Case Study: Hospital Appointment
This is a Developing Counselling Skills Health social care assignment case study of Anna who was suffering from stroke whereas doctor in the hospital treated her as a drunken case. The discussion between the doctor and her husband lasted for 10 minutes. He was dissatisfied with the remarks and comments of the doctor and took his wife to general practitioner where she was recommended to a different hospital. In this task we will understand on the process of communication, its importance and relevant theories.
Theories of communication
There are several theories on communication:
- Classical Conditioning – This is a theory that is given by Pavlov in the year 1927. It is said to be a learning that is received by the process of being associating self with it.
- Operant Conditioning – This theory was given by Skinner in the year 1938. This is a theory that states that stimulus is related to the response. It is said to be learning with the positive or negative kind of reinforcement.
- Social Learning Theory - This is a theory that explains that learning process is got through our society or by observing and imitating others. It was given by Bandura in 1973.
- Insight Learning – This is learning by self or from within. It is actually thinking about the situation and solving the issues or the problems related with them. This theory was given by Kohler in 1947.
- Cognitive Learning Theories – It was given by Bruner in 1978 and focuses on the thought process that underline or is present for learning process (Bennett, 2010).
These learning theories are a means for understanding the development and the growth of the human beings. These learning theories can surely be applied in the process of health and social care for improving the level and efficiency in communication process for building newer and maintaining existing relationships.
These theories of communication are used and applied as per various situations and conditions. It is essential that each theory is tested in a specific situation and then it is applied.
Communication Skills play a very vital role in health and social care context. In case the patient is unable to communicate the problem that he has been suffering from and the doctor as well is unable to understand them there the health care issue will remain unsorted. In the case given Anna had not drunk and as she had suffered from stroke so she could not explain the situation to the doctor in the hospital. At the same time even her husband Mr. Paul tried explaining the doctor that Anna had not drunk and she had been suffering from some other problem which doctor was not communicated properly. This was because he did not want to listen to which Mr. Paul was trying to explain him. Communication is a two way process. The listener has to properly listen to the speaker by giving him enough time to speak. At the same time even the speaker has to speak properly to the listener so that he understand pecific needs. Unless communication on both the ends is clear and understandable there would always remain queries and issues (Swayne et al, 2012).
These skills not only play important role in internal but also in the external communications that happen among various people within and outside the company.
Methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals
Communication as discussed above is a two way process where the listener as well as the speaker has to understand each other. There may be situations where the communication is not clear among the individuals. There are various methods by which one can deal with the inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settings:
- By eliminating the communication barriers such as noise, lack of listening others, disturbance from internal or the external sources.
- The people who are unable to speak could be asked questions in the form of body language, signs and the non-verbal communication process.
- Processes and strategies could be used as aids for the people who are disabled by which they could communicate for any kind of confusion, conflict, embarrassment and misinterpretation.
- By the use of the technological aids like: Visual glasses, recorders, signs and language writers.
- For the people who cannot hear the words could be shown the pictures and the written messages that they could explain further by writing on them.
- Use of the appropriate translators and the interpreters.
- Supporting people with the cultural differences.
- SOLER technique – Face the other person squarely, adopt an open posture, lean towards the others, and maintain good eye contact and relaxation process.
These techniques will guide and avoid unnecessary communication to take place in professional and official communication
Strategies to support users of health and social care services with specific communication needs.
The people with the specific needs like: hearing impairment, visual impairment and the other disabilities cannot communicate easily with others. They need support of other people, techniques and the strategies with which they could easily communicate and discuss on their specifc needs for communication process (Aydin & Rice, 1992). The various strategies whereby this could be done are:
- Use of language to recognize and demonstrate various items and things.
- Assisting these people to touch and guess.
- These people have to be checked and tested on which all things they could see and differentiate in spite of being visually impaired.
- Use of technological equipment and tools.
- Learning and masking these people understand the communication through the lip movement.
- Displaying of the relevant pictures and the writing of the messages – This would help them recognize their beliefs that they would like to convey i.e these activities empowering users of HSC.
- Use of the sign language for the managing communications process – This will help them understand the subject or the topic of conversation.
- Use of Interpreter in case of making them understands our view point.
- Use and employment of the hearing aids or machines that could be plugged into ear and make artificial hearing or communication aid for these specific needs individuals.
These specific needs people cannot easily communicate with the other people but when they would be provided with the enough support and the help then they would also be able to express and communicate their beliefs and feelings.
M1 Identified and apply strategies to find appropriate solutions.
From the case study and the various theories that could be applied in this case, it could be said that special needs people have to be attended with special care and strategies? They have to be given the tools, equipments and the devices so that they could easily carry out their lives without being fully dependent on their environments.
Section 2 - Case Study: Mentoring
This is a case study on mentoring. The student nurse has been appointed on a service for the patient who is getting treated for hysterectomy. The patient asks for her help which she delays and meantime the patient could not control him and gets wet in the bed. To that the response of the student nurse was very weird. She feels disgusting and points out the same to the patient. The mentor takes the student nurse to a separate office and tries to explain her. She gets defensive and mentor gives her a break to understand and come back for work.
Influence of values and cultural factors on communication process
Communication process is very much affected and influenced by the values and the cultural beliefs and feelings that are present within us. When a child is born it is the family that develops and grows the kind of belief and the cultural values that he should possess. The family teaches the child on small things like in case he does some mistake then he has to express his apologies. At the same time in case the child is meeting his elders then he has to express his respect and values by greeting them fully. These values help an individual to develop a mind that has a soft corner and the soft feelings and beliefs for others. These values make him do the same kind of behaviour and the attitude when he grows up too. Same way even the culture of an individual teaches the person to behave in a respective way. Culture teaches to pray the almighty, help others, pray and support the people in need and develop a positive attitude for life and self in long run. The people based on these cultural attributes and the values accordingly select their professional lives (Betancourt et al, 2003).
In this case study, the student nurse shouts on the patient, makes him feel disgusting as he had wet his bed and even did not attends his queries in need. This shows that the student nurse does not possess the good values and beliefs system in life. She has not got a good culture in family as well as in her friends and colleagues who could teach her the day-to-day values like keeping patience, maintaining good relations and the nice behaviour of support and help that she has to render to the patients being a nurse. Due to these missing values and the cultural traditions, she shouted and disgusted the patient without even understanding the situation he has been facing and getting treated for.
Values and culture give us the direction for the specific areas of the communication. Every culture has respective and different value of its own and it influences and motivates a person to behave and act in a specific way thereby initiating the communication process as a whole.
Impact of legislation, charters and codes of practice on the communication process
Legislations, charters and the code of practice have a significant impact on the communication process of the people working for the health and social care. These legislations and code of conduct help the staff in understanding their job responsibilities, duties, kind of confidentiality and the protection of the data relating with the medical and social care settings that they have to maintain. The legislations like mental health act 1983, equality act 2010, sex discrimination act 1975, human rights act 1998 and access to medical reports act 1988 guide on the various steps and the action plan that the staff has to take in the health and social care settings. The way the processes, code of conduct and the procedures have been laid down in the charters, legislations and the code of practice help in guiding and following the respective rules, regulations and the processes. They help in keeping and maintaining the decorum, discipline and the code for the support in health and social care settings. They guide on the way the people have to be treated and respected within the organization. They simplify all the processes and practices within the organization. They help in making the communication process stronger in following ways:
- Clarifying the roles and responsibilities that individuals have to play (Glanz et al, 2008).
- The way the staffs have to be treated and supported by the seniors and respective juniors working for them.
- The defined way, rules, practices and the guidelines that the staff have to following with respect to the service users with the specific needs.
- Maintaining confidentiality, respect, values and the organizational policies and procedures with due process.
Therefore although an individual communicates as per values, culture and his personal attributes yet he has to communicate and modify his speech as per the rules of conduct and the legislations that are developed in this regard.
Effectiveness of organizational systems and policies in promoting good practice in communication.
Organizational systems, policies and the procedures help in promoting the good practice of communication. They help in the right governance within the organization and among the staffs that are working for it. They guide on the various processes, practices that may be implemented and enforced in order to get the right business and the meeting of the needs of the service users. They help in effective monitoring and control system within the organization. In case the systems and the policies of the organization would be effective then they will surely lead to the effective management and control over the various processes of the organization. The effectiveness would be analysed through the following ways:
- The number of service users and their loyalty towards the organization.
- The kind and level of treatments been given and their success rates.
- The increase or decrease in the number of recoveries that are taking place within the health and social care organizations.
- The level of commitment being shown by the various staffs that are working for the company.
Improving the communication process
There are various ways in which the communication process could be improved upon:
- By training and development of the staff working.
- By giving a stress on the implementation and the enforcement of the health care policies, processes and the practices that are developed as rules and regulations to be followed by the staff.
- By extending support and coordination in almost all the activities of the team members and the health and social care authorities (Davies & Higginson, 2004).
Hence it could be said that although the communication process is specific and personal as per nature and behaviour of the humans yet the organizational policies, processes and systems mould the communication process accordingly.
M2 Select/Design and apply appropriate methods/techniques.
- It could be inferred by doing this case study and task that mentoring and counselling process is very important in every situation. It has to be carried out in such a way that there is a clear communication and delivery of the message as per the requirements of the patients or the special needs people. There are various needs and techniques by which the communication and mentoring process could be carried out and they have been discussed above in this task.
Use of ICT software packages to support work in health and social care
Communication and Information Technology has gained a lot of importance in the last decade. There have been many ways, techniques, practices and the codes that have been established that have helped the people to get their work done quickly, easily and efficiently without any errors or possible failures. When the information technology packages are being utilized, it becomes easier for the staff to do multi-tasks simultaneously. They can easily adapt to the changes within the environment and the industry. They will easily record and analyse the data of a service user through the click of a button. They could save and keep the backup of the data for a longer run and period. They will be easily avoiding the risks of errors as the software will only accept the valid data and will not save the data unless it is authentic.
These ICT software packages guide and implement the duties, responsibilities and the roles of the individuals. They help in implementing the regulations via the process of reminders and the specified processes. ICT techniques and the advancements help in taking out the data of a patient and his health records easily through just click of a button the respective screens. The technology has become so advanced that the machines rays and the radiations generated can easily enter the body of a service user and detect the possible risks and the health related illnesses and other records.
Benefits of using ICT in health and social care for users of services, care workers and care organizations.
Information and Communication Technology has taken a lot of advancements in the health and social care and made its more effective. The various benefits that ICT has in the health and social care for the users of services, care workers and the care organizations are:
- It gives a streamlined and directive process that has to be followed in the health and social care settings. The ICT helps in giving a step by step process and the procedure that guides the correct and right process to be followed in the organization. It is important that the guidelines and the rules are being studied for the ICT so that maximum benefit could be obtained from it.
- It helps in making the work quick, easy, efficient, error free and effective. When the health and social care setting staffs have to just enter the name of the service user in the ICT software package and the complete details with the till date treatments would come then they may not have to depend on getting the medication again. The work would become faster than that was without the clear enforcement of the ICT.
- It guides the care workers on the stage and the kind of medication that has to be continued among the service users. In the absence of the doctors as well through the online internet and intranet mechanisms, the data could be easily derived for the patient in case doctor is discussed on the treatment online. The care workers will get a complete clarity on the role and the responsibilities that they have to follow and implement.
- It makes the rules, regulations, policies, practices and the code of conduct useful for the care workers and the staffs that are employed in the health and social care settings.
- It gives the direction of performance. It makes all tasks simpler and easy for the implementation. When the workers would know the area, task and the functions that they have to perform then they surely would be able to show good performance in their assigned tasks.
- It helps in taking out the health and past record of the service users that have left the organizations and are re-admitted within it. Even if the service user was admitted and treated long before then also his complete details could be taken out and referred for the current and latest health and social care programs that have to be implemented on him (Kamel Boulos & Wheeler, 2007).
- It keeps an effective communication among the staffs and the service users working for the organization. They are easily able to understand their roles, responsibilities, duty times and the chart of performance through e-mails and the written documentation and the data that has been recorded. When the communication process would be clear then surely the performance and the implementation of the company processes would be strong and clearly laid down.
ICT implementation and enforcement helps in making all the processes, smother, easier, effective and time lined as per the policies, procedures and the practices of the health and social care organizations (Sarangi & Roberts, 1999).
Legal considerations in the use of ICT impact on health and social care.
There are certain legal considerations that have to be kept on priority for the ICT use in a health and social care organizations:
- The use of ICT has to abide by the standards and the norms that are being laid down as per the ICT designers and the specialists.
- It is also important that as per the norms, the newest and the advanced version of the software package and the scheme has to be implemented and abide by. This would help in resolving any issues that may arise in the older versions and the norms that are to be followed.
- The anti-hacking programs, anti-virus and system failures have to be taken care of and enforced within the health and social care organizations as they are very strictly to be implemented as health and social care settings.
- The rules and regulations that come from the ICT authorities and the communication department has to be followed in order to derive the best results from the ICT and its advantages (World Health Organization, 1983).
Legal considerations are important for the successful implementation of the ICT processes and practices. They help in keeping the updated technology and techniques in line with the current principles laid down.
M3 Present and Communicate appropriate findings.
It could be found out that information and communication technology has enabled a lot of advancement in the health and social care of the individuals. They are now under supervision and care and easily are approached and supported in all ways by the health and social care organizations.