Delivery in day(s): 5
Diploma in Computing System and Development
Unit Number and Title
Unit 22 Office Development
For an organization, data and human resources are the most valuable resource to grow and sustain. Without a proper management of information, it seems impossible to conquer the market. The Unit 22 Office Development Assignment will discuss the application of computer software in business processing to assist World Wide publishing organization. The office development will also justify the user requirements and accomplishment of user requirements in application which will be selected for organization. The office development will define the solution and implement it in organization to meet the business objectives. The office development will also present the test results of new system to show its effectiveness in workplace. It will clearly describe the achievement of user requirements in system and how it will enhance the business processing. Future demands and improvements are also listed for inclusion of better services in system. World Wide publishing is dedicated to publication of atlas, road maps and other traffic information and knowledge.
Applications are useful in business processing for higher performance and accuracy. World Wide Publishing needs to enter the orders for specific books and also need to process the invoice to customers. The invoice details are saved for later assistance to customers about delivery and services. All the work is manageable to organization except the use of picking list and distribution of atlas and road maps to customers and Oxford Warehouse. Organization can use number of software applications to enhance the workplace performance, accuracy and efficiency. Some of applications are discussed below to assist the organization in business processing:
Spreadsheet: The application uses the tabular organization of data for easy access and store of information. Spreadsheet also provides the set of useful functions to perform faster operations and smarter calculations with automatic process (Kirchmer, 2012). Spreadsheet will be useful for World Wide Publishing to store the data into tabular form which is effective for what-if analysis in workplace for weekly or monthly sales and profit. Modern spreadsheet tools has number of advance features like data formatting, functions to apply on data, arrangement of data into multiple sheets and tables within workbook, macro functions and data sharing into another formats etc. All these tools are effective to help the organization to automate the processing of picking list generate activity as most of calculations and data insertion will be automatically and error proof (Harris and Gulwani, 2011).
Database: World Wide Publishing can use database as the most robust and secure tool to manage the business processing because database has capability to store large amount of data with proper data organization and operations. It is also helpful to secure the access to database and to integrate the data with custom and other applications for organization. Database is useful for World Wide Publishing as it is easy to identify records from database. It will be helpful for organization to deliver the accurate data with high performance in operations (Elmasri and Navathe, 2011). Organization can easily generate monthly sales and summary for the operations with easy to use queries. Database also has high customization for data permissions so that users and access can be managed effectively. Organization can use Microsoft SQL server, Oracle, Access or any other application with desired graphical user interface. Use of database is beneficiary for organization for security and sharing purpose. Database guarantees data consistency and integrity in business mangement.
The organization is looking for the software system with capabilities to enter orders from multiple sources and can assist in picking list and invoices generate process. The existing process is somehow time consuming and effort demanding for organization to handle the daily business process. The report has proposed two applications those may be used in workplace to store and process business data with adequate implementation of data security and consistency.
Spreadsheet:Spreadsheet application like Microsoft Excel is effective for organization because organization is limited in number of employees, orders per day and static to management operations. In such constraints, Excel is good choice for organization to store the information into multiple sales. It is also user friendly and easy to use (Coronel and Morris, 2016). Major advantage with the use of Excel is that it does not need implementation of additional hardware and software to provide the facility of security and sharing among users. With limited number of employees and static processing of organization, Excel provides large library of functions and features to assist in business processing. Data storing, retrieval, calculation, printing and encryption are some of the features those are at requirements of World Wide Publishing and are available in Excel. It is simple but powerful for small size businesses. Forms and reports can be generated easily along with static data for monthly and annual business status.
Database: data can be stored and retrieved with more security and encryption. Database is effective choice for organization as they can store data in more consistent manner. The search and operations on multiple records is easy in database. Database will help the organization to keep the data protected under the user of system among multiple user accounts. Data permissions and rights roll backing, backup, enforce integrity, queries and export formats make the database as richer and smarter choice over Excel application (Gulwani.et.al.2012). But it may require professional knowledge to maintain and modify the database in changing business environment. It also needs the knowledge of database management system to process. The options like GUI and printing may not be available to organization if it chooses the minimal version of database application. Data redundancy and anomalies can be handled effectively to make the system error prone with database.
The system for business processing must need to meet the requirements of users as well as of business. Users of organization are not technically capable to deal with database applications. But they have the knowledge of Excel to regulate the business operations. User is expecting a form based graphical user interface which works as front end to deal with basic data storage mechanism. User requirements can be collected with the help of interviews, personal suggestions and feedbacks on present system in workplace. Main requirement with new system from user is to achieve a system which is user friendly to store the information and to process it according to business requirements without much input of effort. User also demands the system with the familiarity to existing system so they can integrate with new system. The user requirement involve in system design is necessary as employees will operate the system finally (Wiegers and Beatty, 2013). Therefore, the system should be according to their skills and operation methods. Organization needs new system to implement in workplace so that data can be stored and maintained effectively. Picking list and invoice generation is typical task for owner and employees as it includes a lot of calculation and data to be search from storage. The business demands the high performance with the input of less effort.
Organization is expecting a system which can aid the functionality of printing, report generation, invoice and picking list in business processing. World Wide Publishing has 5-15 orders per days and at last of day, need to generate the invoice copies and picking list which is manually consume a lot of business time and effort. Organization is required to implement automatic invoice and picking list generation at end of day. Addition to it, organization needs the better management of receipts and invoices in workplace those are also distributed and shared with Oxford Warehouse (Chung.et.al.2012). For instance, World Wide publishing sales the number of books via multiple mode of orders like on phone calls, mails and to wholesale retailers. At the end of day, organization needs to calculate the total number of books and total price along with right address and time to deliver. Organization sends the information with books to Oxford Warehouse along with invoice copies and picking list. For the distributed items, Oxford Warehouse also needs to feedback the receipts to organization. In this manner, business requirements also need to be accomplished in system.
The organization can make business processing effective with the use of Excel application for the performance and productivity in workplace. Most of activity includes the processing of orders and invoice to manage in easy and well manner so that information can be retrieved later with same efficiency. From proposed system, Excel is recommended to use in workplace as it is capable to provide user forms and report generation functions to meet the requirement of users and organization. Excel will be used to generate the template for the invoice and picking list so that user can fill the information in the form and then click on save and print button to add the details to another excel sheet (Pohl, 2010). Excel provides macro function through which data of one sheet can be referenced and used another sheet of workbook. Sales table will hold the total number of sales per day and product table will contain the data about the products like product name, description and amount per unit. All this details can be referenced to invoice sheet to add most of data automatically like date of the day and tax. The Excel sheet for invoice and picking list is capable to calculate the total number of books and road maps along with total amount.
Excel is also selected as the solution for business processing in World Wide Publishing because users of the organization are not so skilled to handle other ERP system (De Lusignan.et.al.2012). Also in present context, organization has no such demand to implement complex and enterprise level software due to business constraints. The Excel is chosen for its simplicity, high performance and reliability for data. Information stored in sheets can be encrypted with password and the system. Excel offers the tools to create the sales pivot table and to generate form for data validation and verification during data insertion in tables. It means that user will get facility to insert the data in appropriate format. The limited business resources and user skills make the Spreadsheet or Excel as the best choice for organization to meet the requirements. Printing and record saving functionality can be added to sheets with use of macro business.
The software system for World Wide Publishing can be implemented with use of Microsoft Excel, Access and other tools. Al though, the Excel is already suggested as recommended tool for organization. The management of information and data presentation in excel is effective to use the analytical and static results into decision making process. With the use of advance tools and techniques, organization can achieve high performance, quality and productivity in work. Visual Basic language is used to create functions for Excel sheets to add the services and validation on data insertion. Macro programming code is by default not enable to keep the system and sheets safe from intentional and accidental loss (Benninga, 2010).
In excel macro can be enable to prompt he print dialog and to map the menu sheet as the first appeared sheet for user interaction. Macros are useful to add the programming capabilities on excel sheets for data manipulation and validation.
Visual Basic powered macros are used in Excel sheets for data availability among sheets and interconnectivity of sheets for data use. For instance, sales summery is generate with the use of macro. Macro code is saved for specific document to use it later in another month. Pivot table and forms can be made easily with the use of Excel tables and design tools. Invoice and Picking list use the macro functionality for easy access and better performance.
With visual basic code, date, tax amount and customer details can be placed automatically in report to facilitate the users to insert only the remaining data. Excel is effective to edit the data, prepare well decorated bills and reports and to save the data into manageable chunks. Al though, organization may prefer the use of custom software programs to generate more analytical graphs and pie charts (Kemmer and Keller, 2010). Custom software made in C, C++ or asp.net may be helpful to safe guard the data from direct operations as data validation and verification can be performed easily with customer intermediate interface. Cell formatting and table creations are other useful tools to implement the business requirements in excel.
Testing of designed system against the existing system is required to determine the capabilities, functions and acceptance of system in workplace. Testing of designed system will highlight the parts where organization has conquer the effort and time consuming processes effectively and added the functionality to business processing. There may be several number of testing patterns for World Wide publishing but the most convenient method is to test the system against the pre listed features and functions to meet performance and quality. The main objective of the testing is to determine the weaker sections of implementation along with successful implementations in system (Myers.et.al.2011). Test results for designed software solution are given below:
With word and other formats
Data can be shared in multiple formats
Testing results shows that the system is capable to meet the requirements of organization within cost and time constraints. Data sharing and accuracy is fully achieved over the expectations of organization and users but the security is implemented only for the single user as file is only locked in two manners- read only protection and open protection. Therefore, file must be kept secure from the access of users those are unauthorized and untrustworthy. The file cannot be opened without the passwords but it can be lost with deletion (Naik and Tripathy, 2011). Also the performance is partially achieved as the system crash in between the operations may lead the data loss. The testing indicate the successfulness of the system in World Wide Publishing organization as it is well rated on the expectations of business processing demands and users requirements.
In the given case of World Wide Publishing, end user engagement is taken in development work as well as in testing of system. Initially, users are guided and acknowledged for the system development so that user interest can be generated in development of more robust system. Users are interviewed, suggested and requested to plan their efficiencies and requirements in system design. Logical and physical data is collected from users to assume the design of system. Also the users are consulted on time to know the objection accomplishment in development process. User activities and working manner is noted in workplace to determine the functions and specifications for system design (Lehmann.et.al.2012). User requirements and contributions are always welcomed for enhancement in system. Implementation of system is also considered around the user demands and expectations from new system. This was requirement of organization to stay on the same processing of business in new system. New system is designed according to the activities on previous system. Most of users are feeling familiar with system as it is same to previous system for working. They are efficiently using system to take orders, feed information and to generate the invoices.
Al though the generation of pivot tables on monthly sales and picking list preparation is new for users and they seem to have difficulties. Proper arrangement of training programs and guidelines are created to keep the employees interested in new system. Training is helping them to receive the practical knowledge about the system usage and features to meet their requirements (Fischer, 2012). During training and development, the user requirements are being collected and resolved with some changes in system or by suggesting the achieving method in Excel sheets. Users are also involved during the testing of systems for few days to enhance the system design and functionality according to their usage style. End user engagement was necessary to make the system acceptable at workplace. Users helped development team to be familiar with working patterns and conditions to implement new system effectively. Organizational timing for work and contribution in project was awesome to meet the objective within time with minimum roll back activities.
Utilization and usage methods of new system are announced to users to assist them in starting with new system. The management of World Wide Publishing helped a lot to motivate the employees in development and use of system for high productivity and high accuracy in work (Talwar.et.al.2011). Feedback and questionnaires are organized in workplace to involve the non technical staff of organization into design of system with mapping of their ideas and requirements. End user engagement is possible with the planning of organization to arrange the human resources in workplace to regulate the work parallel to contribution in design of system.
The existing system of World Wide Publishing was not capable to generate the picking list and invoice. It was also lacking the feature of printing and pivot table. The use of excel application in workplace has helped the organization to achieve high productivity along with high accuracy. The forms are used in Excel to insert and update the information in table where every column is well formatted to store the information. For instance, a date column of sales sheet does not contain the values those may be price or quantities. Also the incorrect data format is not acceptable in sheet without conversion. Excel has helped the organization to save the data in more manageable and accessible manner (Zhang and Budgen, 2012).
Users were afraid with the working of new system but the system has reserved the operating rules and practices in implementation of Excel. The system is designed with aid of functionality to enhance the performance of employees. For instance, during the generation of invoice or picking list, employees only need to feed the remaining information in sheet as dates, customer name and details, product descriptions, tax are inserted automatically with use of macros (Jenkins.et.al.2010). Also the most of calculations of monthly or weekly sales can be done simple click or selection. Data columns and cells are formatted well to remove the anomalies in operations on data.
For the organization World Wide Publishing, the business processing improved majorly in following manner:
Users of organization are sharing data and information easily due to electronic sharable format of data. Most of business time and effort is saved to contact each other for particular information or use of information as it can be checked from system.
However, the system is designed as the best service under the business constraints and budget of World Wide Publishing but few changes can be made in it to meet future requirements. It is possible that organization move on to scalable and flexible working environment where the system will not be so effective for features and benefits. With time and demands, following changes are possible with designed system to meet the objectives of organization processing and users:
Recognize the system robustness: With time it must be noted how the system is capable to handle the certain task and responsibilities without being disrupt and malicious. Any activities in system those are being reason of crash or data lose must be identified and resolved with development team (McMinn, 2011). Users are requested to note down or feedback the errors, bugs, security holes and lacked features to development team for improvements in system. Also the supplementary tools required along with excel must be identified in system through the usage of system.
Business needs: The workplace conditions and business approaches of World Wide Publishing are constant but they will be changed with time to sustain in market. it is possible that the system may not be capable to handle the dynamic business processing with limited features and functionality. New business requirements must be resolved and compared to system to determine the need of system improvement. For instance, organization may needs to share the excel sheets with number of user simultaneously. It may require sharing function to be enables or to implement the system on online services. The need of better encryption also may be reason behind the improvement in system over time (Wang.et.al.2012).
User trends: With time, organization may be influence from the employee turnover and arrangements from or within workplace. In such conditions new set of employees may not be comfortable with use of existing business approach and processing. They may demand some changes and features for their easy access. User trends may bring the improvements in workplace. For instance, requirement of custom fields, macros and forms can be aided into system with some modifications.
The report has been concluded the usefulness of applications like spreadsheets and database to simplify the business processing in World Wide Publishing. The report has justified the use of application software in business processing along with description of user and business requirements. The report has design the solution to use in workplace and implemented it with advance tools and techniques available in Excel. Later, the system is tested for tested for the accomplishment of user requirements and expectations. For that, previous implemented system is compared with new system along with consideration of organization to determine the effectiveness in workplace. The report has identified the number of ways through which end user engagement can be increased in development and implementation of system. Also it has described how the system is capable to meet the requirements of business processing and organization. The report has been provided some future improvements and suggestions for the system those may be required to meet future goals of organization like scalability and flexibility decisions.
Books and Journals
Benninga, S., 2010. Principles of finance with excel. OUP Catalogue.
Chung, L., Nixon, B.A., Yu, E. and Mylopoulos, J., 2012. Non-functional requirements in software engineering (Vol. 5). Springer Science & Business Media.
Coronel, C. and Morris, S., 2016. Database systems: design, implementation, & management. Cengage Learning.
De Lusignan, S., Krause, P., Michalakidis, G., Vicente, M.T., Thompson, S., McGilchrist, M., Sullivan, F., van Royen, P., Agreus, L., Desombre, T. and Taweel, A., 2012. Business process modelling is an essential part of a requirements analysis. Contribution of EFMI Primary Care Working Group Yearb Med Inform, 7(1), pp.34-43.
Fenton, N. and Bieman, J., 2014. Software metrics: a rigorous and practical approach. CRC Press.
Fischer, G., 2012. End user development and meta-design: foundations for cultures of participation. End-User Computing, Development, and Software Engineering: New Challenges: New Challenges, p.202.
Gulwani, S., Harris, W.R. and Singh, R., 2012. Spreadsheet data manipulation using examples. Communications of the ACM, 55(8), pp.97-105.
Harris, W.R. and Gulwani, S., 2011, June. Spreadsheet table transformations from examples. In ACM SIGPLAN Notices (Vol. 46, No. 6, pp. 317-328). ACM.
Jenkins, W., Vilkomir, S. and Ballance, W., 2010, December. Fault Evaluator: a tool for experimental investigation of effectiveness in software testing. In Progress in Informatics and Computing (PIC), 2010 IEEE International Conference on (Vol. 2, pp. 1077-1083). IEEE.
Jorgensen, P.C., 2016. Software testing: a craftsman’s approach. CRC press.
Kemmer, G. and Keller, S., 2010. Nonlinear least-squares data fitting in Excel spreadsheets. Nature protocols, 5(2), pp.267-281.