This solution is written for the St patrick college business environment assignment, given in HNC Business course. This unit is common for the HND/HNC courses.
Understand the relationship between organizational structure and culture
National Health Authority is an organization that follows an organizational structure is hierarchical for the reason that it devises a lot of layers with more than one individual reporting to greater than a single person in advance of that material reach the supervisor. Also its hierarchical structure comprises of several layers. Every single level is organized by a single individual. Also as is evident in the case of National Health Authority, the characteristic feature is that a hierarchical firm be likely to be a precisely a giant establishment. Also as is pragmatic, the core of National Health Authority’s achievement is its organizational culture that has remained &made over the period of time. This outlines in what way co-workers conduct themselves at National Health Authority. It arrays commencing in what way co-workers treat their clients besides additional outer stakeholders to in what way the co-workers behave with each other. National Health Authority’s organizational culture of faith infuses all that occurs in all fundamentals of National Health Authority’s processes. National Health Authority frontrunners are dedicated to conveying these promises to effective execution, knowing that the value addition is due to the Minute Visible Things leaders does that mark the major imprinting addition to engaging co-workers. For instance it was observed that the National Health Authority leaders are at all times courteous in addition to approachable, offer support on the store floor in addition to top the public and civic happenings by way of their colleagues. This citation was one of the instances of the initiation. These minute visible & noticeable things ensured & encouraged the co-workers to sense extra valued, further content, further sustained in addition to further inspired to convey the client commitments. A review of administration at National Health Authority specified the following optimistic behaviours that includes; equality realized to actuality by frontrunners that are compassionate in addition to be aware of their co-workers. It has developed prospect for everyone & is effectively endorsed by management that inspires co-workers plus is transparent in communication encouraging healthy work culture resulting therefore in superiority in National Health Authority culture by inspiring and motivating leadership model. The British Airlines on the other hand now on the basis of the long-term modification schemes, existing market environments have led it to be vital to quick change to make a slenderer, further responsive organizational structure initiating at the upper most of their commerce. Therefore it urges to have a flawless organizational structure existence, specifying the locus of power in addition to governing accountabilities. British Airline’s well established performance administration system institutes goals, strengthens responsibility in addition to consciousness of controls, besides identifying suitable learning & development requirements. British Airlines is a believer to change the work culture by bringing about the change in the headquarters to initiate the cultural change. It was clearly evident that the changes by the organizational structure & culture changes in National Health Authority stressing on the commercial firm whose dualistic foremost norms includes; a well-structured firm, allowing the flow of accurate information in addition to anticipated tools, every associates are permitted to take benefit, respectively at every level, of prospects curtailed by elucidations. The current surroundings in the firm impulses folks to proceed towards a personal initiative, further mistakes besides let-downs that materialize despite the fact that taking personal initiative are in spite deliberated as development in the individuals well as organizational pursue for quality. The change management would not be restricted to the merely alteration process. The members of the effective team may be assigned to a particular team besides ascertaining a job, but then again preserved as entities by means of their personal explicit jobs to perform. An effective team is merely not restricted as a cluster of individuals functioning together. It necessitates that the team’s limits essentially be fixed; the job should be well-defined further cooperative accountability settled; further the administration of inner in addition to external interactions analysed. The foremost practices of exactly how to devices well as bring out the alteration was noticeably advanced. On or after the modest teaching of the workforces to the psycho-sociological activities, there are more than a few methods to execute such a development; nonetheless all these activities and aspects are essential to the achievement of the change. The Pledge of National Health Authority is difficult to be acquired deprived of notifying the workers and elucidating the intensity of the deviations. Therefore it is evidential by this information and explanation that, entire energy can be effectively equipped for the similar purpose of transforming firm besides in contradiction of the matching opponent to contest as the struggle to change. As a final point it is evident that National Health Authority essentially be appreciative for the top management who projected at a previous phase of the emergency by rationalizing and bringing additional organizational change (structural) analyse, design and execute affective alteration which changed the firm’s structure from economic failure into a reasonable supermarket success. The worker in today’s scenario does not take into account the dependency of himself on the firm any further. Alteration in service is a regular entity in the professions of a lot of workers. The obligation therefore is at the present on the administration of the firm to make certain that worker stay with the firm plus is contented sufficient avoid viewing out intended for improved prospects. Contentment is commanding to holding a worker in addition to circumvent the costs along with inferences of recruiting a new hire besides make certain effectiveness of the plant unit. Worker inspirational, all the same old and in excess of utilized, is precise tough to design in addition to grow in workforces. Enthusiasm is a consequence of the job climate, professional-life stability, culture further added prominently, on substantial profits for the worker. The actual usage of an inspirational improvement initiative of a company is enhanced yield, usefulness and competence of workers. Inspirational is anything that creates the worker to make every effort to do his job performance healthier. Inspirational is every so often mistakenly apprehended to be the urgency intended for currency or authority. Therefore it is not merely imperative to recognize exactly how considerably as an individual is inspired, nevertheless it also depends on in what manner the employee’s inspirational is concerned with. An individual must not at all times be inspired by cash, authority and substantial objectives. A worker possibly will perform well in his task for the reason that he enjoys or relishes doing the job at hand. This is one of the inherent inspirational. On the other hand extrinsic inspirational exists to attempt to motivate folks by carrot and stick method, gratifying in addition to unfulfilling on the basis of work performance. Therefore it is evidential that intrinsic inspirational may possibly result in a grander performance, originality in addition to improvement and outstanding creation and addition of value in the favour of the business due to the elevated value and strength of the effort being put in further the programs that is learnt by people. Each worker’s personal job task response might possibly be altered for the reason that a work that may be inspiring for one worker however could not be for an additional person. A worker’s work associated requirements are contented as soon as the work planets it to remain so. Work plan is a serious aspect in worker satisfaction. In reality an innovative worker possibly will discover it extremely limiting in unemployment that consist of slight self-sufficiency or diversity in effort. This job description planning fetches to emphasize the significance of the character the worker execute contained by his job background – job task designing – by what means the task is relatively easy to turn out to be appropriate to the person in sustaining his job associated aspirations.
The Organizational behaviour & leadership management necessitates large number of skilled and dedicated employees. It was proposed that the managing Human Resource Administration Primary value chain organizational aspect possesses an immense accountability of choosing the employees. The primary value chain organizational aspect will have to recruit the employees and give proper training to them so that they can perform their task effectively and also help them to know their duty and responsibility accounting on him. It is mentioned in one of the research that the responsibilities that the HR primary value chain organizational aspect possess to take care are not only choosing and train employees; they must also take care of employee administration, their relations with the administration, interdepartmental value chain organizational aspect relationship, customer handling techniques etc. For this the primary value chain organizational aspect will perform following functions. The Human resource personnel planning urges the HR primary value chain organizational aspect to necessitate the planning of the number of employees needed at each level to carry out the functions of the organization smoothly. The Organization behaviour needs to work effectively, and the number of people needed to work in each shift also needs to be calculated if the organization working hours needs to do so. Through proper forecast of number of visitors visiting per day this will be determined. An effective recruitment in addition to selection of the new hires is an essential work of the HR primary value chain organizational aspect possesses to make sure that sufficient number of qualified people applies for the job when the necessity arises. And the Organisations and behaviour management plans to fill the vacancies by recruiting the young and talented organizational administration students from reputed Organization behaviour & leadership management colleges across all over the world. The selection process will be non – biased and thorough enough to select only the efficient employees. The primary value chain organizational aspect will screen, interview, administer tests, and refer potential candidates to fill the vacancies. The wages and salary are to be considered as a motivating factor for all employees. It is determined after considering various factors such as education, skill and experience of the employees, responsibilities of the job, working conditions, etc. The primary value chain organizational aspect will have to see that wages given to the employees will match to the accountability they undertake. Any employee should not feel that he is underpaid. This will help in attracting and retaining competent employees. The Training and Inspirational of all the staff should be properly trained to carry out their respective function smoothly. The inspirational level of the employees should be kept high, as the jobs in today’s stressful work environment urges the Organization behaviour & leadership management to motivate related to intense physical and mental conditions.
It is seen that National Health Authority is a believer in the initial studies on leadership remains to be further behavioural examining, thereby classifying individual features that customize and adapt the effectiveness of leaders away from each other from new people. A British airway is seen to use the transactional style of leadership. As is seen that the leadership of British airways is job oriented as well as to work that do not have trust in building relationships. The British airways is a believer that the income as certain to worker is a prize for their effort as well as in situation when workers do not perform their job task appropriately & believe in them to be penalized. As a consequence motivation with respect to effectively completing the task is more over oriented to reward or for avoiding penalty. The British airways is not sympathetic to workers in their effort or individual exists as a transformational forerunner would be neither possess the abilities of appealing leader as individuals ensure not track leader by selection but by pressure. It is also currently focusing less on motivating work cultures. The usage of various pluralistic approach recognizes that it’s not a tangible being& can be discerned as potential and presence of actual power in addition to the reality that it differs from one community to other; also the theory of transformational leadership strains on moving& subsequently transforming the distinct workers; along with an effective communication to the administrator as well as subordinates; evade conflicts inside& outside the team conflicts &functioning together to attain the firm’s goal. These little visible as well as noticeable things ascertained & encouraged the work force to sense extra valued, additional content, additional sustenance as well as additional inspiration to convey the client promises. An evaluation of management at an organization level particularly with respect to subsequent confident behaviours that includes; equality realized to actuality by leadership who are sympathetic as well as be aware of their co-workers. In firm’s overall behaviour an assortment of leadership models within the organization has been executed & carried out to manage the top management as well as leaders by using overall eminence activities that mark the features of together an approach of work-oriented referred as scientific management besides worker-oriented referred as participative management approach; outlining the leadership traits essential for running the business; the management style referring to the distinguishing methods of constructing decisions as well as connecting to their respective subordinates, it can be classified in the double chief conflicting styles, dictatorial and liberal; contingency approach also identified as situational method, is a model in organization affirming that currently none is comprehensively pertinent established group of management rules via which to administer the organizations; leadership and organizational culture referring to the mode & index of transparency in effective communication flow. Effective Leadership also urges the development of prospect for all its workers & is effectively endorsed by management that inspires co-workers plus is transparent in communication encouraging healthy work culture consequential thus in superiority in the overall organizational work culture by the planning & implementation of transformational or inspiring or motivating leadership model. There are some organization on the other hand who on the basis of the long-term amendment schemes, present market environments have resulted it to be very important to quick transformation to make a slenderer, further approachable organizational structure initiating at the topmost of their business. For that reason it urges to have a perfect organizational structure existence, pointing to the locus of power as well as governing accountabilities. An organization’s well established performance administration arrangement institutes objectives, strengthens accountability as well as realization of controls, besides identifying appropriate training & development requirements. The effects of the Information Technology are apparent in the current organizational behaviour production scenario, demand creation, supply as well as operational level roles of cooperatively, the private as well as the public organization. It is importantly proven that the information technology implementation and its effective regulation strategy and tactical policies can contribute immensely to enhance work culture morale, supervisory efficiency, yield and eventually the overall productivity of the firm’s behaviour field, on condition that the administrative approach is revised in accordance to the fresh business environment as well as take benefit of the emerging prospects. Robbins & Judge (2001) said that precisely, information technology has fundamental consequences for the circulation channel because it introduces some of the extraordinary as well as innovative techniques. Therefore it is noteworthy that strategic decisions regarding work culture engagement is amongst those rare fundamentals of the integration mix that empowers the organizational behaviour operators currently to develop their effectiveness in addition to their performance. Usage of the decision making for enabling the correct work culture job distribution of the integration mix, to the accurate divisions, by the right channel partners, would remain helpful for the enduring accomplishment of its leaders. The computerized set-ups along with the electronic supply in the organizational behaviour appeared primarily in the 1970s, by means of internal network. The computerized network turns out to be crucial for the effective monitoring of the work culture mix as well as strategy. It was studied in one of the research that the networking is extensively considered as the acute originators of the electronic era, this is due to the formulation of a fresh organizational behaviour promoting and distribution arrangement. It is fundamentally a database that effectively brings about the stock of a work culture, at the same time as it dispenses it electronically to isolated sales workplaces and exterior allies. The swift development of mutually demand as well as supply, along with the deregulation of the conveyance revealed that the work culture inventory may perhaps stay accomplished by influential computerized systems. In due course the core Globalization is anticipated to be grounded on a system of minor, provincial and focused computerized systems in relation to the offerings. The growth of the Human resource Management Systems and tools would probably allow the small and medium sized enterprises of the organizational behaviour to be exemplified. Averting toward the HRM market response to the trend in demand, despite the reality that facilitating HRM as a value chain parameter to branch out their set in order to take benefit of their high-tech setup as well as network along with the economy of scale.
Describing & comparison of the three economic systems
Fundamentally, in actuality there are simply three economic systems. On an extreme side there is the existence of the free market economic system that refers to a very restricted part played by the domestic government. On the other hand the other end comprises the command economic system, where the domestic government participates fundamentally in the overall control of the economics. In comparison to the marketplace edifices along with the market structure of perfect competition as well as monopoly. Sah & Stiglitz (1987) has stated that these twofold extreme sides of economic system are extremely impractical. Fairly almost each economic system across the globe is a blend of the two, as well as is, for that reason, termed as the mixed economy.
Free Market system
A free market economic is an economic system wherein the factors of demand as well as supply is not regulated by the country’s government or else further power. A free market economy is in contradistinction through an organized or regulated marketplace, where in the government interferes in both demand as well as the supply via non-market approaches for instance regulations governing who is permitted to come in the marketplace, authorizing what kind of tangible output or service is delivered, or else unswervingly deciding prices. Even though the free market system is usually related using entrepreneurship in modern practice besides prevalent culture, the free market system ought to be likewise being in favour of by the market collectivists, cooperative associates as well as supporters of revenue sharing. In the system of free market, a company is restricted to simply manufacture goods only when the customer is ready to purchase it. By their consumptions also referred as the money votes, the customers commendably give directions to the companies about what need to be manufactured. Therefore in the free market system the response to the consumer demand is predominant to the extent that it serves & produces only what the customer’s want.
Command economic system
As was evident for the free market system, earlier it is discussed as how the problems are responded, it urges to rapidly overview a number of the features of the command economy. This economic system is indeed thoroughly dissimilar to the system of free market economy, such that a command economy possesses extremely influential government division as well as planners besides the workers as well as the customers are secondary. Customers, workforces as well as the government are altogether presumed to be operational aiming at the mutual good. This command system is time and again related thru communist Soviet Union as per it the term used prior 1989, nonetheless the it is believed that Hitler carried out a premeditated economic system, even though somewhat autocratically. As is observed that government administers the system, it also has the business of designing in what way all the assets need to be used. They have to decide what should be produced and in what quantities. The government also needs to choose in what way the goods need to be manufactured, need of labour to be utilized and assortment, the methods of manufacturing that is used. The important fact is that government unswervingly fixes the levels of output as well as price.
Mixed economic system
A mixed economic system is refers to blend of the dualistic extremes of free & command economic system. It is noteworthy, that although, a mixed economic system possibly will refer to whatever thing subjected to the extent of assortment. Leontief (1936) mentioned therefore that it’s due to this purpose, that it is challenging to respond to a number of questions explicitly. In this economic system the market segment of the economy is inspired by means of self-interest. It inherently characterizes the organization to profit maximization, customer’s intent of their welfare maximization as well as the employers to maximize on rental, interest as well as return. Also the government, in this economic system has the mutual good objective. Also it’s evidential that the private sector is fairly competitive in nature. The extent of competition hangs on to the market structure prevailing in a number of businesses. In mixed economic system the price tool functions in the private sector. Also the mixed economic system’s competence relies on exactly how the competitive marketplace structures currently are.
Market structures & decision making on prices and yield
Perfect competitive market competition
In perfect competitive market competition the decisions regarding price refers consumer as user whose activities have negligible for business and influence on the marketplace price of the tangible offerings of what it purchases. A price captivating maker is a manufacturer whose whereabouts have negligible influence on the marketplace price of the tangible offerings of what it sells. In the broad-spectrum, for manufacturers as well as users to be value takers at hand requirements to be a lot of independent companies as well as users in the marketplace, completely of that, rely on the decision making without any impact on prices. Additionally there necessitates being complete responsiveness by buyers of the pricing values indicted by every retailers in the marketplace. Also it is evident that we need to de?ne the customer additional as the range in the middle of the curve of consumer demand as well as the marketplace price. There is a corresponding to the idea aimed at price-taking companies: manufacturer surplus. Manufacturer surplus is the extent of the financial advantage that manufacturers gain by manufacturing an article on a specific price. Manufacturer surplus stands out to be the di?erence concerning the volume the plant in reality obtains on or after retailing the article in the market in addition to the least possible sum it essentially obtain so as to be in favour as well as enthusiastic to deliver the sellable articles to the market by grading its potential.
Monopoly competition is the absolutely reverse of the concept of perfect competition. Such that Monopoly competition urges a structure of the market where in a particular company builds up the complete market. In monopoly in order to define the price point of profit maximization, where MC = MR, it needs the calculation and finding of the output besides then extending a vertical line straight reaching the demand curve. The Monopoly competitive price is calculated on the basis of looking at the curve of consumer demand as well as seeking as much value as the marketplace could probably stand for the extent of the output selected. Therefore for choosing the level of output the calculation used in graph is where MC = MR. In general a normal monopoly competition, by means of its market control based on the elevated fixed costs thereby resulting in the entry barrier for the other organization as a new entrant as well as on near to the ground marginal costs of manufacturing thereby resulting in a declined average expenses. Deteriorating average expenses point toward the fact that the outsized scale manufacturers has the ability of high production at low cost and therefore understates fresh entrants. In the legal monopoly competition market, refers to the market control not rely on a cost benefit nonetheless depends on a lawful exclusion of the new businesses arriving.
Chow (1986) cited that in the oligopoly competition there in absence of a unique theory that acceptably elucidates the price as well as output related decision making under oligopoly. The whys and wherefores about use of multiple theories in oligopoly include these reasons: count of the organization in competition, factors prevailing in the market differs. Occasionally there may be just 2 or 3 companies that have the highest market share & dominance in the whole market. However, in other market there possible may be seven to ten companies that ascertained about eighty percent of the total market place. The articles manufactured in the oligopoly competition can possibly be or not be consistent. The companies in oligopoly at time work together with everyone in the setting of both the price as well as output of the goods. However sometime, it may also have a preference of acting independently. An establishment in oligopoly may not possibly forecast with certainty the response of the competing organization, whether the firm would upsurge or cuts the prices as well as output of the manufactured goods. On the basis of this there is an extensive variety of range of market circumstances and also a many models have been established elucidating the possible actions of the oligopolistic organizations.
Customers come in the marketplace together with precise likings as well as, fairly as significant, with precise perceptions. Therefore the economic model with regards to competition termed as the monopolistic competition is objectively a multifaceted appreciation of the firmly competitive marketplaces for comparable, however not matching, yields. In fact it is the customer's perception of the outputs that is approximately identical and also different in certain significant manner that offers this competition model its label. Oligopoly model is apprehensive about the consumer perceptions as well as the influence of the new entrants in the market. The point of intersection is the reference to the amount that decides the price that can be charged in the monopolist competition market. As a result, charges are dominated by the marketplace and not by the organization. If a new entrant come in this market, it is presumed that it would generate its individual set of consumers that refers that the organization existing in the oligopoly competition must do promotion to pressure their variances besides reduce the overall manufacturing which is in direct proportion to that of the new entrant's segment of the oligopoly market.