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Unit 3 Managing Human Resources Assignment - IGH
Diploma in Business
Unit Number and Title
Unit 3 Managing Human Resources Assignment - IGH
Human resource management is the important part of every organisation which involves managing the people according to their skills and abilities. In the current study, the IHG is the British multinational hotel and expanded its business in nearly 100 countries and had huge numbers of human resources. Therefore the proper study for managing the human asset is necessary for the organisation. The management starts from recruitment, selection, training and monitoring the performance of the individual as the pre decided standards. It is responsible for creating, executing and administrating the behaviour of the human staff for healthy working environment. The report starts from the explanation of the Guest Model of HRM and definition of Storey’s personnel management and IR practices and their comparison. In the next activity, it analyse the model and types of flexibility in the workplace of IHG as well shows the implications of Equal opportunity regulations and diversity within the organisation. At the end, the report will depicts the information about the performance methods for managing the performance and will briefly discuss about the health and safety issues prevailing at the workplace.
Task 1 Essay
Guest’s model of HRM
For a big organization like IHG the Guest model of HRM been used for creating relationship between employer and the employees. It would help in analyzing the basic difference between personnel management and human resource. This model gives information about six major dimensions of analysis: HRM practices, behaviour outcomes, HRM strategy, HRM outcomes, financial outcomes and performance outcomes. (Guest.et.al 2012)
HRM practices focuses on organizational objectives been followed up in a proper manner or not. The strategies give strength to the HRM practices. The behaviour outcome will tell the behaviour discipline, cultural values and structure of IHG. HRM strategies are the combination of HRM strategies with goals of the organization. It helps IHG in making the employees responsible and distributes task to the employees (Wright.et.al, 2015). HRM outcome explain how effectively the HRM is to take the organizational objectives. HRM quality tells the how the organization is performing. Financial outcome gives information capital returns from the investment made by IHG. Performance outcome deals with employees performances. Performance of an individual affects the organization directly.
IHG use the guest model of HRM by distributing the staff according to capabilities and needs. For this IHG taking the feedback from the employees to understand and improve the process and approach of organization towards them. This is helping IHG to understand the need of individual employees and if any employee lacks somewhere, proper training would be given to improve and correct it. IHG boost and motivate their employees by giving out directions for the mission and future planning of the organization. For achieving the main objectives of the Guest model IHG focuses on needs of the individual rather than of team, proper strategies been made, utilization of resources in a proper manner and motivate every individual towards organization goals.
Storey’s definitions of HRM, personnel and IR practices
Storey gave an idea about difference between model of HRM and personnel & IR practices. Storey defined HRM as the important approach that considerably impacting the functioning of the organization. While personnel and IR practices defines the management of workforce and consideration of regulations and rules for the employees for promoting the brand image of the organization. Storey defined HRM in two ways: soft HRM and hard HRM. Organization like IHG follows soft HRM which deals with the relationship and staff handling which includes analysis of needs, adaptability and integration of team. On the other hand organization like Marriott follows hard HRM which has main focus on selection procedure of staff, needs of the staff and management of employees in achieving the organization goals (Storey, 2014). Hard HRM has main elements as control, measurable criteria and performance management. Storey defines personnel management as proper arrangement of staff members with the legislatives. Personnel management consists of recruitment, selection, payrolls and keeping the employee’s right to global standard. IHG personnel management mainly focussed on pay roll and procurement of the employees. While Marriott focus of number of employees and does not give importance to any other thing.
IR practices are mostly helpful in managerial type decisions and activities which are according to the present trends and issues. According to storey, it has been considered that both the organizations are following HRM and personnel management activities. IHG is managing the approaches according to current requirements and trends, also considering legal aspects. While Marriott analyse the basic needs of the staff and tries to fill the gap between the top management and the employees. HRM is the most modern approach of personnel management while IR is common for HRM and PM. (Storey.et.al, 2014)
Implications of line manager and employees for developing the strategic approach
The responsibility to execute and implement any plan of human resource is the duty of line manager and employees both. IHG has appointed line manager for implementing goals and guide employees for achieving these goals. Line manager analyse the policies of the organization and guides the staff in implementing the policies. Due to Lack of communication sometimes affect the organization in smooth handling of the human resources. Line manager of IHG takes follow up from employees for achieving the goal. Line manager has responsibility of communicating the guidelines and information for the operations according to the requirements and needs of target audience.
By the implications done by line manager of IHG, the employees have a proper understanding of the system. IHG is finding individuals with high capabilities and assigning important roles to the individuals of high calibre to carry out difficult tasks. This is helping in improving the standard, effectiveness and production in services. Also implication for staff members of hotel involves bonus security, payment and healthy working environment that improve employee’s performance. The training given by HR department at IHG helps in improving the skills and knowledge of employees and manager for achieving the satisfaction of customer. For the betterment they collect operational and financial data, prepare lengthy presentations and make forecasts with other key persons. Sometime due to lack of gadgets and training material, the employees not able to get proper training, for that the IHG is taking big steps to make daily improvements in the training process (Storey.et.al,2014). Research shows that formal strategic planning plays a vital role in improvement of the satisfaction of the customers. Bringing together the right people in the system makes the process smooth and effective. For that strategic approach must be improvised and implemented in the organizations like IHG. Through strategic conversations both organization and employees gets benefits.
2.1 Models of flexibility for International Hotel Group (IGH)
Flexibility at workplace means the development of human resources and other strategies that are considered essential for the achievement of the long term objectives. Managers assign the work to the individual according to the capability of the employees at the right time with assigning roles and responsibility. The development in human staff is done through training and monitoring. There are mainly three types of flexibility model i.e. functional, financial and numerical flexibility. Functional flexibility in IGH is used for managing the human resources. The benefit of this flexibility is that is exploits the capability of the employees for adapting the new change by assigning them different task and steps between the jobs (Boxall and Purcell, 2011). For example: multi skilling. The main purpose to use this model that the employees can become more efficient and shows their growth in their services and this can be done through the trainings and development sessions.
The model clearly put the emphasis on outsourcing; sub contracting, employment agencies, self employed. These are the people who are outside the organisation but works for the functioning of the business. The internal model focuses on the different job market. The flexible working would improve the productivity, work life balance, increment in job satisfaction, less absenteeism etc. with all this benefit IGH objectives would be achieved and goals will be implemented. On the other hand, the IGH can use sequential flexibility which includes overtime schedules, multiple shifting, framing new plans to achieve the benchmark targets ( Bratton and Gold, 2012).
2.2 Types of flexibility
There are mainly three types of flexibility that helps the organisation to manage the operations and the important resources for the development of new ideas of implementation that helps in achieving the competitive advantage. The IGH can use different types of flexibility for the improvements in every department like housekeeping, front office, food and accommodation section etc.
- Functional flexibility- This flexibility refers to the proper utilisation of the human staff and building the capability of the employees to take the new task and shifting between the jobs. It would help the organisation as well to employee for changing in work issues, change in productions and methods. IGH manager analysis this flexibility to improve the efficiency and effectiveness for the employee’s of the organisation (Brown and Harvey, 2011).
- Numerical flexibility- This flexibility has given the power to managers for change in workforce number or number of hours each worker has worked due to change of demand pattern in the market. With the use of this flexibility in IGH the organisation would know the requirement of workforce needed and with that they can hire new employees for short term contracts. The demand and supply activities would be easily managed by the IHG.
- Financial flexibility- This flexibility manages the employment cost in terms of supply and demand in the external labour market. With this flexibility, the objectives of the functional flexibility and numerical flexibility is fulfilled in easy way. The benefit in the IHG would be that the organisation would pay dependent on the performance of the individual rather than from standard pay structure (Christensen and Schneider, 2015).
2.3 Use of flexibility for both employees and employers
With the workplace flexibility in IHG, the organisation would have the future success and use of proper utilisation of resources would be done in the current environment. The use of flexibility is important for the employees to provide them job satisfaction which will improve their growth and long term retention of employees would be there. The staff member would use this flexibility for learning the new opportunities and process that would helpful in achieving the competitive advantage. With flexibility, work life balance would be maintained as the employee’s needs are considered that will beneficial for IHG to gain employees loyalty, trust and courtesy towards the organisation (Cummings and Worley, 2014). The staff of hotel can use this flexibility for improving the knowledge of operations at every level and will get comfortable with the working pattern that motivates for timely deliveries of services and available human resources at the urgency.
The employers are too benefitted with the use of flexibility at workplace in terms of less absenteeism, retention of employees for long term, proper use of resources. The IHG employers can use this flexibility in hiring the qualified and knowledgeable workforce, increase in market share and profits, selection and recruitment cost would be minimised, fixed labour cost would be reduced due to change in labour pay structures from fixed to performance based payments (Dipboye, 2016).
2.4 Impact of changes in the labour market of flexibility
Human resource is an important asset in every organisation as they are the key enabler to provide the products and services to the customers. IHG is British Multinational Hotel that operates in nearly 100 countries has the huge employment in his business. The organisation would definitely face the impacts of labour in flexibility workplace. The impacts could be positive and negative both (Eichhorst and Marx, 2011). The positive impact the business would have that it able to resist the change in the environment because of providing flexibility workplace the organisation could attract the qualified work labour but it negative impact is that the much flexibility would affect the human resource planning and retention of the employee.
The change in technology would also have impact in the IHG organisation as there are labour who are unskilled and can’t adopt the technology change which would affects the organisation efficiency in providing the quality services but with that the advancement in technology the employees in the business would help to attract the customer through providing online services on bookings which increases the profits. For hiring the workforce several hiring agencies has been managed by the organisation, this is also part of flexibility model so that skilled workers are employed so that the organisation need not to train the employees first for the job, this save cost (Ellis and Watson, 2012). The only money would be paid to the hiring agencies. The other impact due to flexibility would be that in labour, women workforce also participate in corporate life, that give equal chance but with that the organisation has to adjust the HR practices, policies and flexibility facilities.
3.1 Forms of discrimination at workplace
The employment discrimination takes place when unfair treatment is being done with the employees based on prejudices. The governmental authorities had framed the rules and regulations for the control of discrimination taking into account several points in framing. The following forms of discrimination taking place in IHG organisation:
- Race discrimination- The organisation faces this major issue of discrimination. The top management conduct the hiring section the biasness is usually done by the management. For example: it may possible in IHG that the HR manager is hiring the white community only because of comfort working with them and discrimination with female candidates (Friedman, 2012).
- Disability discrimination- It may be possible that the organisation is only giving the chances to the eligible able person. The discrimination prevails on disability employees. This can be in form of not giving equal chance to participate in the functioning of the operations and not giving same equal wages to disable employees etc.
- Sex discrimination- Many organisations reject the resumes of the eligible candidates on the ground of homosexual or bisexual person. They feel that they are not comfortable with the workings of their due to only the reason for sexual disorder. This type of discrimination is increasing the turnover of employees in IHG organisation (Giannikis and Mihail, 2011).
3.2 Implication of Equal opportunity legislation
Equal opportunity legislation briefly explains that equal opportunity should be given to every employee’s in the organisation. This legislation is important to both the employee and organisation. The first important thing the act specifies the behaviour and attitude of the employees towards the work and culture, the secondly it says that the employees loyalty and trust would be achieved providing job satisfaction and thirdly employees have a sense that they too belong to the organisation by mentally and physically (Gold et.al. 2013). The act gives the equal chance to all the eligible candidate for recruitment in the organisation of their choice and the organisation cannot judge on the basis of discrimination without legal or valid reason.
The IHG management is following this rules and regulation at the workplace for the staff members. By following the organisation itself would be benefited that they get confidence in their working that they practice equal opportunity act and every type of discrimination would be reduced and finally they are giving equal chance to every candidate so that they can have a diverse workforce. However the implementation of the act sometimes become difficult task as it involves the legal process and during the recruitment of the candidate formal grievances and strict clause make it unnecessary delay in the selection which lead to personal biasness of the HR manager. Moreover the organisation prefers to keep their own people or relatives of the employees or directors because they have trust on the existing employee irrespective whether the person hiring is not qualified for the required post (Guest et.al. 2012).
3.3 Comparison of diversity and equal opportunity approaches
Both are different approaches and have significant impact on the operational activities of the IHG organisation. Diversity in the organisation is preferred so that the employees can perform different task with perfection and equal opportunity is also followed to eliminate discrimination in work place. The IGH organisation is following the different process to meet the expectations of the staff and maintain the equality act. Diversity on the other hand manages human resource and increase the potential of the employees. The major comparisons between the two are:
Table 1 Comparison between Diversity and Equal opportunity approach
Equal opportunity Approach
Focus on improving the quality of decisions and promoting innovative ideas (Hill et.al. 2014).
Focus on employee relations and retention of employees for long time.
Benefits are to promote every individual.
The basic fundamental is to motivate the manager to avoid the inequalities.
Here, the basic fundamental in the hotel is to give equal chance to every staff to consider the legislation in reality.
The use of this approach would be that the output generated would be effective that the employees are ready to face the new challenges as they have gained knowledge of undertaking the new task and new learning every time.
By using this approach, the result generated is less absenteeism, job satisfaction and attracting the skilled candidate to join the organisation (Hill et.al. 2010)
It concentrates on practical workings of various skills and qualities.
It motivates the employee’s performance by developing positive healthy environment where the tasks are carried out according to the legislation applicable.
In the present scenario of IHG the organisation should follow the equality approach to maintain the performance of the every individual as in hospitality industry changes are the vital part of the organisation and influence the brand image of the hotel.
4.1 Comparing the methods of managing the performance
There are different methods that the organisation is using for the performance of the employees. Evaluation is important criteria for the management to find the effectiveness of the employees at workplace and how much training is still required to the human staff for achieving their excellent services. The most common method used by the IHG management is:
- 360 degree feedback: It is the good method for the organisation to evaluate the performances of the employees at the workplace. For example: IHG is using this technique by collecting the feedback from the customers, competitors, online source, supervisors, stake holders etc about the functioning, behaviour of the management towards everyone, whether time schedules are met and communication of the organisation that act as an important evidence in measuring and managing the performances (Kelly et.al. 2011).
- Rating method: This also a common technique used for analysing the performance of the employees at the workplace. In this method also the feedbacks are collected through online medium or telephonic conversations from the creditors and clients toward the behaviour and the communication, delivery of services and providing information to the clients which are necessary. After collecting the feedback from respective people the HR manager rate the employees and implement changes in the plan of training if he considered necessary.
- Management by objectives: This technique also helps in managing the performance and it’s a modern approach. The measuring is easy because the manager and employees agree on some specific goals to achieve in target deadline. With this method, the success and the failure are pre-determined (Kirton and Greene, 2015).
4.2 Welfare approaches followed by organization
Welfare is also another important activity in the organisation for motivating and giving the job satisfaction to the employees. IHG management is providing the quality services on their part to the employees by following the rules and regulations framed by the UK government. In order to maintain to maintain the brand image of the organisation the facilities such as flexible working, security assurance to female staff especially, working shift flexibility, leave allowance, participation in decision making etc would have the positive impact on the employees and they will retain for the longer duration. The subsequent approach for the welfare of the employees is:
- Intra mural facilities- these facilities are related to the internal business of the IHG like drinking water, healthy and safety environment, medical compensation etc.
- Workplace safety and cleanliness atmosphere
- Tools for cleanliness is deployed like machine fencing, health, education, ambulance facility, counselling sessions, first aid facility (Krieger, 2012).
- Feedbacks from employees for the facilities and to know their comfort level
- Labour management services i.e. a committee to resolve the issue of labour like trade union
- Economic services i.e. safety and health insurance and salary loans.
- Extra mural facilities-these facility is related to the external facilities like accommodation and learning facilities
- Sanitary environment and comfortless
- Transportation facilities
- Recreation facility to employees and their family members like children
- Government welfare facilities
Thus by using the above welfare activities the IHG can reach at the level where they are expecting to achieve the desired target. If the welfare activities are properly implemented the staff will retain for the longer time in the organisation and they will have the feeling that they too belong to the organisation.
4.3 Implications of health and safety legislation on human resources practices
The organisation needs to follow the rules and regulation for the health and safety of the employees. The government has provided the Health and Safety Act for solving the health issues. In IHG, the managers are concerned about the health and safety of the employees at workplace. It follows global standards for the safety of the human resources. With educating and training programs by the doctors the organisation is making aware to the employees for the health issues which enable them to take the risk at work. Different safety tools are deployed to avoid the interruption in operations like fire safety, alternative site locations in the event of disaster with that offering the healthy and safety environment.
Interaction between the employees would also help in knowing the environmental issues. The subject like behavioural science is being educated to the employees to evaluate the responses of the individual in diverse situation (Bratton and Gold, 2012).The other facilities like hygienic canteens, RO drinking water facility, sports facility etc. But providing this facility IHG need to spend their funds to acquire modern equipments for the safety of the human staff.
4.4 Impact of issues on practices of human resources in current scenario
In the current scenario, there are many issues that have significant impact on the practices of human resources. IHG hotel is using the different approach in managing the human resources which have positive and negative impact of following issues:
- Technological issues: In order to maintain the communication and sharing of the information with staff members, IHG HR management is using the different technological tools that have positive impact on the process of offering training and guideline to staff members. However this kind of tools help to share the information at less time and cost but lack of knowledge of processing the tools are affecting the on-going human resources practices.
- E-recruitment: For appointing the staff for performing the practices for customer satisfaction, role of human resources is important. In the current scenario, e-recruitment process is new method of hiring the staff but has significant influence on the activities of HR department of IHG (Kirton and Greene, 2015). By implementing the technological tools, organization has increased the operational work as management requires appointing new technical staff and offering them training to meet the organizational objectives. Filtering and screening of application is also increasing time lagging in human resources practices.
In the current context, the report had discussed about the management of human resources as an integral part of the IHG for the effective operation on whole activity. It has described the Guest model of HRM and definition of Storey for personnel management and IR practices. In the next task, the report had thrown the light on the model and types of flexibility that the IHG has implemented in the workplace. Further, it had concluded that importance of Equal opportunity Act and identified the method of managing the performance. At last it had also considered the health and safety issues and their impacts on IHG organisation.
Books and journals
Boxall, P. and Purcell, J., 2011. Strategy and human resource management. Palgrave Macmillan.
Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012. Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Brown, D.R. and Harvey, D., 2011. An experiential approach to organization development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Christensen, K. and Schneider, B. eds., 2015. Workplace flexibility: Realigning 20th-century jobs for a 21st-century workforce. Cornell University Press.
Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
Dipboye, R.L., 2016. discrimination as high risk behavior in the workplace.Risky Business: Psychological, Physical and Financial Costs of High Risk Behavior in Organizations, p.177.