: literature review", Journal of Management Development, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 190-216.