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Unit 22 Managing Human Resources Assignment Copy
Human resource management is the crucial and one of the advantages gaining aspect for any organization. The human resource management helps to foster the management of the different resources and provides the balance in the activities of the organization. The management of the resources of the organization leads to the greater success as it provides the management of the organizational activities. There are many different perspective of human resource management needed to be understood to functions of the organization at extreme level. There are many theories related to human resource management and the different rules and legislations regarding the human resource management are also impacting the management of the organization.
As the human resource is the most important asset for the organization it needs to be studied in depth. In this assignment the discussed topics will be the theories and the perspectives on the human resource management and the flexible working practices. The organization taken for this assignment is the Best way Group. In the context of the organization the topics are discussed and the understanding of the human resource management is more accessed.
1.1. Explain Guest’s model of HRM as applied to the organisation of your choice.
The organization namely the Best way Group is based in the London, UK. It is the wholesale, cement, banking and the pharmacy dealing company which is the second largest wholesale company, providing its services to the 125000 independent retailers all over the nation.
Guest’s model of human resource management- The guest’s model of human resource management is the perspective of the David Guest’s that the human resource management is different from the traditional personnel or the employee management. It has the different way to look at for making the business more flexible.
David Guest's model of HRM has 6 dimensions of analysis:
- HRM strategy- The guest’s model explains the different strategies of the human resource management to achieve better results and to change the perspective of the organizations.
- HRM practices-Various and innovative practices of the human resource management to improve the management of the organization are explained in this.
- HRM outcomes- The outcomes and the results of the human resource management are covered under this.
- Behavior outcomes- The model helps to understand the behavior outcome of the employees or the human resource.
- Performance outcomes- It provides the performance results of using the different strategies of the organization.
- Financial outcomes- Financial outcomes or the results are also described under this model (Brueller, et.al, 2016).
This model explains that the commitment has the direct relationship with the valued business situations. But the relationship between the commitment and the high performance is not easy to maintain. The employee relationship is that which is between the individual and the organization.
Best way Group by applying this model in the organization will have to develop the HRM strategy, practices and outcomes as well as the company will get the outcomes of the employee behavior, performance and the finance. The organization has to understand the employee relations and the commitment of the organizational employees with their performance.
1.2. Choosing two organisations of your choice compare the differences between Storey’s definitions of HRM, personnel and IR practices.
The Storey’s definitions of HRM and the practices of the human resource management is the different than the Guest’s model. The Storey’s model is based on the soft and hard human resource management and the stress management in the human resource of the organization.
The two organizations taken for the comparison are the Best way group of the UK and another one is the Palmer and Harvey. They both are the wholesaler of UK. The scenario is that the Best way group works on the hard human resource management practices and the Palmer and Harvey are working on the soft human resource management practices.
The differences made by the Storey in his definition of human resource management are that the soft human resource management focuses on the human aspects of human resource management whereas the hard human resource management believes in the people as a resource.
Differences between Storey’s definitions of human resource management
Treats employee as a cost
Treats employees as a resource
Covers market issues
Covers people issues
It has compliance
It has commitment
Based on quantitative aspect
Based on qualitative aspect
It is understood by the above table that the hard human resource management is the rough format of the HRM and includes the exploitation of the employee for the maximum return. The soft human resource management includes the benefit of the competitive advantage by the skills and the performance as well as the commitment of the employees.
The above mentioned organizations it is described that Best way group works on the hard human resource management practices and the Palmer and Harvey are working on the soft human resource management practices. The Best way Group is treating people of the organization as the cost and exploits them to work for the maximum return. This will result in the losing of the employees and the people and the company will face the problem in achieving the targets (Becker & Smidt, 2016).
The Palmer and Harvey works on the soft human resource management practices which has the positive impact on the organization as well as the on the people of the organization. The skills are improved and the better performance of the employee shows up.
1.3 Assess the implications for line managers and employees of developing a strategic approach to HRM for any organisation of your choice.
The line mangers and the employees play an important role in the organization for its development and in achieving the organizational objectives. The strategic approach to the management is needed to run the management of the organization effectively.
The role of the managers and the employees in human resource management are:
- The employee should interact with their line managers without any problem to get the best results in the organization. The communicating the problems and discussing them is the easiest way to sort out the problems and the issues.
- The line managers should manage the employees and make them more comfortable.
- The management should perform their duties such
- People management
- Quality checking
- Dealing with the clients
- Measure performance
- Work allocation
The strategic management explains the use of business strategy to improve the human resource management within the organization. The different human resource management policies are used to organization activities to improve the functions of the organization (Boxall, 2014).
The Best way Group should manage its organizational management in a way that the line managers and employees consider the following approaches of the human resource management.There are three strategic approaches to management of human resources which are as followed.
- Universal access- this is based on the four objectives that Guest has explained that are strategic integration, commitment, flexibility, quality that the company should focus on.
- Access to opportunities and fitting- it includes the internal as well as the external integration. The opportunities and the fitting are included in it.
- An approach that is based on resources- it is based on the internal relationship between the organization and the individual (Tung, 2016).
2.1 Explain how a model of flexibility might be applied in your organisation.
Flexibility refers to be an ease in the working of the organization. Flexibility can be organizational structure flexibility and functional flexibility in an organization. Flexibility characterise itself as to use the talents of the employees more effectively and efficiently, accept changes and working with an ease.
The organization named the Best way Group may apply the flexibility model in an organization in order to increase the ease in the working and the stress free working business environment for the employees. The flexibility in an organization leads to the better achievement of the organizational goals and the objectives and the importance of the flexibility is that it enhances the performance of the employees as they get the unrestricted environment (Nolan, 2010).
The Best way Group can apply the flexibility model in their organization by introducing
- Part time working
- Job sharing
- Work from home
- Multi skilled working
- Flexibility in groups
- Flexibility in time
2.2 Discuss the types of flexibility which may be developed by your organisation.
There are various types of flexibility which an organization can develop or work upon to get the maximum efficiency and the effectiveness in an organization. The types of flexibility are discussed as below:
- Numerical- It includes the part time work as the most common type of flexibility and used for the short term projects.
- Temporal- Time flexibility is the most common type of the flexibility in this and this is used for adoption of the changes etc.
- Functional- It includes the multi skilled and the team work flexibility the most common flexibility. It is used basically to increase the knowledge of the employees.
- Financial- It includes the cost flexibility in the organization and its mostly use to reduce the pressure of the cost and money or the loss in an organization
- Cultural- It includes the team work flexibility and used to remove the cultural barriers in an organization and to promote the team work in an organization (Christensen & Schneider, 2010).
The Best way Group deals in the wholesale and the cement as well as the banking sectors and it needs to be flexible to gain the maximum efficiency and effectiveness in an organization as it works in so many different sectors. The most effective and essential flexibility methods in an organization will be functional, financial resources and cultural. This is because the functional flexibility will help the employees in learning the new work and the functions of the organization and in improving their skills. The financial flexibility will help the organization in reducing the pressure of finance and the loss to an organization and improve the confidence of the organization. The cultural barriers should also be removed and the team work should be promoted for achieving better results (Whyman, et.al, 2015,).
2.3 Assess the use of flexible working practices from both the employee and the employer perspective.
Flexibility in an organization is very effective and the flexible organization provides the ease of working as well as the motivation to the employees to work and achieve the organizational goals effectively and efficiently. The restrictions in the organization makes the employees not interested for the job and lose the morale to work. Therefore it is observed that the flexibility in an organization is very useful.
The flexibility helps the organization and it employees in-
- Reducing stress- It helps in minimising the stress and provides ease in working.
- Improving balance in work and family- It helps to improve the balance between the work and the family as the employees are able to give time to their family also.
- Increase motivation- It enhances the motivation in the employee to work as fewer restrictions provides to work easily and reduces pressure.
- Better physical and mental balance- The employee face the less pressure and work easily which provides the better physical and mental working.
- Improve balance in the work and life- It improve the balance in the working of the organization and the life of the employee.
The flexibility helps the organization and it employers in-
- Retaining staff- It helps the organization to retain its staff as the staff are satisfied.
- To work according to the legislation- The laws provided by the organization are also followed.
- To motivate staff- The ease in the working provides the motivation to the staff.
- To increase the productivity and effectiveness in an organization- Flexibility helps in enhancing the effectiveness and the productivity in the achievement of goals.
- To meet customer’s demands- It helps to achieve the customer satisfaction by meeting the customer’s demands (Putnam, et.al, 2014).
2.4 Discuss the impact that changes in the labour market have had on flexible working practices.
The various impacts on the flexible working practices of the changes in the labour market are that the changes in the business context means there is interest in using flexibility in
- Dealing with globalisation and e-commerce/volatile markets
- Increasing productivity and competitiveness
- Adapting to technological change
- Ongoing interest in Japanese management/functional flexibility
- Increasing employment opportunities to wider labour pool
- Coping with peak workloads/new opportunities
- Exploiting decreased trade union power/less resistance to demarcation
- Adapting to fluctuations in worker availability (labour markets)
- Meeting workers aspirations (e.g. working hours)
- Legal requirements/government encouragement of flexible labour markets/lifelong learning (Putnam, et.al, 2014).
3.1 Explain the forms of discrimination that can take place in the workplace using examples of recent discrimination cases which has made the news.
There are many forms of discrimination in the workplace that can take place in any organization such as:
- Sexual discrimination (for e.g. male female)
- Racial discrimination (for e.g. on the basis of skin color like black people and white people)
- Gender discrimination
- Age discrimination (for e.g. on the basis of age of the employee)
- Religious discrimination (for e.g. Christians, Hinduism, Islamic etc.)
- Disability discrimination (for e.g. on the basis of any disability may be physical or mental)
- Language discrimination (for e.g. speaking language of a person English, Portuguese, Hindi etc.)
- Employment discrimination (on the basis of employment of an employee level of hierarchy)
- Caste discrimination (on the basis of different caste)
- Pregnancy discrimination
The recent cases of the discrimination in the workplaces are observed and discussed here-
Testa, et.al, vs. Albertson’s was the case of pregnancy discrimination at the workplace which occurred in the February 2004.
Vasich vs. city of Chicago was the case of employment discrimination in the working place which took place in the July 19, 2011.
Every organization needs to follow the rules and regulations to maintain the dignity and healthy environment in an organization. The discrimination reduces the employee’s morale and demotivating them to work with an organization where they cannot get recognition and are discriminated. Discriminating employees and demoralize them is the punishable offence in the law and this should not be practice in an organization (Pagura, 2012).
3.2 Discuss the practical implications of equal opportunities legislation for an organisation.
The implications of the equal opportunities and the equality legislations on the Best way group organization are that:
- It has to work according to the legislations or the laws of the equal opportunities the company cannot discriminate the employees more as this can be punishable to the organization and this practice has to be removed from the organization.
- After the legislation the company has to hire or provide employment to the person who has the ability to do that particular job instead of the person who the job will suit. The talent and the skills are needed to hire a person.
- If the organization is showing the improper and inappropriate behavior then the organization has to explain the valid and strong reason for the behavior. On the basis of skin color or the sexuality or caste the organization cannot discriminate the employees.
- Every religion has to be respected by the organization. Organization must understand that to expand its business and to internationalize the business the organization should respect every religion and should not discriminate the employees on their religion.
- The legislations of the Equality Act were only applied to the workplace discrimination (Kwok Wai Wong & H.Q. Lin, 2014).
Any organization which will discriminate the employees on any aspect is punishable in the eyes of laws and the acts and the legislations are made to improve these practices and make them aware of the healthy and happy environment. The Best way Group deals in the different sectors where different kinds of people come across to an organization and works with them. To discriminate the employees and to make them inferior can be harmful for the organization.
3.3 Compare the approaches to managing equal opportunities and managing diversity. You should give examples from a selected organisation and discuss the similarities and differences in their approaches to managing equal opportunities and diversity.
Equal opportunities: This approach means combined efforts, equal participation and shared responsibilities regardless of gender, ethnicity, disability, Sexuality.
Managing Diversity: Managing diversity aims at providing employees with backgrounds, needs, and skill sets that may vary widely with the opportunity to engage with the company and their co-workers.
Equal Opportunities Approaches
Gender -Main focus is on justice for all and preventing discrimination.
Ethnicity - People in Ethnic minority should be treated equally and organizations should not stereotype.
Disability –Co-workers should try to motivate the disable employees instead of making fun of them.
Sexuality –In an organization,it should not be assumed that men can work more committed and efficient in their work compared to women (Ravazzani, 2016).
Managing Diversity Approaches
Brand Image –Purpose of this approach is to create a brand image of being a company that values and cares about the diversity of its employees.
Affirmative Action –This approach is to create a company that truly provides equal opportunity for people of diverse backgrounds and to pay fairly, promoted equitably.
Culture of Acceptance –It recognizes that diverse people have different styles, needs, characteristics, values, desires in the workplace.
Increase in Performance –To raise the productive output of each individual by understanding their unique differences.
The Best way Group focus on the managing diversity approaches whereas the Palmer and Harvey focus on the managing equal opportunities approaches. The similarities between these approaches are that they both boost up the morale of the employees and increase their performance. The differences between these approaches is that the equal opportunities approaches provides the organization with the increase in the equality in the organization where as the managing diversity provides the team work and diverse culture together (Riley, et.al, 2013).
4.1 Select an organisation you work or have worked for, identify and compare the performance management methods used.
The employee’s performance is needed to be managed properly so as to gain the information about hoe the employee is performing and how the organizational goals can be better achieved. The organization Best way Group uses the three methods to manage the performance of the employees. These methods are described below:
- Graphic rating scales-In the graphic rating scales the job duties are given on the rating scale which measure and manage the performance of the organization. This is the quick process of managing the performance.
- Management by objectives- The management of the performance is done by the objectives achieved. The employees are judged on the basis of the organizational goals and the objectives achieved by the employee. The maximum objectives achieved will take the employee at a good position in an organization.
- Forced ranking- Forced ranking is the method to divide the employees in the different workforce. Top performers, average performers and the low performers. This method is effective as the employees try to be top performers and in order to get that position work more effectively and efficiently (DeGeest, et.al, 2015).
If comparison is to be done in the three methods of managing the performance it will be concluded that the three methods are very effective and are mostly used in the organizations but the management by objectives is the best method to adopt because it helps in achieving the objectives of the organization with the management of the performance. But in the other two methods the employee can be demotivated if they do not score or rank well.
4.2 Assess the approaches used to managing employee welfare in your organisation.
The approaches used to managing the employee welfare in the organization are very important and are managed in an organization. In every organization there are the approaches that are used to manage the employee welfare in the organization. The Bestway Group uses the managing employee welfare approach are discussed below:
- The policing theory of labour welfare- this includes the various policies of the workplace including hygienic and the health working environment and the secured and safety measures.
- The religion theory of labour welfare- it includes the religion factors in which the religion of the person or the employee is protected and respected.
- The philanthropic theory of labour welfare- The philanthropic theory of labour welfare refers to the provision of good working conditions, crèches and canteens out of pity on the part of the employers who want to remove the disabilities of the workers.
- The paternalistic theory of labour welfare- low wages, lack of education such topics are included in this.
- The placating theory of labour welfare- Peace can be bought by welfare measures. As crying children are pacified by sweets, workers should be pleased by welfare works.
- The public relations theory of labour welfare- the relationship of the employees is included in the organization.
- The functional theory of labour welfare- the functional theory of the labour welfare includes the functions.
- The social theory of labour welfare- the social theory involves the different aspects of the society which can provide the welfare to the employees (Albrech, et.al, 2015).
4.3 Discuss the implications of health and safety legislation on human resources practices.
The health and the safety legislation on the human resource practices are the important as well as the beneficial to the organizations. The health and safety legislations are prepared with the motive of protecting the human rights and to provide the healthy and safety environment to the human resource of the organization. The people of the organization are looking to work with the organization which can provide a hygiene, healthy and safety environment that the people of the organization needs to achieve the organizational goals more effectively and efficiently. Such factors increase the motivation level of the employees and they desire to serve the organization more for the benefit of the organization. The implications or the affect of health and safety legislations on the human resource practices are:
- The hygienic environment is provided.
- The safe and secured environment is created for the organization.
- The rights of the employees are protected.
- The discrimination between the employees has been removed.
- The equal opportunities are offered to every employee.
- Performance of the employees has been increased.
- The employee morale and the motivation has boosted up.
- The exploitation of the employees has stopped.
- The awareness among the employees has increased.
- The people of the organization promote team work (Nankervis, et.al, 2013).
4.4 Evaluate the impact of another topical issue on human resources practices.
The topical issue on the human resource practices has their impact on many sectors of the business and at every business. The major topical issue occurred in the Best way Group organization is the culture of the organization. The Best way Group has the different culture of hiring the employees and recruiting the employees for the job. The Best way Group provides the different stages to the people in the interview and selects on the basis of the pass interview stages. This impacted the organization in a way that the employees hired were the potential employees and the organization have hired them on the basis of their qualification and the best person who can perform the job or the task. The organization needs to be very specific in selecting the people or hiring the people for their betterment as they are the people who will be their asset in the coming future.
The culture of the organization also impacts the leadership style of human resource management. The employee are now trained and leaded by the good leader who can perform the task more effectively and efficiently because of the qualification and knowledge. By this we can make the conclusion that the people hired in the organization should have the quality and the knowledge of the task (Bratton, 2012).
The assignment above brings to the conclusion that the human resource management has the different and various perspectives and it is not only the traditional method of managing the people of the organization. It has the vast knowledge to understand and gain. The human resource management has the different models to understand it in depth and differently. It is understood that the flexibility in the workplace plays a very important role in encouraging employees to work more effectively and efficiently. The flexibility and its impacts have the roles to develop the organization. By this assignment and studying the human resource management topic it is understood that the organization can be impacted and get affected by the unequal opportunities and the discrimination in the working place. The discrimination in the employees makes them inferior and organization ends up by losing the potential employees. In this different human resource practices are also discussed and the various impacts it has on the working of the organization.
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