Delivery in day(s): 5
Unit 1 Travel and Tourism Management Assignment
Diploma in Travel and Trousim
Unit Number and Title
Unit 1 Travel and Tourism Management
Task - 1
P1 Understand the history and structure of the travel and tourism sector
The report is about the cultural and historical developments all over the globe. Here we have taken London as an example for making the best utilization of the questions to make the understanding of the people in the fair mode. Although in the report lots of places are analysed with their developments and the possibilities in the future they will be facing and the challenges they are overcoming but with the growing repute and repo the countries will be techno-advanced and make lots of labour from the machineries only. Here we are discussing the travel and tourism development as the places like London are developing with a high speed as compare to the rest of the world, it attracts lots of tourists which in turn generate revenues for the country development and growth.
P1.1 – Explain key historical developments in the travel and tourism sector
The key historical developments in the travel and tourism sector in London will be classified in several sections. These sections are as follows:
Post Industrial situation of London:The post industrial developments have significant steps and activities in London. This boost the economic transaction, connectivity with other areas and globalization in the area. This also allows other traders to come to the place and trade with world class leading infrastructure and other inventions. The post industrial situation of the city was well established as it was considered to be the commercial cities of the nation and experiencing lots of traffic for the trade and purchase purposes.
Post War developments: The prosperity of the city and reputation entails the nation. It was a centre of culture, significance and finance. But the superpower bloc was missed after the wars. Britain almost release all the territories and make them free with their divisional blocs like they release Hong Kong and return it to China. Their major funds were involved in the wars and hence they were suffering the crisis with the finance. But the labour party works tremendously for growth and development and raise the funds with their industrialization capacity making the sites improved and developed for better generating the revenues (Badzagua & Badzagua, 2015).
Current developments: Today London is considered to be one of the most and prime city for fashion. There are huge developments related with technology, sites development, tourist spots, maintenance, drainage system, business architecture and other logistics. People are attracted to this place because of lively life here which is busy in developing and growing each day.
The factors facilitating growth are discussed as follows:
- Technology: London is a state which has improved its technology day by day. Whether they outsource the technology or research it but they are involving new mechanisms on a daily basis.
- Time: They have involved time in this which makes their process smooth and diverse.
- Money: They raise the funds with the neighbour nations, UN and other sources to make the growth and development steady in the country.
- Freedom of movement: The freedom of movement also provides the direction to their pace as the countries freed and are not responsibility of Britain now and hence their funds are utilized in the progress of own nation and not the others.
- Infrastructure: with the pace they are grown they tend to improve the infrastructure to make the attraction and revenue generation possible in the country.
- Possible future developments:London can develop their site as sustainability site which can be a future development for them (Badzagua & Badzagua, 2015).
P1.2 – Explain the structure of the travel and tourism sector
Firstly the report will put some focus on the history of London place where we will be discussing some of the major events, places and activities happened over the period. This will provide an idea of how developed the place was and what sort of experience will it be concluding to make the proper assumptions in the techno field and development of tourism in its roots. The history is including pilgrimages and the grand tours as an event and place. The activities like post-industrial revolution, post war and current situation of the place.
London is a diversified place. Lots of people are attracted to this place as it has lots of things to do. Firstly, there are lots of pilgrimages which are Lisieux - Lourdes and Nevers. It's a basilica of St. Theresa and hence the best place to visits. It is a very old place and a very religious catholic place. Other pilgrimages are The Holy Land, Fatima & Lisbon, Rome and Krakow. These all the places are highly reputed with the catholic origin and hence these all are experiencing millions of visitors every year. With the reputation of these places there are roll over and development in almost every year. We can better understand this with an example, the pilgrimages like Holy Land, Lisieux and Nervers, Lourdes are developed in every sense today, i.e. they are well connected with roads, by air, by coach, they are developed with the best amenities in terms of accommodation, parking and other features. Also there are many financial resources which can meet out the personnel needs in case of requirements. It is needless to say that these places are well equipped with the tour operators and guide who are providing many services according to the custom based requirements (Yoveva, 2014).
The structure of travel and tourism sector are as follows:
- Travel services:They provide travel services firstly as their prime operations. These includes various packages, deals and offers.
- Tourism services: They provide other than travel facilities like accommodation, pick and drop, buy before reach etc.
- Conferences and events:They also arrange conferences and events in case if it is required.
- Visitor attractions: They create itinerary which takes care of the visitor attractions. All the places which are prime destinations are covered under this. Other services are accommodation services, passenger transport, relationships and links, private, public and voluntary sectors (Yang, Ge, Xi & Li, 2016).
With the above discussion the conclusions can be drawn in the favour of the London which is a developed site. It has adequate usage of the technology and making fair and stable advancements in the country to experience traffic related with travel and tourism. Also they are not developing their site as a sustainable site where they are involving technology and funds regularly.
Task - 2
P2. Understand the influence of local and national governments and international agencies on the travel and tourism sector
In this task sections over the influence and impact of the government on the developed and developing sites will be covered. There are certain sections providing details related with the national and international bodies working in this direction to resolute the travel related problems and make the proper mechanism for better experience of attractions.
P2.1 – Analyse the function of government, government sponsored bodies and international agencies in travel and tourism
The government helps sustainability and development in each areas of the country. When it comes to travel and tourism development each government across the globe in interested in experiencing the traffic from different countries as it increases their foreign reserves which makes the country wealthy and sound making appropriate arrangements. There are various types of regulatory bodies working in this direction which are discussed as follows:
Local governments:The local governments takes care of the sites on the basis of the local administration like cleaning of the sites, requirements of the sites are conveyed to regional or national levels, safety of the tourists and other administration and operational procedures.
Regional governments:The regional governments received the notes from local governments and sanction the funds which are received from the national governments proportionately. They took serious monitoring on the local governments and have ombudsman scheme in case of any dissatisfaction of the tourists with local governments (Xu, Barbieri, Anderson, Leung & Rozier-Rich, 2016).
National governments: The national governments are sanctioning the funds to each areas, they are propagating and making the policies which are followed. They are developing the sites in a discrete manner which can experience the traffic of tourists.
Government sponsored bodies:There are several government sponsored bodies which are as follows:
British Tourist Authority - It develops and prepare the policy and make the monitoring of the states whether they are following proper tourism channels or not.
English Tourism Council. Etc - These are sanctioning the funds to the states in case of need for the tourism development and growth.
International agencies:The below mentioned are the international agencies working in the field to promote and develop the tourism.
- World Travel Tourism Council (WTTC)
- United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
- International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
- International Air Transport Association (IATA)
- United Nation (Xu, Barbieri, Anderson, Leung & Rozier-Rich, 2016)
P2.2- Explain how local and national economic policy influences the success of the travel and tourism sector
There are great influences from the local and national economic policies where travel and tourism sector depends on it. These influences are classified as follows:
- Direct influence:The economic policy influence directly with the monetary rates and conversion of currency rates which allow or not allow the traffic of tourism to attract for the site. For example, if currency of Pound is decreased people will come and enjoy their visits and vice versa.
- Indirect influence:The indirect influence is decrease in the reserves, decrease in the popularity of the sites and increase in the expenses to meet out the maintenance of the sites.
- Economic policy: The economic policy is also impacted with this as there is less inflow of the currency and hence the foreign reserves are decreased consistently which makes the loans and advancements costly (Woo, Kim & Uysal, 2015).
P2.3- Discuss the implications of political change on the travel and tourism sector in different countries
The political change is also one of the foremost reasons for the development and growth of the sites. For example, Labour party has prepared a plan for developing London, but democratic party will not get it passed if it comes in power and create another plan on different site. This is related with the opposition and power governments where a cold fight between sanctioning and not sanctioning the plans are gone viral. These all are done with self interests and decreasing the confidence of other party and with this good plans and policies are seldom rejected which are not paid any attention later.
One more example in this direction is related with the outsourcing of the work. The Britain and other European countries are outsourcing their work where they are getting cheap work done from the Asian and poor countries. This is impacting the employment in the same country. Hence Labour party favour with percentage sharing of outsourcing to other countries. But democratic party do not pass the resolution and hence this amendment is still in vain.
Planning to minimise negative effects of tourism: The political parties try to minimize negative effects of tourism if are in power to make the stability of the tourism. They protect the tourists with the evils in the societies, they make the proper arrangements and other manifestos for the tourists to make them guided in a unique manner to make them return frequently in the places. They make the tourist sites clean and developed and equipped with surveillances and monitoring which makes the proper arrangements of the tourists according to their custom based requirements and comfortable accommodations (Stylidis, Biran, Sit & Szivas, 2014).
This task has provided the impact and influence details related to the travel sites as per the political change and other government and regulatory bodies. This report provides us details related with the economic and finance changes which occurs in the nation. A nation is in need of developing the sites as it is helpful in generating the funds and increase the foreign reserves which both stages are good for a nation. It will develop the prosperity and entail success. This report has also concluded local, regional and national governments roles and functions which are related with the tourism development. They are helping and assisting in the growth and sustainability.
Task - 3
P3. -Understand the effects of supply and demand on the travel and tourism sector
In this report we are developing an information pack which will be provided to the manager of the TUI group where based on the further analysis the information will be utilized to develop a successful product. The report is covering factors affecting the tourist demand and demand and supply combination to understand the market changes.
P3.1- Explain factors affecting tourism demand
The main factors which can affect the tourism demand are as follows:
Demographics:The main reasons for the tourism attractions are the demographics. These can be related with the regional communities, environment or nature based calamities or the sites which are not active in the particular season.
Technological: The technological impact also affects the tourism. For example a site developed with all the latest innovations and technology will equally experience the tourists rather than a place with no facilities or technological upgrade. Simply a tourist will never be at that place where there are no facilities of ventilation or air cooling, or coffee machine etc.
Influence of currency exchange rates: The currency also play a major role for tourists to decide whether to visit the place or not. The currency rates are better understood with the example. A USA citizen wants to visit London. Now the currency of both the states are different. US is dollar and London is Pound and there is a huge difference between them. Now if pound is cheap or conversion rate is down for pound than the traveller will quickly made the decision of the travelling, and in case the pound is costly they will employability skill the program or postpone it. As the conversion rates has a great impact on the consumer spending (Semley, Huang & Dalton, 2016).
Political stability: The political stability is another one of the major reasons which affects the tourism demand. The site development and sanctioning of the funds to develop the site are two parallel parameters which are not working together. Like, the labour party is in administration in centre which is at national level but the democratic party is in administration in any particular region, now they are calling centre for funds but are not getting the proper funds to utilize or develop the site. This is the case where they have conflicts and are under developing the sites. The political instability like the repetition of the single government or collapse of the major governments are both harmful for tourism demand and development. Hence a country should be political stable to experience the adequate tourist demand.
Interest rate inflation:The interest rate inflation can be associated with the currency conversion rates. It's the same concept as the interest rates are tending hike it will make the loan and advancements costly which will make the people not taking advantages of it and simultaneously not making the plans and vice versa.
Globalisation:The globalization has also deep impact on the tourists demand which is related with the treaty between the countries. Like the trade which is increasing in the inter nations allows people to visit different nations not only for the purpose of global trade but also for the purpose of visiting that places for tour leisure purpose which generates revenue in either ways (Pulido-Fernández & Merinero-Rodríguez, 2016).
P3.2- Explain how supply has changed to meet the effects of demand
To analyze the supply which has changed and meet the effects of the demand we need to understand the factors of the demand which are described as follows:
Macro-economic factors plays a great role in the demand. These are related with the traffic coming from all over the world equated the conversion rates and interest inflation. For example, US dollar is cheap than pound in present, and hence US will not attract towards visiting UK but on the same moment Asian countries conversion are stable or high and hence they are routing towards visiting UK. This makes an eco balance where conversion rates will not impact on the macro economics level (Huang, Beeco, Hallo & Norman, 2016). Now coming to supply section of the report, there are several elements which makes the supply influential to affect the demand of the tourism. This is related with the below provided classification. These are as follows:
- There must be several provision which will adequately attract the tourists to make their choices of visiting the country and making the revenue generation with exchanging the currency and increasing the foreign reserves of the country. These products or elements are as follows:
- Accommodation:The accommodations in the tourist places are the major players of attracting the tourists. If the supply of accommodation is proper and adequate the tourists are definitely attracted to the place.
- Tour operators: The tour operators are another aspect of the demand and supply parameters. The well altered tour operation packages will entail customers to chose the destinations. For example, a customized tour operator covering lots of destinations with good amenities will attract the customers.
- Quality: Another dimension is related with quality. The quality or service is most in this industry. If the customers are provided with best service they are ready to come up on the place regularly and make several attempts to undergo with the visits.
- Seasonality: Other factors are related with the seasonality. There are several places which are season based like any beaches, they are open in the times of low tides for beach rafting etc and high tides for Para-ceiling etc.
- Technology intermediaries: The technology plays a great role in making the tour successful and attracts lots of customers in the season. It's because of the advancement and ease of communication which makes the customers habitual for the visit and adore the place with their highest likes.
- Sustainability: The sustainability is another measures which also attracts the customer demand, there are several places in the world which are highly sustainable like New York etc (FUNDEANU, 2015).
These above discussions are significant to develop the product for tourists. This report is covering all the parameters of the tourism demand which is affecting the sites and relationship between supply and demand.
Task - 4
P4. -Understand the impacts of tourism
In this report section we have discussed the positive and negative economic impacts on the tourism and tourist sites. These are really important to discuss so that the visitors can be well aware with the consequences what can happen with them at that places. Also the proper arrangements should be made in the direction of social up-lift in regard to make the tourists safe and secure. Below are the points covered with the positive and negative elements in the tourism and strategies which are needed to eradicate the negative elements from the tourism.
P4.1 – Evaluate the main positive and negative economic, environmental and social impacts of tourism
The main positive and negative economic, environmental and social impacts of tourism are as follows:
The positive impacts are as follows:
- Direct and indirect income - The tourism allows direct and indirect income like tour operation charges and food and beverages collections, taxes, parking etc.
- Direct and indirect employment -The tourism generates the direct and indirect employment as well, including the tour operators, guide, cab drivers etc.
- Contribution to gross national product -The tourism contributes in the gross national product and it's a huge surplus to an economy as it creates the wealth in terms of foreign reserves.
- Influence on the growth of other sectors within the economy - Tourism entails other sectors of the economy as well which grows simultaneously like food and beverages industry, trade in the monuments, clothing and textile industry etc.
- Conservation and enhancement of natural areas, historic and cultural sites -The tourism creates the conservation and enhancement of historical areas which makes the sites developed and maintained in terms of the natural areas which are reserved and conserved for better utilization.
- Infrastructure improvement -The tourism make the infrastructure of the country also improved as there are facilities related with connectivity, air transport, logistics etc.
- Increasing environmental awareness by tourists and host communities -Tourism also aware the visitors and other nationals for environment and they start conserving the nature with planting of more trees to make the sites more beautiful and developed (Fletcher, Pforr & Brueckner, 2016).
The negative impacts are as follows:
- Leakage -The negative impact is related with the leakage which is a visitor will know how the process of the city or nation and will take that idea and can implement in their parent country.
- Inflation -The inflation can decrease the tourism where they can experience the less monetary fund's and other reserves which is a setback for the economy.
- Seasonality -The seasonality is another negative drawback for tourism. As some sites are working as per the seasonality. This affects the rest of the time with no season and no business.
- Pollution, damage to natural and built environment, wildlife - Another drawback is related with the pollution and other damage to the physical statute of the sties which are tempered and hence tourism plays a negative role with that.
- Water overuse -The water consumption level for that site is highly raised which is again a problem for the future generations.
- Overcrowding - Last but not the least the another drawback is related with the overcrowding of the people, which makes the burden in the sites decision making over consumed of the resources in the place. This in turn creates scarcity for the nationals and hence makes low economic balance in the nation (Fletcher, Pforr & Brueckner, 2016).
P4.2 - Explain strategies that can be used to minimise the negative impacts while maximising the positive impacts
There are lots of strategies which can reduce the severity of the negative impacts in the tourist sites and make the positive impacts maximised. These strategies are classified as follows:
- Monitoring and surveillance: The tourists should be provided with a proper surveillance and monitoring where the regulatory bodies will be checking that proper policies and procedures are followed or not, proper maintenance of the sites are going or not and tourists are not exploited.
- Amenities and Facilities:They should be provided with the latest facilities so that they can visit the place regularly generating the revenues each time. The facilities includes the accommodation, services, pick and drop facilities, multi cuisines food, etc.
- Ombudsman scheme: There should be ombudsman scheme which is necessary in case the tourists have any concern so there should be a person whom they can contact and get the dispute settled. Also the tourists should be provided with the contact address at the time or before the time of their visit so that they can be sure they are going to a right place or the tour operators have not misguided them.
- Financial Assistance:There should be financial institutions available in the tourist place which can provide the visitor with the financial assistance in case of need which includes the credit terms as well which can be provided with bank guarantee features. This will provide the visitors with a facility they can rely the place and have funds immediately in case they require. In this manner they can spend some more time at that place if they like and have more comfortable time rather than they actually planned.
- Safety and security: The visitors should be assured with safety and security features. The safety should include surveillance, safety measures, techno advanced features and other mechanisms. This will ensure the priority of the visitors which will allow the importance of the visitors to the nation and make them important in case any mis-happening happens (De Vita & Kyaw, 2016).
From above all points we can conclude that there are many positive and negative points in the tourism related with the economical, financial, social and other activities. These should be eradicated by considering the best practices and involving the strategies in the market to make the tourists feel comfortable while visiting a place. A separate funds and monitoring section should be focused on this derivative to make the astonishing success in the tourism development.
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