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This unit will enable learners to gain understanding of the nature and diversity of hospitality and its constituent industries, including the range of job roles and employment possibilities.
Learners will explore the dynamic characteristics of hospitality, concentrating on current topical issues and future trends and developments, building a range of skills including research and the analysis of information, justification of ideas, evaluation and critical thinking. This unit introduces learners to the scope, scale and diversity of hospitality. It establishes a framework for the industry, using agreed definitions and the Standard Industrial Classification of the industries that encompass hospitality. Centres and their learners may reasonably wish to adopt a national perspective for this unit; however, it is also important for learners to consider local and international aspects to gain a comprehensive and balanced view. Learners are expected to be knowledgeable about particular businesses, their names, brands and the industries with which they are associated. Learners will examine different forms of business ownership and structure. This will create an opportunity to research contemporary issues and recent developments affecting the industry. It will also allow learners to analyse and evaluate breaking news and unexpected developments. Learners will investigate the nature and changing situation of hospitality staff. They will examine staff roles and responsibilities in a range of contexts and explore aspects of staff employment. The skills required to recognise and predict future trends and developments likely to affect hospitality operations and management will also be developed. The trends may have an internal industry focus or concentrate on external factors including legislation, political, technical, economic and environmental influences. Learners will gain an awareness of the organisations and professional bodies associated with the hospitality industry.
1 Understand the current structure of the hospitality industry
- Hospitality industry: hotels; restaurants; pubs, bars and nightclubs; contract food service providers; hospitality services; membership clubs and events; brands and businesses
- Scale and scope: size; types of ownership; turnover; percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP); purchasing power
- Diversity: products and services eg food, drink, accommodation, conference and banqueting, leisure facilities; levels of service; customer base
- Organisational structure: operational areas eg food preparation, food and beverage services, accommodation services, front of house services; functional eg human resources, finance, marketing, research and development, security, maintenance
- Hospitality-related organisations and professional bodies: as current at time of delivery, to include People 1st, British Hospitality Association, Institute of Hospitality, British Institute of Innkeepers, Springboard UK
2 Understand staffing in the hospitality industry
- Staff types: functional specialists; operational; craft; skilled/semi-skilled/unskilled; supervisory; management; apprentices; management trainees; full time/part-time; casual; agency; foreign workers; volunteers
- Hospitality industry: hotels; restaurants; pubs, bars and nightclubs; contract food service providers; hospitality services; membership clubs and events
- Structures: hierarchy; teams; organisation structures; number of employees; roles eg management, supervisor, craft/operative; responsibilities eg for junior staff, senior managers, team leaders, supervisors; career progression and employment opportunities; staff characteristics eg professional attitude, flexibility, interpersonal skills
- Qualifications: types to include degrees, awards, certificates and diplomas, BTECs, NVQs; professional and specialist eg food safety, first-aid, licensees, door supervisor; qualification awarding organisations
3 Understand recent developments affecting hospitality
- Operational: developments eg standard operating procedures, food safety, service requirements/needs, levels of productivity, employee expectations, recruitment and retention, learning and development, flexible working, workforce competency, transferable competencies, socio-cultural issues, benchmarking, e-commerce, outsourcing services such as human resources, finance, security
- Managerial: developments eg key players in the hospitality industry, international aspects, the impact of market forces, performance management, quality assurance and control, branding/re-branding, responding to niche markets, effective implementation of food safety management systems, green environmental issues, security, policy development, project management, relationships with education/training providers
- Legislation and regulation: influence and impact of national and European legislation; compliance with legislation eg food safety, tips, minimum wage, working time directive, employment visas, licensing, entertainment, smoking, discrimination, employment protection
- Image: popular perception; customer focus and culture; quality improvement; restaurant and hotel guides; kite-marking; media exposure; industry celebrities
4 Be able to recognise potential trends and developments in hospitality
- Trends: wide variety eg food fashion trends, food miles, organics, local and seasonal produce, eating trends, entrepreneurial opportunities, boutique hotels, pub ownership, assessment centres, succession planning, work patterns and work-life balance, employee needs, erecruitment, poaching of staff, market saturation, globalisation, technology and its applications, use of foreign language, the learning culture
- Developments: wide variety eg competitors and competing sectors, improving/declining industries, hospitality portfolio management, the learning culture, reversal of existing trends, political stability, responding to external events/influences, public/private partnerships, takeovers and amalgamations, application of forecasting techniques, measuring success, new technology
Local and national statistics are needed to support learners’ achievement of this unit. Directories, newspapers and local and national guides for the hospitality industry are also needed. Learners must be encouraged to read publications such as Caterer and Hotelkeeper and Hospitality on a regular basis to develop their awareness of the industry, including employment and contemporary issues, as well as specialist industry publications relating to the events industry. Relevant DVD and case study examples focusing on aspects of the hospitality industry, such as jobs, employment and career opportunities as well as ‘reality TV’ programmes, are a relevant important resource