Delivery in day(s): 5
Diploma in Travel and Tourism
Unit Number and Title
Unit 20 Visitor Attraction Management
This assignment regarding visitor attraction management is discussing the different aspects of developing a person’s understanding in respect of visitor attractions, visitor types, impacts as well as tourist motivation theories, factors that affects its process of development as well as techniques of management and their influence regarding sustainability. There is the requirement for understanding the scope as well as significance of visitor attractions, understanding visitor types, impacts as well as theories of tourist motivation, understanding factors that influence the process of development in visitor attraction management as well as understanding the application of techniques of management as well as their influence regarding sustainability.
Visitor attractions are considered as natural locations or characteristics, objects or man-made constructions that are having a special attraction for tourists as well as local residents. In different destinations, particular attractions perform a role of motivation and are significant pull factors in respect of tourists in choosing their destination. As a matter of fact they are considered to be the most significant element regarding the tourism system. They are the major motivators in respect of trips for tourists and are the centre of the product for tourism. In the absence of tourism, there would be no requirement for other services of tourism. (Lancaster, 2010) It is therefore, very rightly stated that without the presence of attractions, there would be no existence of tourism.
Although there are different means for classifying attractions, the four major types of attractions that are identified are mentioned as under,
Based on the nature, size as well as location of attractions that are constructed, natural or based on events, attendance varies in a substantial manner but might be reaching significant numbers. Attractions can be classified with the support of ownership, capacity, market or catchment area, permanency as well as type. Different agencies might own as well as operating the visitors attractions that includes public entities, voluntary establishments as well as private individuals or organizations. (Ramaswamy, 2013) The public ownership include central government, government agencies, local authorities as well as state industries, the voluntary ownership include the charitable trusts as well as private clubs and associations as well as private ownership include individuals as well as partnerships, private organizations as well as corporations.
For analyzing the range, scope and variety of visitor attraction classifications, examples of places regarding visitor attractions in the London area are being provided that are mentioned as under,
Coca Cola London Eye: The Coca Cola London Eye is a significant attribute to the skyline of London boasting of some of the best views of London from its 32 capsules that weighs 10 tonnes each and holds up to 25 individuals. It is located in the centre of London and the experience is showcasing a spellbinding 360 degree view of the capital as well as the famous landmarks of London and is considered to be the topmost visitor experience of London for the past decade.(Ramaswamy, 2013)
Sea Life London Aquarium: The Sea Life London Aquarium is home to 500 species of marine life that is ranging from sharks as well as piranhas to Nemo-style clownfish. One of the most well-known as well as dramatic displays at Sea Life London Aquarium is the shark reef. Not just the visitors will be having a fun as well as interactive experience, this place of attraction will also be providing the UK with a leading centre of excellence regarding marine management, conservation, preservation as well as education in the heart of London. (Lancaster, 2010)
Tower of London: The Tower of London will assist a visitor in discovering the history of a royal palace, an armoury as well as a powerful fortress. Then the visitors can also discover the priceless Crown jewels, prison as well as place of execution, arsenal, jewel house as well as zoo and many other attractions. It is situated on the north bank of the River Thames in Central London. (Ramaswamy, 2013)
Westminster Abbey: This wonderful 700 year old building is attracting more than a million visitors every year. It is considered as UK’s one of the most remarkable religious buildings and is regarded to be an enormous, majorly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London.
St. Paul’s Cathedral: St. Paul’s Cathedral is considered to be a significant attribute regarding the London skyline having a world-famous dome. The St. Paul’s Cathedral is housing well-known art works as well as intricate mosaics. The visitors after entering this place of attraction will be overjoyed with the breathtaking interior of the cathedral. (Lancaster, 2010) The visitors can also explore the crypt as well as do the discovery of the tombs as well as memorials of some of the famous national heroes. The visitors can also be able to try out the acoustic quirks of the Whispering Gallery and continue climbing the Golden Gallery for enjoying the spellbinding panoramic view throughout London.
British Museum: The world famous British Museum is exhibiting the works of man from prehistoric times to modern times from across the globe. The major attractions for the visitors are including the Rosetta stone, the Pantheon sculptures as well as the mummies in the Ancient Egypt collection.
Royal Museums Greenwich: The visitors can visit the Royal Museums Greenwich and indulge themselves in the captivating history of this World Heritage site of UNESCO. This visitor’s attraction takes into consideration the National Maritime Museum, the Queen’s House, the Royal Observatory as well as the magnificent tea clipper Cutty Sark. (Lancaster, 2010)
Hampton Court Palace: The visitors can do the discovery of the splendour of Henry VIII’s favourite royal residence by visiting the Hampton Court Palace. They visitors can immerse themselves in the sights and sounds of the lively Base Court as well as be in awe by the splendid sight of the splendour of Henry’s State Rooms.
To elucidate on this matter, the visitor attraction that will get considered here is the St. Paul’s Cathedral. The St. Paul’s Cathedral is a place of visitor attraction as it is considered to be a significant attribute regarding the London skyline having a world-famous dome. The St. Paul’s Cathedral is housing well-known art works as well as intricate mosaics. The visitors after entering this place of attraction will be overjoyed with the breathtaking interior of the cathedral. The visitors can also explore the crypt as well as do the discovery of the tombs as well as memorials of some of the famous national heroes. (Hayton, 2012) The visitors can also be able to try out the acoustic quirks of the Whispering Gallery and continue climbing the Golden Gallery for enjoying the spellbinding panoramic view throughout London.
In addition, it is also considered to be a place of religious attraction that is conveying a sense of spirituality as well as sacredness amongst the visitors who are visiting the cathedral even though they might not be of Christian faith. (Lancaster, 2010) Although, the fundamental purpose of a cathedral is being a place of Christian worship but is also most of the time the oldest buildings that is being continuously used in its vicinity and is significant regarding the heritage, cultural aspect as well as community life of the place that it is serving.
For analyzing the importance of a visitor attraction, the St. Paul’s Cathedral is being taken into consideration. The ways by which the local area can benefit from the visitor attraction is described as under,
There are various kinds of visitors that are having various requirements as well as motivations for visiting a visitor attraction.
The positive and negative effects that tourism has on visitor attractions such as London Eye, Westminster Abbey, Tower of London, St. Paul’s Cathedral and so on are mentioned as under,
On a basic level motivation talks about a scenario in which people have certain needs which require to be fulfilled. The needs cause the people to act upon them and this in turn leads to satisfaction of those needs. The process might change with needs that become primary and this results in intensification of certain action or results in moving on to next set actions. In motivation a reward is placed between the behaviour and satisfaction. That is the particular behaviour results in satisfaction of the need and rewards as well which would motivate the people to again repeat the same.
Relating this in case of a tourist it can be said that a tourist would only travel if his or her need is transformed through the process of motivation and this is referred to as motivation process. This is presented in the picture below.
This is to say that a particular person would travel to a particular destination if the perception of the customer regarding things that would satisfy his or her need matches his or her perception about a particular destination.
In this regards there are several motivation theories that have tried to define factors that motivate people and the process of motivation of people.
Maslow’s need hierarchy theory: The first motivational theory in this regards was given by Abraham Maslow.
Maslow said that every person has different types of needs and the high order needs or those at the top of the need hierarchy pyramid will appear only after the lower order needs have been satisfied. For instance the safety needs will be pursued by the person only after psychological needs have been satisfied (Avolio and Yammarino, 2013).
Putting this theory into practice in case of tourism destination, it appears that in order for a tourism destination to succeed it should first of all satisfy the base needs of the person. That is to say that the tourist destination is required to first provide for the psychological and safety needs of the person in order to attract the person and provide fulfilment for other needs like social, self esteem or self actualization. However, there are several drawbacks of the theory and the most important is the fact that the needs might not follow the hierarchical order that Maslow has mentioned.
Alderfer’s ERG theory (Existence, relatedness and growth): This theory is similar to the Maslow’s theory with only difference that instead of Maslow arranging the needs at separate levels in the hierarchy of needs; here the needs are grouped into three main tires.
Herzberg two factor theory: Herzberg states that the opposite of motivation is not de-motivation. Instead he says that the opposite of motivation is no motivation. In this regards he mentions that there are two sets of factors (Heinrichs, Oser and Lovat, 2013). He refers to one set of factors as hygiene factors and the other set as motivating factors. Herzberg states that the presence of hygiene factors does not motivate but their absence de-motivates and the presence of motivating factors motivates but their absence does not de-motivate.
Applying theory in case of tourist destinations, it can be said that there are certain factors like food, safety, transportation etc. which are hygiene factors. The presence of other attractions can be referred to as motivating factors. Thus it is important for the entire tourist destination to have great basic amenities so that the visitors are not de-motivated from visiting that place.
Equity theory: This theory states that the motivation of the people results from a ratio of ratios. This is to say that a person compares the ratio of reward to the amount of effort to a ratio of similar quantities that they think is applicable for others.
Applying it in case of a travel destination, one can say that if particular tourist destinations say A has to attract more tourists as compared to B, and then A has to provide more rewarding experience as compared to B provided that the same effort is required to travel to either of these two destinations.
There are number of factors that determine the success of visitor attractions. As mentioned by different motivational theories these are the factors that motivate people to attend a visitor attraction or chose one attraction over the others. However, as stated by Herzberg and as would be seen in the following discussion, not all of the factors listed below are motivating factors. Some of the factors listed below are actually hygiene factors absence of which de-motivates; but their presence does not motivate the visitor. The important factors are detailed below:
Professional management skills- One important factor that determines the success of the visitor attraction and aids in the development of a visitor attraction is professional management skills. Professional management skills of the leader or the staffs of the attractions results in the attraction being managed in a better way.
Availability of resources: Availability of resources is an important factor in the development of a visitor attraction. There are several resources whose availability near the attraction affects the attractiveness of the attractions (Moutinho, 2011). However, in case of those attractions that are located at remote locations, ensuring availability of resources is an important criteria and one that is difficult to ensure.
The type of attraction or product offering: Unlike previous factors like personal & professional management skills and the availability of resources that could be referred to as hygiene factors, the factor that is the main motivating one behind attracting visitors to a particular location is the type of attraction that it is or the type of products that it offers to the visitors. In this regards it is important to mention that there number of different types of attractions like natural attractions, man-made attractions, theme based attractions etc. These attractions attract different types of visitors. Success of each of these different attractions in attracting the visitor can be determined by the motivational process that is described below
A visitor would be successful in attracting visitors of a certain kind if the customer perceives that it would provide those products and services that the customer perceives would be able to satisfy his or her need.
Demand for the product in the market- This is related to the earlier point wherein the product or service offering made by the destination was mentioned. It is not only sufficient for the destination to make product offering to the customers or visitors but there should be a demand in the market regarding that particular product offering being made by the destination. That is to say that the attractiveness and popularity of a destination would rise only if the product offering of a particular destination matches the perception of large group visitors regarding the factors that would satisfy their needs.
Ease of access- Another important factor which determines the popularity of a tourist destination is the ease with which it can be accessed from major routes or centers of tourists and residents. However, this does not mean that the destination that far and remote does not attract tourists. However, in those cases the number of visitor falls significantly. This can be explained by the equity theory of motivation. A visitor always compares the reward received to the amount of effort that is put in order to reach the destination. In case the destination is difficult to reach at the denominator gets bigger and thus if the rewards are not exceptional or the visitor does not perceive the rewards to be significantly as compared to the efforts, then it is likely that visitor count would fall.
Populations- Population of the destination is an important consideration that affects the development of a tourist destination. Although, visitors want that there should be people at the destination so as to satisfy their social and safety needs; but too much people deters the visitors from choosing a particular destination.
Appropriate hours of opening- Hours at which the destination remains open to public is an important consideration to consider a particular destination. In this regards it is important to make the opening hours coincide with seasons of public holidays. For instances zoos should remain open during the summer holidays to attract tourists.
Provision and quality of on-site amenities- Availability of on-site amenities like shops, visitor center, guides, toilets, refreshments fall under hygiene factors. Availability of these factors does not motivate a person or a visitor to travel to a particular destination. This is people consider these as basic necessities. However, unavailability of these facilities at a destination de-motivates the visitor for visiting the destination. Thus these are important factors that should be placed beside a visitor attraction in order to make it attractive in front of the visitors.
Proximity to and quality of near site amenities: These services also refer to ass hygiene factors that become must in attracting visitors to a particular destination. It is extremely important for these facilities to be present if the destination is to grow in popularity and attract a great number of visitors. Not only should these attractions be present, but at the same it is required that the quality of these services like accommodation, sign post, important local services should be of high quality.
Marketing of attractions- A particular visitor attraction might have all the facilities. However, if it is not marketed well then it would not attract visitors (Kotler, Keller, Manceau and Hémonnet-Goujot, 2015). A good marketing campaign can persuade the visitors to visit a destination that has not much to offer over another destination that has lot to offer but has not been marketed well. For instance the campaign ‘Vibrant Gujarat’ has been able to project the state of Gujarat as one that is immensely attractive and has been successful in attracting a large number of visitors.
Admission policy- Admission policy of a destination is also an important consideration. A visitor attraction should be receptive to visitors of all types and should discriminate between visitors on any ground as such.
Health and safety- Health and safety at the place are also an important factor in development of a tourist destination. According to Maslow, health and safety is one of the basic needs that should be achieved before higher needs such as social, self actualization etc. is attempted. Thus health and safety are important factors that should be considered in case of a tourist destination.
Point of sale of materials- Like the ease of visiting a tourist destination, is the ease with which souvenirs or brochures related to the destination are available (Homburg, Kuester and Krohmer, 2003). These materials give detailed description about a destination and help the tourists in planning their journey. Thus the ease with which they are available to potential visitor is an important consideration in popularity of the destination.
Cleaning and maintenance- Another important hygiene factors that affects the popularity of a tourist destination is the cleaning and maintenance of the place. The question of how well cleaned or maintained a destination is affects the popularity of a destination.
Catering- Catering also falls under hygiene factors that has the capability of affecting the attractiveness of a destination. Catering facilities determine whether it is possible to travel to the destination in a group.
Licensing- Ease of license availability for the service providers to provide particular services at a destination affects the number of service providers at a destination and the availability of the service providers in turn affects the number of visitors at a destination.
Another important factor that needs to be considered in case of a visitor attraction is the source of funding or income generation for the particular attractions. Some of the methods that are used for funding or income generation for a destination are:
General entry: In case of number of venues like the London Aquarium and Madam Tussauds there are fees for general entry into the facility. In this regards it is required to purchase the tickets well in advance via internet which can lead to discounts being offered.
Individual tickets (single entrance)/ Group or family tickets/ Annual or season ticket-These types of tickets are used for funding of destinations like the London eye or Tower of London. There are different types of tickets in case of London eye and these are fast track tickets, private capsules, standard tickets etc (Merlin entertainments group, 2016). In addition there are annual passes and discounts for family or group ticket purchase.
Sponsorship and Donations/ Membership fees
In case of tower of London the funds are raised either through membership fees or through donations that are made to the site using their support us campaign (Historic Royal Places, 2016). Being a member for a certain sum allows the visitor to have unlimited entry to all the different places that are managed by the organization.
Thus, as seen from the above report there is number of factors that affect the development of a tourist destination. Some of these factors are hygiene factors, the absence of which de-motivates the visitors but presence does not motivate the visitor. The sources of funding in case of a tourist attraction are also defined. In short it can be concluded that a visitor attraction would be able to attract visitors if the products and services offered by it matches the perception of the same in the mind of visitors as fulfillment of their needs.
Although there are many industries that are engaged in selling products which have considerable components of experience, there is one industry that depends more as compared to others on the experience of customers. Thus in order for the tourism planner material to create opportunities of experience targeting very specific desires, expectations and needs of particular segments of the market it is important to have a strong understanding of the market and the place. The experience of the tourist can be divided into four different phases that are mentioned below.
Figure 1 Four phases of the experience of a visitor (US agency for international development. 2016)
As a first step in designing strategies for making a tourist destination attractive to the visitor, it is important to know the visitor. The profile of a visitor mentions different types of characteristics that are applicable to a particular visitor. This profile of a visitor includes information about demographics, psychographics and patterns of spending that is typical to a particular visitor or a group of visitors.
This information about the visitor contained in his or her profile helps in designing the products of tourism and at the same time designing strategies that are applicable throughout the entire value chain. This includes making decisions regarding infrastructure that are necessary to accommodate certain special types of guests. Data regarding the visitors is often gathered through the use of questionnaires. Other sources of data are statistics related to immigration, statistics that are submitted by hotels, economic studies etc.
After collecting all the information related to the tourist and the destination community, the information is arranged in the form of a destination management system. The destination management system is actually a data base that is used for collecting, distributing and manipulating information in different forms.
After defining the goals and the visions associated with a tourist destination, the stakeholders of the tourism destination can be unified so as to form cluster and increase the competitiveness of the destination as compared to another destination. Cluster is a working group that focuses on increasing the competitiveness of a particular tourism destination. The cluster consists of participants that range from entire value chain of tourism. It is possible for the cluster to achieve much more than can be achieved by the members if they work an individual basis. It is important to note that a greater amount of resources become available for developing and marketing of tourism products in a more effective manner through the use of clusters. The approach is being increasingly used in transitional and developing economies for the development of tourism. It makes it possible for a particular destination to compete on a global scale as it has more resources and better access to information.
In case of travellers or visitors it is important to understand that they form perceptions regarding a brand long before they ever arrive to that particular place. These perceptions are derived from news stories, portrayal of the place in movies, wide variety of biases that the individual has, word of mouth, affiliation with products etc. Visit to a destination can be generated by the process of creation and management of a tourism brand that has an influence on the perception of the people and makes the destination as a favourite in the minds of people (Kotler, Keller, Manceau and Hémonnet-Goujot, 2015). There are four different stages in successful brand management of the destination and this is presented in the following table
Figure 2 Stages in successful destination brand management (US agency for international development. 2016)
It is very important to ensure that the tourism has a sustainable impact on the destination and local community which it affects. In this regards along with the understanding of supply and market demand of tourism, it is also important to understand perception of tourism among community members. The residents are the ones who feel the first impact of tourism and thus they are important stakeholders whose viewpoints need to be understood regarding tourism. If tourism is done in the correct way then it leads to the generation of wealth and also helps in the conservation of cultural and natural resources. However, it is possible for the local population to suffer due to encroachment by the tourists. Thus resident survey in this regards provides base line information about the attitudes of the residents which can then be used for the purpose of monitoring and management of information related to development of tourism. The several indicators that are measured in the resident survey can serve as red flags of the potential that the vulnerable population might be alienated due to tourism activities. The results of the survey could be used to ensure that the tourism development results in improving economic, social and environmental issues related to tourism. The survey information can also be used to educate the communities regarding the risks and benefits associated with tourism and also make them take pride in their heritage.
As seen through the discussion in the above pages there are numbers of factors that influences or attracts visitors to a particular destination. In this regards several motivational theories have been used to understand the factors that can motivate people to visit a particular destination or in other words chose one destination over other. Task 3 discusses the issues that affect the development process of a particular tourist destination and also discusses the ways in which a tourist destination can generate funding. Task 4 discusses the management strategies that can be used to increase the attraction of a particular destination and the affect of those strategies on sustainability.
Avolio, B.J. and Yammarino, F.J. eds., 2013. Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. Emerald Group Publishing.
Frydman, R (2013). Rethinking Expectations: The Way forward for Macroeconomics. Princeton University Press.
Furnham, A (2012). The Psychology of Behaviour at Work: The Individual in the Organization. Psychology Press
Harrell D., G. (2011). Marketing Management. Simon and Schuster Pub.
Hayton, J (2012). Global Human Resource Management Casebook. Taylor & Francis
Heinrichs, K., Oser, F. and Lovat, T. eds., 2013. Handbook of moral motivation: theories, models, applications (Vol. 1). Springer Science & Business Media.
Historic Royal Places. 2016. Tower of London. [Online]. Available at < http://www.hrp.org.uk/tower-of-london/ > [Accessed 14 December 2016].
Homburg, C., Kuester, S. and Krohmer, H., 2003. Marketing management(Vol. 2). Wiesbaden: Gabler.
Kotler, P., Keller, K.L., Manceau, D. and Hémonnet-Goujot, A., 2015. Marketing management (Vol. 14). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lancaster., G and Massingham., L. (2010). Essentials of Marketing management. Routledge.
Merlin entertainments group. 2016. Coca-Cola London Eye. [Online]. Available at < https://www.londoneye.com/tickets-and-prices/ > [Accessed 14 December 2016].
Moutinho, L. ed., 2011. Strategic management in tourism. CABI.
Ramaswamy, N. (2013). Marketing Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
US agency for international development. 2016. Tourism destination management. [Online]. Available at < https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/2151/DMOworkbook_130318.pdf > [Accessed 14 December 2016].