Delivery in day(s): 5
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 22 Managing Human Resources
According to Mathis & Jackson, human resource management is defined as the design of formal systems within an establishment for ensuring productive as well as efficient utilization of human skill for the accomplishment of the goals in relation to the organization.
The HR activities is related with the aspect of HR Planning and Analysis, Equal Employment Opportunity, Staffing, HR Development, Compensation and Benefits, Health and Safety & Security as well as employee & labour management relations. The HRM Challenging aspects are associated with the availability of the workforce and quality, growth in contingent workforce, demographics and diversity issues, balancing work and family as well as organizational restructuring, mergers and acquisitions. The role of HRM is associated with administrative role, employee advocate role as well as operational role.
7 Areas of HRM
HR Planning – This area of human resource management is associated with the aspect of information as well as assessment.
Equal Employment Opportunity
Staffing – This area of human resource management is associated with the aspect of recruitment and selection.
Development– This area of human resource management is associated with orientation, training, career planning as well as management of performances.
Health, Safety & Security
Employee and Labor Management Relations (Buller, P. F., & McEvoy, G. M. 2012).
Equality and Diversity: Diversity is referring to the range of differences amongst the individuals as well as employee groups. To manage diversity, there is a requirement to recognize the wide variety of qualities that individuals are possessing in an establishment. (Mutua, S. 2012)
Equality is associated with the aspect of providing equal opportunity in regard of race, color, disability, sex, religion, nationality for treating qualifications that are based on work. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014).
Distinction between Equality & Diversity
Equality Act, 2010: The Equality Act 2010 is providing legal protection for individuals to safeguard them from getting discriminated in the workplace as well as in the broad society. The provisions that is associated with the Equality Act, 2010 takes into consideration the basic structure to provide safety against discrimination either directly or indirectly, from getting harassed as well as victimized regarding services as well as public functional aspects and so on. The Equality Act is also offering provisions related with disability, provisions related with work as well as provisions that is banning discrimination relating to age. (Buller, P. F., & McEvoy, G. M. 2012).
Different perspectives of Human Resource Management
High Performance Work Systems (HPWS): This is considered to be the set of management practices that are doing the promotion of autonomy, devolved responsibility as well as high performing working teams. This is a particular association of the practices of human resource that is maximizing the knowledge, skill, commitment as well as flexibility regarding the staffs. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014).
Training and Development: There has been the extension of training to additional staffs in the place of work from 2004, but there is shorter duration in respect of training. The satisfaction of employees in relation to training has however increased during this phase. Training has been cut by certain managers following recession as well as there as reduced levels of satisfaction in some places of work. According to a survey that was conducted, around one in every six workplaces (approx. 17%) reacted to recession through the reduction of the expenditure regarding training. The other ways by which the workplaces responded regarding recession was to freeze payment, delay recruitment, change the organizations relating to work as well as postponement of plans for expansion. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014).
Regarding the analysis of the needs for development, it can be stated that within the organizational levels, there is the requirement for skills as well as learning in respect of an organizations relating to the strategic aspect. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014). Regarding the problem centered approach, there is a focus on the problems related to performance as well as exploring whether the problems are arising because of the absence of skills. Regarding the competency profile centered approach, there is a need to match the competency profile of an individual regarding the job and it is more effective when an individual is new to a job. (Kehoe, R. 2013)
Methods of learning and development
Off-the-job: These are associated with the educational courses that include formal qualifications, NVQs or consultancy courses as well as in-house courses.
On-the-job: These are associated with managerial coaching that includes the internal or external, mentoring, relationships with the peer as well as individual development. Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014).
The evaluation of training and development as per Kirkpatrick’s is associated with the reaction level, learning level, behaviors as well as results whereas the evaluation of training and development as per Hamblin is associated with the evaluation of training, learning, changing aspects regarding job performance, changing aspects regarding organizational performance as well as changing scenarios towards the making of wider organizational contribution. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014).
Jackson Model Framework: The Jackson Model Framework comprises of three levels and within those three levels there are six stages. The first level is having two stages that are associated with the exclusionary organization as well as the club, the second level is having two stages that are associated with the compliance organization as well as affirmative action organization and the third level is also consisting of two stages that include the redefining organization as well as the multi-cultural organization. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014).
The Jackson Model Framework is also known as the Harvard Model of HRM. The Harvard Model is outlining the four policies of HR such as,
This gives rise to the actualization of the 4Cs such as commitment, congruence, competence as well as cost effectiveness. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014).
According to Guest, human resource management is considered to be a distinct approach towards the management of the workforce and provides the argument that even though personnel management will be selecting as well as training the employees, it is the distinct approach regarding selection and training that matters. The approach of human resource management is related with high performance as well as commitment rather than compliance. (Buller, P. F., & McEvoy, G. M. 2012).
This HRM model comprises of six dimensions of analysis such as HRM strategy, HRM practices, HRM outcomes, behavior outcomes, performance outcomes as well as financial outcomes. The model showcases the fact that human resource management is related with the strategic management regarding an organization, seeking commitment regarding organizational objectives, focusing on the individual requirements rather than the collective workforce, enabling establishments towards devolving power as well as having more flexibility and emphasizing individuals as an asset that can be used in a positive manner by an organization. (Buller, P. F., & McEvoy, G. M. 2012).
Strategies relating to human resource management for promoting employee health and safety
Relation of flexi- working with HPWS: Different aspects of HPWS like staffing, training as well as competition policies might be impacting flexi-working methods which are associated with the exploration of the staffs as well as modifying the current methods. Moreover, HPWS not only does the enhancement of the knowledge, skills and abilities aka KSAs regarding the organizational employees but brings a change to the perspective associated with employee relationship as well. HPWS is facilitating the development of bridging ties by using flexible work as well as self-managing teams and also facilitating simplified reciprocity norms with the help of selective staffing, training as well as above market pay. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014). HPWS might be creating as well as nurturing the environment where employees will be assuming a more active organizational role. For instance, flexi-working as well as self-management teams as part of HPWS will be motivating active behavioral roles through the empowerment of the staffs. (Gatewood, R. 2015)
When an individual is having a child under 6 years old, the person is entitled towards asking for a flexi-working time that includes the aspect of job sharing, work-from home, part-time, compressed hours, flexitime, annualized hours, staggered hours, as well as phased retirement. For getting an approval for flexible working, an employee follows certain steps such as writing to the employer, employer considering the request as well as making a decision within duration of three months, when the employers are agreeing to the request they should be changing the terms and contracts regarding the contract of the employees and when they are not agreeing then they are required writing to the staffs providing the business reasons in respect of the refusal. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014). There can be various reasons for the employer to reject the application of the employees regarding flexi-working that includes the aspect of extra costs that will be damaging the business environment, the reorganization of the work cannot be done among the other employees, recruitment of staffs cannot be done for doing the work, quality and performance will get affected by flexible working, the business will not be having the ability for meeting the demand of the customers and so on. (Budhwar, P. 2013)
As the HR, there is the need for putting certain arguments from the perspective of the employee as well as the employer when the latter will be refusing to give permission for flexi working. From the perspective of the employees, it can be stated that it will be increasing the morale, engagement as well as commitment of the staffs regarding the company, it will also be reducing the aspect of absenteeism as well as tardiness, it will be increasing the ability for recruiting excellent staffs as well as reducing the turnover of the valued employees. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014). On the other hand, from the perspective of the employers it can be argued that some employees might be taking the advantage of the flexi-working aspect, also the compressed work weeks will be making client handovers a complicated affair, thus reducing the effectiveness of the business.
Different strategic models for applying to people a HR works with are,
Hard & Soft HRM Models: The Hard HRM model is emphasizing the quantitative, calculative as well as the aspects of business strategy to manage human resources in a coherent manner whereas Soft HRM model is emphasizing on the aspects of communication, motivation as well as leadership. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014)
Contextual model of HRM: This HRM model is emphasizing on the significance of the environmental issues by taking into consideration the variables like social influence, forces that are institutional as well as political. This approach is considered to be extensive, doing the integration of the HRM process within the environment where its development takes place. In this regard, it can also be stated that there is the development of an extensive set of shareholders towards the aspect of formulating as well as implementing strategic aspects relating to human resource and is known as the structure of multiple stakeholder. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014)These are either external stakeholders or internal stakeholders and both are influencing as well as getting affected by the decisions regarding strategic aspects.
The matching model of HRM: This model is indicating that the management of human resource systems as well as the organizational structure is done in such a manner that is having congruence with the strategic aspect regarding the organization. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014)
European model of HRM: This model of HRM takes into consideration the aspects of environment that includes established legal structure, objectives that are associated with the organization as well as social concern in which individuals are regarded as an essential reserve, focus that is associated with the aspect of analyzing the cost and the environment as well, association with the line managers that are considered to be specialists, HR Specialists role that are also regarded as the specialist managers that takes into consideration the aspects of vagueness, tolerance as well as flexibility. This model is having the traits like conducting dialogue amongst the social partners, emphasizing on social responsibility, participating in the making of decisions as well as learning in a continuous manner. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014)
The 5-p’s model of HRM: This strategic model of HRM is taking into consideration the aspects of philosophy, policies, programs, practices as well as processes. The philosophy aspect is associated with the expression of statements to define values as well as cultures relating to business and also does the expression of the ways by which individuals are treated as well as valued. The policy aspect is associated with the expression of the values as well as guidelines that are shared in which the establishment of the guidelines take place in respect of action towards individuals in relation with issues regarding business as well as programs regarding human resources. (Berman, M. 2015) The program aspects are expressed as the strategy relating to human resource that is doing the coordination of the efforts for facilitating the changing scenarios for addressing significant business issues in relation with the individuals. (Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. 2014)The processes aspect is associated with formulating as well as implementing different activities defining in what ways activities occur.
Contra Arguments: In relation to Brexit, it can be stated that numerous laws relating to Britain are being prepared overseas with the passing of dictates from Brussels as well as upholding of rulings through the European Court of Justice and in this regard, it is necessary for the UK courts in having sovereignty once more. (Delahaye, B. 2015).
Moreover, if the aforementioned laws such as Equality Act, 2010 were no longer available then there would be the failure of the organizations to provide safety against discrimination either directly or indirectly, from employees getting harassed as well as victimized regarding services as well as public functional aspects and so on. (Delahaye, B. 2015). The Equality Act is also offering provisions related with disability, provisions related with work as well as provisions that is banning discrimination relating to age, which will also not be exercised if these laws are no longer available.
For reviewing the policy of human resource it can be stated that the appropriate policies regarding human resource that are completely used as well as understood across the establishment are considered important towards the improvement of diversity. Each and every staff is having the right for requesting flexible working and the various organizations are required having the policies for supporting this. It is to be ensured that each and every staff should acknowledge the alternatives regarding flexible working and that approach should be having the consistency as well as accommodating.
The Critical Incident Technique is required containing four stages that include the aspect of assumption, learning in action, learning on action as well as transfer of learning. The four level approach is depicting certain aspects in which assumptions is stating what is occurring regarding the task, learning in action is stating what was being learnt as progress started taking place, learning on action states what needs to be done in a different way if there is the need to start again and transfer of learning states where the learning will be used in an explicit manner within a project. (Delahaye, B. 2015).
A Critical Incident Technique is considered to be a set of procedures to collect direct observations regarding human behavior in a manner that is associated with facilitating their potential effectiveness to solve practical problems as well as develop broad psychological ideologies. (Delahaye, B. 2015).
Reflection is defined as an actively relentless as well as careful consideration regarding any belief or supposed information structure in the light of the grounds that will be supporting it as well as the further conclusion to which it will be tending. The perspectives of reflection is considered to be a common term regarding the intellectual as well as efficient activities where individuals are engaging towards the engagement of exploring their experiences for leading a new understanding as well as approval. (Delahaye, B. 2015). There exist two kinds of reflective perspectives viz. Reflection-in-action as well as Reflection-on-action. Reflection is also regarded as a method to review a practical experience for describing, analyzing, evaluating and therefore, provide information regarding practical learning.(Alfes, K. 2013)
There is a need to use reflection for deeper learning, practical theory, extending knowledge links, celebrating success, highlighting opportunities for learning, exploring thoughts and feelings, developing individual awareness, breaking automatic behaviors as well as informing practices for the future. (Delahaye, B. 2015). Regarding reflection, it can also be stated that prior to taking action, there is a need to make preparation as well as planning, while taking action there is a need to think on feet as well as making adjustment at the time, while on action there is a need to look back for finding a way ahead as well as for applying action, there is the need to find the place for applying the new insight.
Alfes, K., Shantz, A. D., Truss, C., & Soane, E. C. (2013). The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The international journal of human resource management, 24(2), 330-351.
Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Berman, E. M., Bowman, J. S., West, J. P., & Van Wart, M. R. (2015). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Sage Publications.
Budhwar, P. S., & Debrah, Y. A. (Eds.). (2013). Human resource management in developing countries. Routledge.
Buller, P. F., & McEvoy, G. M. (2012). Strategy, human resourcemanagement and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human resource management review, 22(1), 43-56.
Delahaye, B. (2015). Human resource development. Tilde Publishing.
Gatewood, R., Feild, H. S., & Barrick, M. (2015). Human resource selection. Nelson Education.
Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Han, K., Hong, Y., Kim, A., & Winkler, A. L. (2012). Clarifying the construct of human resource systems: Relating human resource management to employee performance. Human Resource Management Review, 22(2), 73-85.
Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Hu, J., & Baer, J. C. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of management Journal, 55(6), 1264-1294.
Kehoe, R. R., & Wright, P. M. (2013). The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Journal of management, 39(2), 366-391.
Mutua, S. M., Karanja, K., & Namusonge, G. S. (2012).Role of human resource management practices on performance of financial cooperatives based in Nairobi County, Kenya. International journal of Humanities and social science, 2(22), 289-297.
Snell, S. A., Morris, S. S., & Bohlander, G. W. (2015). Managing human resources. Nelson Education.