Delivery in day(s): 5
Unit 22 Topical Issues on MHR Assignment
One can easily refer managing human resources to a manager’s functions which he/she relatively performs towards the employees of an organization. The key activities of managing human resources includes planning and resource allocation, providing employees with direction, vision and goals, cultivating a working atmosphere where employees tend to choose motivation and contribution, supplying of metrics for giving employees the feedbacks of their performances and providing them with opportunities of personal and professional development , setting example of work ethics, employee treatment and empowerment, leading the organizations efforts of listening and serving customers, removing of hurdles impeding employees progress.
Within an organization the human resource management process acts as a mediator between the management and employees. The process of human resource management that an organization implements further helps in ensuring the advanced use of available human resources eventually allowing the management to enhance the efficiency of the overall business process.
1.1. Explain Guest’s model of HRM as applied to the organisation of your choice
According to David Guest’s, the HRM model can be analysed through six aspects namely HRM strategies, HRM practices, HRM outcomes, behaviour outcomes, performance outcomes and financial outcomes. The key ideas of Guest’s model is generally relies on the indispensable elements HRM, say for example, commitment which has a direct relation with the valued consequences of a business. (Guest, 2011)
An organisation can implement the process of HRM by adopting a number of ways which further is dependent on the workplace situation. Moreover, Guest’s HRM model is helpful in understanding the difference between HRM practices and that of the practices of personnel management. Once can see that Deutsche Bank has successfully implemented the Guest’s model of HRM at its workplace further defining the strategies of differentiation, focus and cost. Strategy of differentiation in Deutsche Bank has lead to the HRM practices of selection and training which eventually has its focus on enhancing the levels of employees’ deidication towards their job roles concurrently ensuring an increased productivity and high profit generation. (Guest, 2011) In addition, the HRM strategy of focus is also implemented in Deutsche Bank leading to the practices of appraisal and rewards resulting into high quality performance from the employees. It has been observed that Deutsche Bank has effectively and efficiently implemented the HRM practices of selection and training, appraisal and rewards, job design, involvement, status and security. Furthermore, Guest’s model of HRM in Deutsche Bank specifically targets the HRM outcomes of commitment, quality and flexibility within the employees simultaneously ensuring that the employees some certain characteristic or behavioural traits at workplace.
1.2. Using an organisation of your choice, compare the differences between Storey’s definitions of HRM, personnel and IR practices.
The primary focus of Storey’s HRM model is on the differences amid the HRM, PM and IR processes. Storey states that the process of HRM is completely different from that of PM and IR processes and the key elements differentiating it are the key value of the procedure, its continuous participation in the business model Deutsche and focus on employees working capability. Moreover, Storey’s HRM model further determines 27 key points for establishing the difference amid HRM, PM and IR within an organization like Deutsche Bank. (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014)
In accordance to Storey, the capability and commitment of an employee is what differentiates organizations and it is important that HRM is implemented in the organizational strategy and simultaneously must be coordinated within the management functions further allowing organization like Deutsche Bank in achieving its business goals. Key difference in between PM and HRM is that in case of PM, the work power of an organization is mainly a predicted strategy of growth and improvement where highly experienced employees are needed. HRM, on the other hand is basically concerned with the extension of the further estimation of the varied part. (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014)
1.3 Assess the implications for line managers and employees of developing a strategic approach to HRM for any organisation of your choice.
It has been observed that in Deutsche Bank, HRM process is eventually based on a framework that is précised and further describes the elements which act as basic building blocks for the implementing the process of human resource management within the organisation. Planning in HRM process ensures activities and processes revolving around HRM also work towards the direction of attaining the goals and objectives of Deutsche Bank. Planning in the process of HRM describes the direction and execution plan of all activities whereas the element of policy further describes the clear and efficient procedures that are adopted for completing the various activities of HRM. (Boselie, 2010)
The element of administration in HRM allows managing of the available resources that are used in executing the activities that are involved in the process. The strategic approach to the process of HRM has various implications on Deutsche Bank’s line managers and employees further leaving an effect on their work activities in terms of the schedule for maintaining the culture and procedures that are followed while completing the tasks allotted. The strategic approach of HRM process further ensures that both line managers and employees are able to accomplish the given tasks ahead of the set deadlines which in turn allow Deutsche Bank in successfully achieving the organisational goals. The line manager’s role in HRM is to efficiently deal with the rapid change in the business environment and continue the operational exercises irrespective of any pressure by making the finest use of minimum supplies. HRM helps the line manager to achieve his/her mission of mentoring, coaching and counselling the employees. On the other hand, employees too play an integral role in being the most invaluable asset of Deutsche Bank. Employees work hard in meeting the demands and expectation of the management thereby, allowing Deutsche in achieving its business goals. HRM allows the employees in taking adequate strategic decisions in various work challenges and situations. (Boselie, 2010)
2.1 Explain how a model of flexibility might be applied in your organisation
One can see that flexibility concept has invaded the thinking of current HRM further giving adequate explanation for the new developments in the patterns of flexible and variable working styles. Flexibility is about how the employer and an employee make considerable changes as to when, where and how an employee will work for meeting the needs of both employee and business. Flexibility facilitates meeting of both the employees and business needs by bringing change in time, location and way an employee works. It is important that flexibility brings a mutual benefit for both the employer and employee eventually resulting into superior outcomes. (Tims and Bakker, 2010)
Various flexibility models can be used for implementing an effective and efficient process of HRM in Deutsche which focuses on eliminating the sternness of the process that are eventually based on different aspects. Flexibility model of HRM allows the organization to lay its focus on flexibleness of business and the work strategies that are involved numerous activities of Deutsche’s the business model.
Various types of employment flexibility models are there that can be related to Deutsche’s environment. Conferring to Atkinson' model, flexibility of employment within an organization can be described in dividing the employees by maintaining a core part of employment and peripheral where the core part lends functional flexibility and peripheral part caters numerical flexibility further allowing the HR Manager in sustaining flexibility in the departmental operations and business model Deutsche Bank. (Tims and Bakker, 2010)
2.2 Discuss the types of flexibility which may be developed by your organisation
Under the approach of functional flexibility the employees of Deutsche Bank are allowed to work and carrying out multiple roles and responsibilities other than the usual. Moreover, functional flexibility depends eminently on the various activities of training and development within the organisation. One can see that in the demand of a situation, Deutsche’s employees who are highly skilled are assigned in playing multiple roles further allowing the HR Manager in efficiently maintaining the human resource requirements in the time of crisis. Numerical flexibility, on the other hand allows Deutsche’s HR Manager to get assured that the total number of human resources the company needs is fulfilled every time. This kind of flexibility also lets the HR Manager to keep the employees engaged by adopting varied ways further ensuring the continuity of work. (Cummings and Worley, 2014)
Types of flexibility working thatDeutsche Bank can develop:
- Part time working: skilled and self –sufficient employees are given the benefit of working part-time allowing Deutsche to pay them less when compared to full-timers with similar set of skills. This flexibility at work allows the part-timers to look out for more job options or carry on their educations together with the job. A part-time employee on an average works for less than 38 hours in a week and normally works for regular hours every week. A part-timer is eligible for similar benefits to that of a full-time employee on a proportional base. Deutsche can also keep the part-time employee as a permanent employee or on a fixed-term contract. (Cummings and Worley, 2014)
- Term time working: this kind of work flexibility will allow Deutsche in hiring employees who work for a particular number of weeks in a year on either a full or part-time basis. There are certain positions which clearly need term-time working and an employee can request for term-time working when the post typically needs to work for a full-year. Under term-time working arrangement, the nominated working weeks must not exceed 42 weeks in a year. By adopting the work flexibility of term-time working, Deutsche can allow the employees having school-age children to work when the kids are at school which means that they can avail an average 13 weeks off every year.
- Job sharing: in case Deutsche adopts this kind of work flexibility it will allow two employees to work on part-time schedules for completing the task in less time in comparison to the time taken by one person in doing the single full-time job. Job-sharing will further allow the employees in reducing their working hours and dedicate that time to the family or simply will be helpful to the employees in search for a lighter workload without retiring altogether. In job-sharing, the hours can vary. The 2 employees involved can opt for working together part of the week or never see each other. (Cummings and Worley, 2014)
- Flexitime: under this kind of work flexibility scheme,Deutsche can allow the employees to consider the flexibility element in their working hours and involves a flexible start and finishing times around the core work hours and within the restrictions of the bandwidth allowing the employees with more choice. Developing flexitime will allow Deutsche establishing greater morale and job satisfaction in employees and higher staff retention and better ability of attracting new employees, thereby reducing the recruitment costs.
- Working from home: in case Deutsche allows certain employees to avail the facility of work from home, it will reduce the overhead expenses and concurrently control absenteeism further allowing the bank to hire the best employees who prefer working as freelancers regardless of their geological locations. (Cummings and Worley, 2014)
2.3 Assess the use of flexible working practices from both the employee and the employer perspective
It is observed that employee turnover is the prime concern for Deutsche Bank and developing the practices of flexible working can be beneficial for employees and the company. With the help of flexible working employees can work conveniently and be more productive when compared to the employees working as full-timers. The arrangement of flexible working allows the employees in striking a better work-life balance. Flexible working practices keep the employees satisfied by their working conditions and might be suitable for employees who prefer to avoid the rush and traffic in regular work timings. In Deutsche, flexible working arrangements are further combined with an increase in pay or a stipend for the shift work allowing the employees in fulfilling their monetary needs. (Guest, Isaksson and De Witte, 2010)
Availability of flexible working arrangements is dependent on the organisational policies of Deutsche Bank further letting the company in upholding the invaluable human resources and attracting a wider talent pool. By practicing flexible working arrangements, Deutsche can cut back on absenteeism in the workplace concurrently allowing the employees in being motivated and committed towards the activities of the organisation further bringing a rise in the overall productivity of the business
2.4 Discuss the impact that changes in the labour market have had on flexible working practices
It has been observed that a change in labor market has left an immense impact on the flexible working practices. Change in social and demographic conditions and rise of technology, in past decade shows that flexible working and balancing work life have emerged as the primary issues of UK labour market. Use of internet has empowered the employees especially the female employees to work even from remote areas and concurrently incorporate both personal and professional lives. This has allowed the employees to fully get engaged in the labour market and simultaneously strike a balance between their commitments towards family with the work. Organizations by sanctioning employees to work flexibly can also easily attract and retain skilled employees who differently are not able to participate in the labor market. (Bloom and Van Reenen, 2010)
The government of UK has framed certain flexible working policies for the benefit of employees by introducing the legal right of requesting flexible working. This right can be availed by all employees with 26 weeks service. A survey made in 2013 suggests that 40% of employers had received flexible working requests where only 9% of employers had refused the requests. The line manager or supervisor in around one-third of organizations decides about the flexible working requests. Change in the labor market enforces organizations like Deutsche in applying several techniques and flexible working approaches such as job rotation, job sharing etc. Practice of flexible working arrangements has brought an improvement in employee turnover and performances further leading to the advancement of improved HR policies, thereby supporting the practices of flexible working. Organizations like Deutsche can now employ a diversified workforce and pick the best talents and bring out a mutual profitable agreement with the employees. Change in labor market has empowered most of the organizations to come up with such policies and willingly accept the diversity of today’s modern Britain. (Bloom and Van Reenen, 2010)
3.1 Eexplain the forms of discrimination that can take place in the workplace using examples of recent discrimination cases which has made the news
Illegal discrimination at work takes place when the employer takes detrimental actions against an employee or a potential employee on the basis of race, colour, gender, age, disability, religion, nationality etc. Workplace discrimination might also include issues like issues as hiring, firing, promotions and availability of benefits. The Civil Right Act (1964) directs that no employee or a person seeking employment can be discriminated against based on race, gender, ethnicity, age, religion or disability. (Van Laer and Janssens, 2011)
Types of discrimination at workplace:
- Age Discrimination: this practice is precisely protected by law where an employer is forbidden from citing an age preference in job advertisements and provides employees with similar benefits irrespective of their age. Also practicing of age discrimination is termed illegal in apprenticeship programs or internship opportunities.
- Religious Discrimination: employers practicing discrimination based on employee’s religious customs is illegal. This kind of adverse treatment embodies through unreasonable layoff, harassment, segregation or unequal pay. The victim of religious discrimination is not provided with chances to accomplishing his/her religious beliefs at work due to the absence of a flexible working schedule, job reassignments or voluntary shift change which is contradictory to Civil Rights Act of 1964. (Van Laer and Janssens, 2011)
- Gender Discrimination: employers are forbidden from practicing gender based discrimination at work. For example, keeping a difference in the pay structure of men and female employees working in same position with similar qualifications, responsibility and skill comes under gender based discrimination. Other examples of gender discrimination at work comprise of sexual favours, sexual advances and physical harassment. The employment policies can also be sexually discriminative if they leave a negative effect on the employees of a certain gender. (Van Laer and Janssens, 2011)
- Pregnancy-Based Discrimination: discrimination that ispregnancy-based is also illegal and it has been made mandatory for employers to deal pregnancy of their female employees like a temporary condition in need of special consideration.
- Example of recent discrimination cases: In 2014, a lawsuit was filed against the Wal-Mart Stores of Texas, LLC by Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of US accusing the store of practicing age based discrimination and laying off manager David Moorman because of his age. Wal-Mart was also accused of refusing for providing a proper accommodation for Moorman for managing his diabetes which comes under a discrimination based on disability. EEOC accused Wal-Mart of violating employment discrimination laws and Americans with Disabilities Act and had to pay David $150,000 in damages and signed an agreement for training its employees on the requirements of ADA and ADEA. (Van Laer and Janssens, 2011)
3.2 discuss the practical implications of equal opportunities legislation for an organisation
Equal opportunity legislation has an immense impact on the HRM practices of an organization like Deutsche Bank. Conferring to the Equal Opportunity Act, 1964, it is mandatory that organizations provide the employees with equal amount of opportunities in the numerous aspects of its business law. Implications of this act greatly affect the employees’ activities and thereby, the HR Managers must further ensure that employees have equal amount of opportunities regardless of their personal and professional characteristics. Moreover, a certain change in the Equality Act 2010 ensures all employees are equally perceived and under the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008, employees with criminal offences undergo legal actions that are based on the cruelty of the actions. Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006 establish that an employee belonging to a certain race or cultural background is not differently treated at workplace whereas Civil Partnership Act 2004 ensures that civil couples are been subjected to joined employee benefits. Human Rights Act 1998 ensures that an employee is further allowed for exercising their rights quoted in the employment contract. By working in compliance to the legalisations leaves a greater affect on the organizations aims of providing equal distribution of the opportunities and hence, the HR Manager adopts adequate strategies for dealing with such situations. (Linnenluecke and Griffiths, 2010)
3.3 compare the approaches to managing equal opportunities and managing diversity
One can see that Deutsche’s employees belong to diverse cultural background, race or personal history and the HR Manager ensures that the diverseness in employees is managed in proper way further allowing the company in providing and satisfying the employees with equal opportunities at work. The increase in job satisfaction eventually enhances the performance of the employees as an individual and in groups. The HR Manager ensures that all the employees are equally treated allowing the company to adhere the equality legislations. Moreover, he/she ensures that there is sufficient employee involvement in the process of decision making regardless of their personal characteristics. Since Deutsche’s employees come from various cultural backgrounds, the HR Manager constantly works towards maintaining an environment which acknowledges celebrates the festivities of every culture concurrently cultivating a working atmosphere of cooperation and healthy professional relationship further allowing ignoring the diverseness in the organisational environment. (Armstrong, Flood, Guthrie, Liu, MacCurtain and Mkamwa, 2010)
4.1 Select an organisation you work or have worked for, identify and compare the performance management methods used
In Deutsche Bank Various methods can be used for performance management which eventually relies on SMART principles further describing the methods to be specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time based. Moreover, these methods of performance management concurrently allow the HR Manager in monitoring the employees’ performances and give them appraisals on the basis of their performances which in turn keeps their the motivational level high and focus on achieving higher performance levels.
- Management by objectives (MBO): the focus of this method is on managing the employees’ performances on the grounds of objectives and goals they are assigned with which are eventually allocated by the line managers adhering to the SMART principles. The employees are further evaluated on the basis of individual performances that confer with the accomplishment of the goals and objectives assigned.
- 360 degree appraisal: under this method the management where an employee is evaluated based on feedbacks given by direct supervisor, peers, customers, vendors and a self-assessment further allowing the HR Manager in getting a clear and overall picture of employees performance at work.
- Self-assessment: under this method Deutsche allows its employees in maintaining a record of their individual work status and their performance in a defined format. This documentation of self-assessment further allows the HR Manager in conducting proper employee appraisals. (Morrison, Ross, Kemp and Kalman, 2010)
4.2 Assess the approaches used to managing employee welfare in your organisation
In Deutsche Bank, employee welfare includes the benefits that are provided to the employees. The employees are allowed to avail seasonal ticket loans as an employee benefit package where they get easy loans for planning their holidays after working for a period of 16 weeks further allowing them in satisfying their personal needs and concurrently dedicate time to their families. Employees who seek to pursue higher education are allowed to avail unpaid educational leaves ensuring continuation of employment once they complete the course. Moreover, Deutsche is concerned about its employee’s health and thereby, offers them with discounted gym membership throughout the year and free health check- ups once in 2 months. Deutsche ensures that all the employees are also covered with health insurance which partly is paid by the company. Also the medical expenses of employees are fully or partly reimbursed based on the seriousness of the illness. Deutsche every year spends £ 11,513.39 GBP on employee welfare and has set a Scholarship Trust under which the deserving children of their employees are given scholarships for pursuing higher education from any premier university of their choices. (Ali, Rehman, Ali, Yousaf and Zia, 2010)
4.3 Discuss the implications of health and safety legislation on human resources practices
Deutsche has implemented a number of health and safety policies for its employees for ensuring that they are provided with safe working atmosphere simultaneously ensuring that the business activities are done in adherence to the health and safety related legislations. The health and safety policies and plans further affect the HRM activities of Deutsche and that on the employees’ activities. The HR Manager ensures that the HRM activities the company practices do not violate any of the health and safety policies implemented at workplace. The HR Manager ensures that all the employees are covered with complete health insurance schemes and that the evacuation plans in case of any emergency like fire or natural calamities are described precisely to every employees. Moreover, the HR Manager also ensures that the workplace is safe and secure from any kind of threat to the health of the employees. (Bratton and Gold, 2012)
4.4 Evaluate the impact of another topical issue on human resources practices
Various issues can rise in the process of HRM and a few of these occur in order to avoid workplace discriminations, while recruitment, managing employee training and development activities while other issues occur while the HR Manager tries to resolve employee conflicts, establishing employee benefits, managing diversity in workplace, managing outsourcing of tasks etc. A number of impacts and implications can be seen in the occurrence of any of these topical issues on HRM practices. In rise of any such situation, the prime focus of the HR practices remains on boosting the employees’ morale and for maintaining so, the HR Manager adopts adequate strategies for example, providing employees with added perks further allowing maintaining of employee productivity and that of the organisation as a whole. For a common topical issue i.e. employees recruitment, the HR Manager makes use of different strategy for ensuring that the interest to be a part of the organisation continues in the market further allowing hi/her to ensure the availability of eligible applicants for various vacant positions within the company. Apart from the issue of recruitment, another most common issue is workplace discrimination which can be dealt by allowing the employees to take part in the process of decision-making and concurrently enhancing employees’ relations. (Cheney, Christensen, Zorn and Ganesh, 2010)
At the end of this report it can be concluded that we have understood the various aspects and sides of HRM which is eventually concerned with the employees’ welfare, workplace discrimination and the measures for overcoming them. By considering the example of Deutsche Bank we have developed an understanding that various management practices are being carried for maintaining equality, health and safety, and culture at workplace. For maintaining balance in the organization and achieving the set target of both employees and organizational growth and development, an organization must give proper attention on these issues
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