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Diploma in Business
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CAPCO Organisations Behaviour Structure & Culture
Organization behavior is been mainly considered as the study of the manner in which people get interacted with the others in a group or community within the organizational framework. The study is been generally applied with the intention to develop the business organization more effectively. The structure in an organization facilitates in concentrating in the business operations along with the products and services so that to handle the planning and coordinate the employees effectively (Zheng.et.al, 2010). The present report is been carried out with the intention to acquire adequate knowledge and understanding about the organizational culture and structure specifically. The report would assist in identifying the impacts of the relationship between the culture and structure on the performance of the business. It would also evaluate the influences of the organizational theories on the management practices. Furthermore, it would also focus on the impacts of leadership styles on motivation during the change implementation in the business. The report would thus include a case study of CAPCO which is a financial organization to gain an enhanced understanding about the relevant aspects explicitly.
Comparison of culture between CAPCO and Morrison’s
Table 1: Comparison of culture of CAPCO and Morrison's
CAPCO generally follows Academic culture
Whereas Morrison’s follow Pragmatic culture.
With respect to the academic culture, CAPCO is been facilitated in implementing an effective guideline within the workforce as they are already well acquainted and knowledgeable with their fields specifically (Thornton.et.al, 2012).
On the other hand, in Morrison’s the employees are been given with the good learning environment in order to serve the customers with their best efficacies. The company believes that satisfied customers would lead to enhanced business to the great extent. Thus, there is no set format in the organization.
Comparison of the organizational structure between CAPCO and Morrison’s
Table 2: Comparison of the organizational structure between CAPCO and Morrison’s
Formal organizational structure is been followed by CAPCO.
Whereas Morrison’s includes informal organizational structure.
Organization has mutual dependency between structure and culture in CAPCO’s case. Assignment of task is based on the organizational structure to direct and control the human resource to achieve prescribed goals of the organization. The structure is mainly defined to achieve specific need and goal. So, it may be differ at various implementation points. For those achievements, structure defines some set of rules and strategies (Wu.et.al, 2010). The major focus of the culture of the organization is to share trust among the people. People are been motivated with their behaviors to carry out their task at the workplace. Behavior keeps them directed, motivated and trustworthy for the organization. CAPCO’s structure leads to the culture made up of three pillars- observed attitude, behavior and ethical values. Power to take decision in the organization is at top of hierarchy.
Moreover more restrictions at lower level always affect the culture. The lack of share in term of duty and power at lower level always place an impact on the culture. For the employees, CAPCO made its culture self-directed, liable and personalize. Power and authorities are distributed to control the behavior of the employees. Thus, these choices are well-known and significant for the CAPCO’s structure. The organizational structure of CAPCO is defined to administer the distribution of power and to improve culture of work. The result of the work culture will be reflected by the roles and responsibility determined by the organization. The structure and culture of the organization are strictly bonded (Hu and Liden, 2011). Both are tightly related to build the organizational structure of CAPCO. Both the things are useful to empower and motivate the work culture of the company. Proper instructions are given to the employees to work effortlessly. However, enormously moralization of the power of the system has some negative impact.
The individual behavior of employees influences the functionalities of CAPCO to the great extent as every person has its own believes, thinking, etc. which make him work accordingly. It has been found that there are basically three major components which influence the individual behavior in CAPCO. These components are organizational factor, environmental factors and personal factors (Yu, 2012). Organizational factors mainly include leadership, organizational structure, facilities, rewards, etc. which are being provided to the individuals at the workplace. The employees are been influenced with these factors in both the positive and negative manner. For instance, satisfactory rewards would lead to the enhanced performances of the employees while inappropriate rewards would demoralize the employees.
In addition to this, the personal factors which influences the individual behavior are been categorized into two forms i.e. learning characteristics and biography characteristics. These characteristics are further divided into various qualities which influence the individual to carry out the desired activities. It has been observed that human nature is been mainly formed of genetic and inherited characteristics. The physical characteristics like age, gender, marital status, religion, etc. could not be changed but the learned qualities could be modified when required. The learning characteristics could be amended by having effective interaction and could also change the behavior with these interactions. Personal factors also define the qualities such as perception, beliefs, values, personality, attitude, etc (McShane and Von Glinow, 2012). Thus, with these characteristics the personal factors influences the behaviors of employees at the workplace of CAPCO. Along with this, another factor which influences the human behavior is environmental factor. These factors mainly include the socio-cultural, economical, political factors and legal environmental factors. These factors affect the individual behavior of CAPCO in both direct and indirect manner. The economic factors like wage rates, employment level, remuneration, etc. are been concerned with the influences on the individuals. Moreover, it has been found that the individuals are more influenced by the resources such as rewards, physical facilities, culture, leadership, organizational structure, etc. at the workplace. Considering the case of CAPCO, it has been observed that the individuals are highly influenced by the environmental factors.
Leadership is an important aspect which must be focused by every organization as it assists in carrying out various activities at the workplace. It has been identified that leadership is been classified into many of the styles like democratic, autocratic, transactional and transformation leadership styles. The most effective leadership styles which lays an impact over the organizations are autocratic, transformation and transactional. The autocratic leadership is mainly concerned with the overall command and control by top management over the decision making in the organization (Rice, 2010). The employees or any of the other individual is not liable to make any of the interferences in the decisions made by the authorities related to the operations. The autocratic leadership evaluates the employees on the basis of their performances individually and then the individual with low or no performances are been penalized.
Moreover, the transformational leadership style is entirely dependent on the interactions of people within the framework of organization. Interaction at the workplace motivates the employees to work more effectively as with the exchange of skills and ideas with each other influences the employees to work more hard. Thus, this type of leadership style influences the employees to bring change in the culture by implementing new innovative concepts at the workplace effectively. In addition to this, the transactional leadership is concerned with the self assessment and motivates the employees to identify their own strengths and weaknesses and work upon the same (Johnston, 2012). This leadership style basically directs to analyze the staff members and make improvements as per the needs. Along with this, under this leadership the employees are been provided with rewards on their outstanding performances.
However, concerning CAPCO’s functionalities the transactional leadership is been considered as the most effective types and is also been followed at the workplace. This leadership proves to be beneficial to CAPCO as the staff members are wholly dependent on the team leaders and abide by them effectively. It has been found that CAPCO had implemented transactional leadership with the intention to manage, maintain and monitor the workplace and its activities effectively. On the other hand, Morrison’s implements transformational leadership at its workplace which assists in encouraging the staff members and makes them work as per the organizational standards (Magnusen and Perrewé, 2016). Morrison’s is one of the retail supermarket chains which acquires massive numbers of workforce and needs to administer in an appropriate manner. This style facilitates Morrison’s in managing the workforce effectively and making them work towards the achievement of desired goals.
Many organizational theories are given on the practices of management. Management activities of the organization are particularly influenced by scientific theories, system theories, socio technical theories and administrative theories. One of the most prominent theories of the management is system theory. A system can be defined as the set of distinct parts that interact to form a complex whole. It mainly states to work in an organization in a systematic manner to focus on various distinct activities of management. On the other hand, scientific management approach works to analyze and synthesize the workflow (Shafritz.et.al, 2015). Thus it plays an important role to improve effectiveness and efficiency of an organization. It uses mathematical, engineering and scientific analysis to establish a systematic accomplishment of activities. The main objective of scientific management is to improve economic efficiency, especially the productivity associated with labor. The approach ensures the optimum use of resources and thus results in the productivity and performance. It also concerned with the mutual interest of the members of the organization like employers and employees.
Moreover, the socio technical theory recognizes the interaction between the employees and high authorities of the company. It is very supportive to improve and carry out effective communication within the organizational framework by clarifying the queries or misunderstandings amid the employees and employers. Therefore these theories will help CAPCO to achieve desired goals in an effective manner. Besides it, administrative theory helps to make effective decisions on various activities (Jones, 2010). It also assists to prepare and train the staff members and commanding coordinates with the purpose to accomplish the task within time and in effective manner.
There are various approaches to management which could be used by the organizations. The most effective approaches being identified are equipping and enabling approaches, delegating and micromanaging approach and scheduling and setting goals approach. These particular approaches mainly facilitates in managing the activities within the organization and lead towards the achievement of the set objectives effectively. The equipping and enabling approach assist the organization in carrying out the business operation smoothly and effectively (Manuj.et.al, 2014). Moreover, the delegating and micromanaging approach assists in scrutinizing the workload of the employees individually and bring the required improvements in them. It has been identified that it is good to establish various levels of management in an organization. In addition to this, the scheduling shift and setting goal approach facilitates with a systematic way of carrying out the activities at the workplace. This approach is been basically considered as the most important and easiest approach to be implemented at the workplace. The systematic schedules of the activities for employees and the other tasks proves to be beneficial in saving time and cost both for the company.
As per the case, CAPCO follows the scheduling and setting goals approach with the purpose to augment the performance levels of the business. It has been found that having a defined objective or goal and planning at the workplace contributes in the achievement of higher profitability and success specifically. With the help of effective schedules, CAPCO would be facilitated in achieving the desired objectives in the least time and would assure the efficiency of the work without making any of the delays (Kerzner, 2013). On the contrary to this, Morrison’s management follows the delegating and micromanaging approach for carrying out its activities in an effective manner. This particular approach plays a significant role in managing the employees and arranges the operational activities more effectively.
The basic motive behind the use of leadership styles is to direct the workforce in a valuable approach. Every organization adopts a lot of leadership styles including transformational, transactional, autocratic, democratic and charismatic leadership style. Each of these does an imperative job to accomplish the organizational goal and to expand their understanding during it. CAPCO’s workforce is inspired by following leadership styles:
Figure 1: Leadership styles
Autocratic leadership:The attribute of the autocratic leadership lies in the fact that decisions are free from the influence of multiple controls and there is negligible participation of other members (Bhatti.et.al, 2012). Only the higher authorities are responsible to take decisions and none of the employee takes part in it. In this leadership style, decisions are made on the observation and conclusion of the leaders and rarely depend on other’s suggestions.
Democratic leadership:This leadership style obeys the rules of democracy where each member has power to express the thought and to build judgment based on it. Whole team helps to decide the function and process of an action and team leader is supreme to make it final.
Transformational leadership:This leadership style is based on the recognition of changes requisite in system (Clarke, 2013). An idea is developed for that changes and inspiration is given to employees to do the work with proper devotion.
In current context, CAPCO’s managerial structure is based on transactional leadership style. The leaders at CAPCO are dedicated to provide realistic skills to team members, not to give them only motivation. The members are praised by bonuses when they complete the task within the timeline with requisite results.
Numbers of motivational theories are available to assist team leaders to inspire their force and to craft them well. Two major theories are put side by side as follows:
Figure 2: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
(Source: Maslow’s Motivational Theory.2016)
Maslow believes that people have a set of motivations to achieve certain goal besides the incentives and insensible needs. He stated when a need fulfill the person; he starts to seek for another one and so on (Lester, 2013). Maslow’s vision is based on five motivational needs- biological and psychological needs (like food, shelter, air, drink, warmth, sleep and sex), safety needs (protection, security, stability, fearless etc.), love and belongingness needs (friendship, intimacy, affection and love etc.), esteem needs (achievement, mastery, status, dominance etc.) and self-actualization needs (seeking personal growth and peek experience, self-fulfillment etc.). Everyone tries his best to complete and attain this need. However, these needs must be fulfilled by the organization to the great extent.
Figure 3: Herzberg motivational theory
(Source: Herzberg motivational theory. 2016)
On the other hand, the hypothesis behind the theory is that there are two set of factors responsible at workplace to make employees satisfied or dissatisfied. These factors inspire the resource towards the attainment of objective. These factors are hygiene and motivational factors. Herzberg used the term “hygiene” to describe the factors that are linked to wages, job safety, working circumstances, compensations etc (Miner, 2015). However, the hygiene factors do not motivate employees but the lack of it can dissatisfy them. The second factor is satisfiers or motivators which arise from the individual’s need. Factors for satisfaction include the credit, endorsement, opportunity progress and advancement. Thus, CAPCO ensures the fulfillment of the needs and provides the employees with higher motivation at the workplace.
Motivation is been considered as the most important aspects for making any of the individual work towards a specified objective. It is identified that motivated employees work with more efficiencies as compared to the others. Thus, it is very much important for the manager or leaders to be well acquainted with various aspects of motivational theories. It is necessary for the managers to have adequate knowledge and understanding of the motivational theories and their application within the organizational framework (Heckhausen.et.al, 2010). As per the Maslow, the managers must be well aware with the needs of every single employee and fulfill them accordingly so that to encourage them towards the accomplishment of the desired goals. It has been observed that there are some needs such as basic need, safety needs, love and belonging, esteem needs and self actualization needs which must be fulfilled at every level by the authorities to keep the staff motivated and make them work with their best efficiencies. The managers are wholly responsible to keep an eye on the needs of the employee and make sure that they are been accomplished effectively.
Along with this, the manger must ensure about the proper allocation of remunerations and promotions to the staff members with the purpose to keep them motivated at the workplace. The manager must also consider the ways in which the employees must be treated as it must be ensured that the employees are not dominated or ignored at the workplace. They must also help the employees in their growth so that to make them feel motivated towards the organizational goals and make them work accordingly (Wohlfarth.et.al, 2013). In addition to this, it has been also observed that with the help of these initiative the managers would be able encourage the staff members more effectively and would make them perform towards the achievement of the provided task effectively.
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In order to make things easier every organization is been classified among different section of the groups and the operations are been carried out accordingly. The classified teams are been assigned with different activities which are performed effectively by helping each other. The team members generally become mutually dependent on each other with the purpose to carry out their activities effectively. It has been identified that the organizations are mainly classified into two major groups’ i.e. formal and informal groups (Robbins and Judge, 2013). These groups then ensure the achievements of provided task effectively and lead toward the higher goals. The formal groups are mainly constructed by the higher authorities of organization itself while the informal groups are been created by the staff members themselves for their own sake.
However, both the formal and informal groups are been included in CAPCO working with different task for the accomplishment of common objectives. CAPCO’s formal group mainly includes a well structured framework and follows a set communicational flow of information. In addition to this, it has been identified that CAPCO is been facilitated by the group behavior to the great extent in completing the assigned activities in both formal and informal manner (Mullen and Goethals, 2012). It is crucial to work with the mutual understanding and consents for the group members with the purpose to move parallel to each other and put their efforts accordingly.
Concerning the functionalities of CAPCO, there are wide ranges of aspects which promote the enhancement of teamwork at the workplace. The basic factors like effective communication, leadership, innovation, organizational culture, diversity, environment, etc. facilitates the organization in establishing and creating effective teams and make them work with their best efforts towards the set goals. In addition to this, it has been observed that these factors generates a need for the development of the teamwork as it helps in accomplishing the critical tasks and leads towards the success (Schunk.et.al, 2012). Moreover, teamwork plays an important role in any of the organization as it combines the employees in a group and makes them feel strong and motivated. The teamwork also facilitates the top management in accomplishing the desired set of objectives and lead to the higher profit levels. It has been identified that with the development of team work CAPCO would be supported in bring innovative ideas and concepts along with their achievements with the intention to enhance the profitability and growth of the business.
Nowadays, technology is been considered as vital and measurable tool for the any organization. Email, websites, online marketing, mobile phones and computer systems are some of the technological elements being included in functioning team of CAPCO. These tools improve team member’s knowledge in order to carry out the activities effectively and team functions within CAPCO. It helps team members and employees to communicate with each other and allows conveying any information. Technology makes every task and project easier and i take less time in the completion of any task (Gormley.et.al, 2012). Mobile phones make communication with each other easier even when team members are out of office and campus. With the help of personal computer system, team members are able to complete their task in given time frame in a systematic manner.
Along with this, the personal computer also helps in gathering data, storing information, completion their task, implementing according to needs and evaluating functions in effective manner. E-mails, mobile phones and IT systems play important role in helping CAPCO and gain profits out of the acts. Additionally, technology also helps the organization in carrying out the activities more specifically, accurately and with higher reliabilities (Colquitt.et.al, 2011). On the other side, technology has some negative impacts as well. It is harmful for organization as anyone could take advantages of organization’s important records or information illegally. For example, capturing important records in the mobile phone and making wrong use of it. Moreover, technology has important implications for management decisions on computing, E-mail through computer, communication from mobile phones and security through hidden cameras. It has been observed that technology has both positive and negative impact on the activities and performance of team within CAPCO. It is very effective for CAPCO because technology helps in improving company performances, procedures and profits.
With the above report it could be concluded that organization behavior is the study of the manner in which people get interacted with the others in a group or community within the organizational framework. It has been found that CAPCO has mutually dependent structure and culture. It has been also revealed that the approaches such as equipping and enabling approaches, delegating and micromanaging approach and scheduling and setting goals approach are been considered to be the most effective for achieving organizational goals. Furthermore, it has been identified that it is very much important for the manager or leaders to be well acquainted with various aspects of motivational theories. It is necessary for the managers to have adequate knowledge and understanding of the motivational theories and their application within the organizational framework. Moreover, it has been observed that technology has both positive and negative impact on the activities and performance of team within CAPCO.
Books and journals:
Bhatti, N., Maitlo, G.M., Shaikh, N., Hashmi, M.A. and Shaikh, F.M., 2012. The impact of autocratic and democratic leadership style on job satisfaction.International Business Research, 5(2), p.192.
Clarke, S., 2013. Safety leadership: A meta?analytic review of transformational and transactional leadership styles as antecedents of safety behaviours. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(1), pp.22-49.
Colquitt, J., Lepine, J.A. and Wesson, M.J., 2011. Organizational behavior: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace. McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Gormley, D.K., Colella, C. and Shell, D.L., 2012. Motivating online learners using attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction motivational theory and distributed scaffolding. Nurse educator, 37(4), pp.177-180.
Harper, C., 2015. Organizations: Structures, processes and outcomes. Routledge.
Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C. and Schulz, R., 2010. A motivational theory of life-span development. Psychological review, 117(1), p.32.