Unit 9 Leading Tourist Destinations Assignment
Diploma in Travel and Tourism
Unit Number and Title
Unit 9 Leading Tourist Destinations
The study of Unit 9 Leading Tourist Destinations Assignment conducted here helps in providing a lot of information on the aspects of tourism. The top 5 tourist destinations and income generators of the world have been analysed and presented in the form of a text table. After this the statistical data has been analysed in order to analyse the future prediction forecasts and trends in world tourism.
The various appeals of developing and developed tourist destinations have been provided in the form of a table followed by a management report summary on the destination of Myanmar and how the characteristics of the place affect the appeal of the place. The various factors affecting the popularity of a place have been identified and the responsible tourism initiatives in countries like Jamaica, Cuba, Mexico, etc have also been provided.
1.1 Analyse main tourist destinations and generators of the world in terms of visitor numbers and income generation.
TOP 5 DESTINATIONS (VISITOR NUMBERS) 2015
TOP 5 DESTINATIONS (INCOME GENERATION)
London: In terms of total number of international visitors arriving, London is at number one as on 2015 with a total of 18.82 million overnight visitors. They are in stiff competition with Bangkok who lost out to the number one spot to London mainly due to the prevalence of political unrest in the country, but they are not far behind. (CNN Staff, 2015)
USA: As on 2015, the United States of America ranked in the first place with the maximum expenditure by tourists or in other terms referred to as International Tourism Receipts. The Receipts of USA grew to 204.5 billion US dollars in 2015 from 191.3 billion US Dollars in 2014 with a total percentage change of 6.9%, which is very impressive. (UNWTO, 2016)
Bangkok: As mentioned above, Bangkok comes the closest in posing any relevant competition to London in the total number of tourists arriving internationally. They were in the top position in 2013 but as on 2015, London took over from Bangkok. Bangkok as on 2015 expects a little lower number of 18.24 million tourists. (CNN Staff, 2015)
China: In the second place is China. However the difference in international tourism receipts between USA and China is massive with almost a difference of 90 billion US Dollars. China exhibits a figure of total international receipts of 114.1 billion US dollars in 2015 from 105.4 billion is 2014. The growth percentage is 8.3% which is good. (UNWTO, 2016)
Paris: France has always been one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. The total number of international visitor arrivals as on 2015 stands at 16.06 million. Most of the attraction in recent times has been out of the demand for theme parks. Disney Land alone invites millions of footfalls in France.
Spain: The International Receipts fall to a double digit figure of 56.5 billion US dollars in 2015. It has to be noted that Spain in registered a figure of 65.1 billion US dollar in 2014. It means that although they are in the third place, there is a major decrease in percentage change of -13.2% which does not augur well for the future. (UNWTO, 2016)
Dubai: The fourth spot is booked by the Middle East Giant in Dubai. Considering the terrorist activities around the world, Dubai being a Muslim country still attracts a huge amount of tourists internationally exhibiting a figure of 14.26 million international visitors as on 2015. (CNN Staff, 2015)
France: The same scenario was faced by France in as it registered a major drop with regards to change in percentage of -21%. In 2014, France registered a total international tourism receipt of 58.1 billion US dollars which fell considerably to 45.9 billion US dollars in 2015. (UNWTO, 2016)
Istanbul: Surprisingly, the fifth spot is also occupied by a Muslim city called Istanbul, which is also the capital of the country Turkey. They exhibit a figure of total international arrival of 12.56 million people which is just higher than that of New York in The United States of America. New York exhibits a total count of 12.27 million and thus as a result just falls behind the top 5 spots as on the year 2015. (CNN Staff, 2015)
United Kingdom: United Kingdom just about makes it to the fifth spot with similar competition with Thailand like in the case of London and Bangkok with regards to total visitor arrivals. Over the years of 2014 and 2015, UK has not shown a major difference in tourism receipts. The figure has dropped from 46.5 Billion US dollars in 2014 to 45.5 billion US dollars in 2915 with a percentage change of -2.3%. (UNWTO, 2016)
1.2 Analyse statistics to determine tourism destination trends and predict future trends.
The future prediction for tourism destination trends has been done by taking into consideration the four major continents of Africa, America, Asia and Pacific, Europe. A small analysis on Middle East has also been provided in addition.
Taking Africa into consideration, North Africa is scheduled to exhibit a figure of 46 million in 2030 and 31 million tourist arrivals in 2020 in comparison to the 18.7 million recorded in 2010 with regards to international tourist arrivals. West and Central Africa are also scheduled to record 13 million in 2020 and 22 million by 2030. East and Southern Africa are also predicted for a forecast of 22 million in 2020 and 37 million in 2030 and 20 million in 2020 and 29 million in 2030 respectively. Overall Africa is set for a total rise in tourist arrivals forecasted as 85 million visitors in 2020 and 134 million visitors in 2030. (UNWTO, 2016)
With regards to America, North America expects a total number of international visitors of 120 million in 2020 and 138 million 2030 which are massive numbers in comparison to the present numbers. The Caribbean islands do not exhibit a superficial figure as such with future expectations of total international tourist arrivals amounting to 25 million and 30 million in 2020 and 2030 respectively. Central America is forecasted for 14 million and 22 million in 2020 and 2030. South America however being a more popular area for tourists is forecasted a total visitor arrival of 40 million and 58 million in 2020 and 2030 respectively. Overall, America is forecasted for a total rise in International Tourist arrival of 199 million and 248 million in 2020 and 2030 respectively. (UNWTO, 2016)
Asia and Pacific also has their future predictions carved out with regards to international tourist arrivals. North East Asia and South East Asia is forecasted for a growth of 195 million and 123 million respectively by the year 2020 and 293 million and 187 million by the year 2030 which again are massive numbers. Oceania has a comparatively diminished tourism opportunities with the forecast rising to as low as 15 million and 19 million in 2020 and 2030 respectively. South Asia also has a forecasted prediction of 21 million international visitors in 2020 and 36 million in 2030.
Europe is one of the most preferred locations for travel tourism and the future certainly indicates that. Overall Europe is expected to have a total arrival of international tourists or visitors of 620 million people in the year 2020 and 744 million by the year 2030. Western Europe is forecasted enormous figure prediction of 192 million and 222 million tourist arrivals in the year 2020 and 2030 respectively. Central and Eastern Europe exhibits predictions of 137 million and 176 million by 2020 and 2030. The highest and most surreal forecast is scheduled for Southern & Mediterranean Europe exhibiting figures of 219 million and 264 million international tourist arrivals. (UNWTO, 2016)
The Middle East is also scheduled for a growth with international tourist arrivals amounting to 101 million and 149 million tourists in 2020 and 2030 respectively. Overall, Africa is scheduled to provide a total share of 7.4% to world tourism by 2030. America’s contribution will be 13.7% of world tourism by 2030. Asia is scheduled for a marked and huge improvement contributing to around 29.6% share of world tourism. The Middle East contributes fairly with the percentage share by 2030 scheduled to be 8.2 %. However, eve in 2030, Europe will continue being the most popular tourist attraction with a total share percentage of 41.1 % by the end of the year 2030.
2.1 Analyse the cultural, social and physical features of the tourist destinations explaining their appeal to tourists
The countries taken into consideration here is India and Nepal.
The following points elucidate the physical, social and cultural features of India ad Nepal
- India comprises of a diverse physical landscape as the vast size of the country is blessed with almost all elements of nature.
- Home to the renowned mountains by the name of Himalayan Range & Kanchenjunga.
- Land of world renowned rivers like Narmada, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari, etc.
- Bordered by oceans on three sides (Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. (Majid, 2014)
- Mawsynram (the world’s largest rainfall area) near Cherrapunji is another amazing phenomenon of the country.
- Nepal lies between China and India with China to the north of Nepal and India binding Nepal from the other three sides. (Hikenepal, 2016)
- One of the most significant aspects of Nepal is the Tarai Plains.
- The world’s largest mountain peak, Mount Everest is located in Nepal standing at 8848 metres above mean sea level.
- The temperate and the Tundra climate is prevalent.
- A rich culture prevails rising from the existence of a population of 1.2 billion people.
- Home to innumerable languages including the main ones being Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Punjabi, Gujarati, etc.
- Intense religious beliefs accounts for several festivals all throughout the year like Diwali (festival of lights), Durga Puja, Pongal (festival of worshipping the cow), etc.
- Historical establishments along with the knack of people to excel in art, paintings and music add to the culture. (Majid, 2014)
- The entire stretch of the country comprises of various kinds of people, exhibiting different characteristics, speaking different languages and wearing different attire.
- Different ethnic groups are present in Nepal which means that they exhibit distinct characteristics and speak different dialects.
- The various groups include that of Rais, Magars, Limbus, Gurungs, etc.
- Religious homogeneity does exist between various communities especially Buddhists and Hindus.
- Mostly Hindu festivals are prevalent as it is declared as a Hindu state. (Hikenepal, 2016)
- People in most parts of the country are generally cooperative and helpful. (Majid, 2014)
- The relationship between tourists and the local people are quite good as India has a lot of places with dominance of foreign contingent like Goa, Kasaul, etc.
- Equality prevails between men and women unlike earlier times when women were looked down upon.
- Overall, people acknowledge and appreciate good behaviour and can be cordial and go out of their way to offer help.
- The biggest social interaction between tourists and locals arise out of interests for ‘Trekking’
- The people are conservative by culture, hence public affection, hugging in public is still a taboo. (Hikenepal, 2016)
- A lot of diverse social customs are prevalent along with socio-religious festivals.
2.2 You will also create a text table where you compare features of developing and leading tourist destinations
- A large degree of niche tourism can be associated with developed countries like the UK because of the high income per individual. Niche tourism includes wine tourism, golf tourism, etc.
- One of the features that draws a lot of footfalls in European countries like France is the craze for larger than life theme parks like Disney Land
- Wine Tourism is prevalent in many parts all over England and Wales in Europe.
(Hall & Sharples, 2009)
- A lot of extracurricular activities can be associated in European countries like water sports, bungee jumping, etc.
- European Tourism is enhanced by the ancient Roman Civilisation.
- Prevalence of efficient infrastructure
- High Per capital income of individuals leading to high expenditure per night by tourists with regards to domestic tourism
- High disposable income of tourists leading to higher purchase of tourism products and services
- Wine tourism, Golf tourism, medical tourism, dark tourism, etc can be associated with developed countries
Mainly tourism based out of agriculture and cultural heritage can be associated with developing countries like India, Nepal, etc. (Agritourismworld, 2016)
- Developing nations like Brazil mainly attract tourists with the prevalence of carnivals and festivals. Brazil is also known as the carnival capital of the world
- One of the main attractions of Kenya is the large number of national parks present. (Wildlife).
- Phenomenon like turtle tourism and party culture attract people to developing countries like Jamaica.
- Egyptian Tourism is enhanced by the ancient Egyptian Civilisation
- Prevalence of diminished infrastructure
- Low per capital income of people leading to the generation of mostly budget tourists and travelers.
- Comparatively lower disposable income of tourists leading to lower purchase of tourism products and services.
- Aggro tourism is very popular in developed countries and the main appeals include in the cultural heritage of the country or the physical features.
3.1 Compare the appeal of leading tourist destinations with that of currently developing tourist destinations.
LEADING TOURIST DESTINATIONS
DEVELOPING TOURIST DESTINATIONS
A high degree of niche tourism can be associated with the leading tourist destinations such as France, UK, Spain, etc. Independent & passionate travellers can be catered to as a result of this. Vineyards, Golf Tourism, etc. (Richardson, 2006)
Developing tourist destinations mainly is popular for the prevalence of agriculture based tourism where a tourist can spend his entire day in a farm learning about how the procedures take place, live there, play there, etc.
A lot of activities can be associated like sporting events, water sports, rock climbing, etc. A proper infrastructure is required to ensure that these activities can be efficiently carried out.
Similar activities can be prevalent in developing countries like Brazil, Dominican Republic. Etc but more faith is targeted towards developed nations because of the improved infrastructure.
Music Events concerts, etc in exotic and surreal locations like Belgium, Miami, etc draws a large section of international arrivals.
Carnivals and the local cultural heritage of countries like Brazil, India, etc are the mainstays of tourism as the diverse culture prevalent invites and attract a lot of tourists over the Globe. (Lohmann & Dredge, 2012)
Apart from natural locations and landscape, it is a one of a kind experience to visit the various cities comprising of rich architecture and historical importance like Paris, London, etc.
Mainly the local landscape and physical diversity is the USP of tourism in developing countries like Nepal, India, Bhutan, etc as the economy does not allow the influx of expensive architecture.
In countries like USA, one of the main appeals is the prevalence of a multi cultural and multi linguistic contingent of people adding to the overall diversity of the location.
In countries like Nepal, Jamaica, etc, the religious and customs followed along with the various beliefs of the contemporary world can be a point of attraction for foreign tourists.
3.2 Provide a management report where you evaluate how characteristics of a tourist destination affect its appeal.
- Introduction: The destination taken into consideration here is Myanmar. Myanmar can be called the homeland of the simple as there is not too much flamboyance or complexity attached to the country or its landscape. Home to predominantly the yellow race of people, the chances of tourism has failed miserably over the years for a number of reasons. It is not like Myanmar is physically void of features or attractions but the nature of practices and procedures within the country has ensured that not too much economic or tourism benefit has been acquired from the concept of international tourism. We shall analyse in detail the various factors and characteristics that affect the appeal of Myanmar.
- Body: Myanmar is not one of the wealthiest when it comes to economic dominance and hence can be called a developing nation. For over the last decade, the governance of the country has come under a lot of criticism because of its yester-world approaches of subjecting the people to a kind of dictatorship and oppression. The beliefs imposed were stringent and hence the country could never thrive on tourism. There were times in the near past where Myanmar had to face poverty with regards to a particular set of people going without proper food and shelter. This led to the outbreak of a lot of epidemics that wiped out a lot of people in the country. Myanmar has a high potential for tourism growth as the country can be referred to as the ‘Jack of all trades’ with regards to physical diversity. Yangon city is one of the major attractions of the country. The religious aspect is covered by Buddhist sites like Ananda, Bagan, etc. Lakes and safaris in national parks can also be associated with the country by the name of Inle and Naypyidaw respectively. Bago is another place of religious and historical significance. Apart from this river Irrawaddy proves to be another source of great tourism appeal. (Touropia, 2014) Recently, Myanmar is experiencing boon in tourism and the main reason is the change of Government approach which now is more people oriented. The common tribes are gaining international identity and recognition and the tourism sector is also being enhanced. A strategic plan has been devised by the Ministry of Hotel and Tourism that concentrates on increasing the number of international tourist arrivals to the country. Moreover the attributes of the local people being less aggressive also acts as an inviting factor for foreign tourists. (Oxfordbusinessgroup, 2014) In 2014, the arrivals of tourists rose by 43% from the year 2013 and this is a prime example of how the changing attributes of the people and the Government has had an impact on the tourism appeals of the country. More footfalls can be associated in Myanmar today than probably a decade or more back. (Oxfordbusinessgroup, 2014)
- Conclusion: From the above management report, we understand how it is important for favourable characteristics and attributes to prevail within a country for the purpose of flourishing on the tourism sector. A country may be physically and culturally diverse but unless the favourable inputs and behaviour is assisted by the presiding Government, tourists won’t feel the urge of going to that place. From the above explanation we see how the initiatives taken by the government and the Ministry of Tourism has ensured that more tourists arrive at this country and this can be validated with the 43% rise in tourists in the first half of the year of 2014 in comparison to that of 2013.
4.1 Analyse issues that affect the popularity of tourist destination.
The issues that affect the popularity of tourist destination include the following.
- Prevalence of Terrorism: The most important aspect that is directly linked with the popularity of a tourist destination is the ratio of terrorist attacks. Tourists do not want to indulge in or consider places that have a rich history of terrorism. Like for example, the recent attacks in Brussels, Paris, etc will have a severe toll on the tourism in these countries. African tourism can be another example that can be taken into account. (BBC, 2016)
- Affordability: For a tourist, especially the budget traveller, the more popular destination is the one which he can afford and hence popularity can be directly linked to the value and costing of the package of a particular destination. If more value can be derived with limited expenditure, the budget traveller will be convinced that the location is popular and vice versa.
- Responsible Tourism: Responsible tourism is one of the aspects that are going around all across the globe and tourists do recognise the importance of it. Responsible tourism can be associated with sustainability, safety of the tourists, maintenance of local cultural heritage , etc. Responsible tourism assures the tourist that no illegal or harmful subjection is being promoted with regards to nature or the community as a result of existing tourism products and services. Responsible Tourism not only is significant for the community, but even the tourist can be assured that their safety can be catered to if in case a situation of emergency crops up. (Spenceley, 2012)
- Accessibility: This completely depends upon the type of traveller or tourist. If a tourist is an adventure lover and is tired of the mundane urban life, then he might want to undertake an expedition to a place that is not completely discovered or easily accessible that will add to his adventure. In this case a destination that is not easily accessible may be a popular for him. On the contrary, tourists who feel that conservatism should be adopted when away from home because of the growing crime in the world, for them the popular destination will not be one which is hard to discover or find out. He will opt for a destination that is more within reach and where his safety can be ensured.
- Physical/Cultural Diversity: No matter how many other attractions that a destination might have, one of the most significant factors that affect the popularity of a destination is the prevalent landscape and physical diversity along with cultural establishments. People living in one country may be tired of the culture or the people and may want to tour a country of completely distinguished or varied culture. In such a case the aspects to be evaluated will be what is there to witness in the country, what is the type of culture that exists, etc. Thus, if a destination will not have too much to offer from the physical features side of things, then that destination might have to go down as an unpopular destination in the minds of the tourists.
- Catering to independent travellers: The number of independent travellers in the world has increased as a result of business establishments and passionate travelling. For this purpose segment of niche tourism for specific interests of a specific target audience would include factors like dark, wine, golf tourism, etc. People often find these destinations popular as they feel that they can pursue their passion and interest at these locations.
4.2 Discuss the potential for responsible tourism to enhance the host community at worldwide tourist destinations.
- Egypt: The HEPCA and Red Sea Rangers can be associated with responsible tourism as they look to preserve the ecosystem. The Hurghada Environmental Protection and Conservation Association focus on preserving the main environment along the coast and also focus on conserving the coral in the sea. The Red Sea Rangers aims to protect the marine life along the Red Sea and these two are prime examples responsible tourism. (Frommers, 2016)
- Europe: The Global success of OTA in Italy can be associated with responsible tourism in the hospitality sector. The main reasons of success include the reliability that people associate with OTA and the flexibility and wide option of booking that the customer has. The availability of offers also can be added to the list of factors that has contributed in the success of this kind of responsible tourism in Europe. (Fadini, 2015)
- Thailand: Thailand is popularly known among tourists and is one of the most popular destinations across the Globe. Elephants were in numbers till a few years back but few illegal practices across the country have meant that the population is on the decline. For this purpose, the ‘Save the Elephant’ foundation has been formed that looks after the conservation of elephants in Thailand so that the species does not risk extinction. (Elephantnaturepark.org, 2016)
- Turkey: Matiana Travel has been associated with responsible tourism as they offer various tour programmes and offers in their quest to bring several local cultures together. Example can be provided of the Cappadocia region where tourists are invited to the village houses of this region and the culture is depicted to the tourists as the tourists try and make some charitable contribution towards the modest local people. (Matiana.com.tr, 2016)
- Cuba: Pinar Del Rio is the major sight of significance with regards to sustainable tourism and eco tourism. The Zapata Peninsula and Cienaga De Zapata is famous for the conservation of crocodiles. One of the more popular eco resorts prevalent in Cuba is by the name of Las Terrazas and that too was developed and established in Pinar Del Rio. The profits are distributed among people and employment opportunities are now arising as a result of tourism. (Mynatour.org, 2011)
- Jamaica: The concept of community involvement in all decision related to the process of living an everyday life is an instance of responsible tourism. The development of eco friendly resorts and hotels can be another example. The conservation of turtles can be yet another instance of responsible tourism in Jamaica. The tour packages and attraction are also eco-based tours, thus enhancing the phenomenon of responsible tourism. (Easier, 2008)
- Dominican Republic: The emphasis in Dominican Republic is laid on preserving the cultural and local heritage of the destinations so that more tourists can be attracted and tourism can blossom. Socially responsible tourism is tried to achieve by the virtue of protecting the community and the nature and proper knowledge towards the contribution of responsible tourism is brought about by introducing education and training on socially responsible tourism. (Pineda & Brebbia, 2008)
- Costa Rica: CSR tours can be taken as an example with regards to the responsible tourism in Costa Rica as they aim at providing new and desirable experiences to people and tourists from across the world. They intend to do so by conserving the natural and cultural resources of Costa Rica. Emphasis is laid on the judicious use of the resources so that the future can be secured. Another example that can be taken is the initiative that has been adopted to ensure that no product or commodity is made out of the execution of animals. These two instances contribute to the prevalence of responsible tourism in Costa Rica. (CSR tours, 2016)
- Mexico: Responsible tourism practices have been adopted by ensuring that proper care is taken by respecting the environment, community and the local culture. The local environment has been catered to by ensuring that people are informed about the efficiencies and good impacts of recycling of wastes. Conservation of water and energy are elementary concepts irresponsible tourism and these aspects have been deeply inculcated among locals and also the tourists. The local culture is preserved by ensuring that laws are followed with regards to photography at prohibited places, etc.
This is how all these above countries have contributed to the concept of responsible tourism which is currently a very popular and widely accepted phenomenon all across the world. Responsible tourism not only conserves the present but also aims at securing the future with regards to tourism practices and procedures.
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With the data and information that has been taken into consideration, the top 5 destinations in the world with regards to total international visitors are London, Bangkok, Paris, Dubai and Istanbul and in terms of international tourism receipts, the main countries are USA, China, Spain, France and the UK. The forecast for future prediction show how Europe even in the year 2020 and 2030 will have the most amounts of international tourists and also the highest percentage share of the world tourism industry exhibiting a share percentage of 41.1%.
We come to know how the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism in Myanmar along with the collaboration of the new government approaches have ensured that Myanmar tourism is booming. The various factors that can affect the popularity of a tourist destination have been discussed and the major factors include terrorism or the prevalence of it, physical and cultural diversity, etc. The Responsible tourism initiatives has also been analysed in detail of different countries.
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