This is solution of HND organisation and behaviour assignment,show differences between ASDA and British Airways with their organisation and behaviour differences.
Task 1 – Organizational Structure and Culture
Question 1: Relationship between organizational structure and culture and its impact on performance
Introduction: ASDA has faced a great deal of ups and downs in its life cycle which may be directly a cause of the structure of the organization which in turn impacts the work culture within the organization. Organizational structure and culture have a highly linear relationship with one affecting the other (Hari & Satish 2013). It is a hard fact that the culture at a workplace is built on the structure and reporting relationships within the organization with the former being alterable on the basis of modifications in the latter.
Underpinning knowledge: It is quite possible that ASDA has witnessed hardship in its times probably because of its open management structure that is customer-centric but on the other hand is not very employee-friendly. Their structure additionally does not involve employees at the grassroots’ level in their decision making process plainly because they were responsive to the market and not their internal members. Once ASDA restructured its management team to incept a structure that was receptive to both the internal and external stakeholders they were able to considerably improve the performance.
Applied knowledge: The state of affairs that ASDA has landed them two decades ago was transformed under the new management and organizational structure which transformed the roles and reporting lines of all the employees to reduce the authoritativeness that prevailed earlier. Organizational structure might be difficult to change as compared to the culture but may be possible by reassigning the roles and responsibilities at all levels. The employees need to be treated as colleagues of the organization partnering in all activities of the business.
Recommendations and Conclusion: The performance and development of an organization depends on the people within it and the way they function. When the organization nurtures an informal and free culture through its structure the employees are self-motivated towards work which in turn raises the bottom line and efficiency of the company.
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Question 2: Factors influencing the employees of ASDA at work
Introduction: The aims and interests of the employees of an organization largely influence their work and thereby the company. A broad range of factors influence the employees of ASDA at their work, that is the pay scale, security of their jobs, respect from the employer and above all the success of the business (Leigh 2011). Each of these factors is the criteria for the well-being, health and safety of the people at the workplace and the overall fitness of the organization, which shall be discussed in detail.
Underpinning knowledge: Wages or salary is the compensation for the work they do and one of the yardsticks of employee motivation and evidently a good pay scale will incline them to do better. They also need to be sure of their future without which they cannot secure the future of their near and dear ones. Respect and rewards raise the dignity and morale of the employee which is a basic human right. Lastly when the business is not successful and making profits, the employees shall not be able to enjoy the other benefits.
Applied knowledge: The main entities that hold a stake in the business directly or indirectly are its employees who are affected by the performance of the organization. Hence while they also prioritize personal achievements at work, they alongside uphold the interests of the organization to be in profit and successful. Instances state that the employees at ASDA feel that they are more valued from the survey conducted which depicted how the employees really felt. They related themselves being loyal to the company and having a sense of ownership towards the organization.
Recommendations and Conclusion: In the better interest of the organization, it is always desirable that the management should be considering employee benefit and motivation as their key organizational goals which shall serve as a medium to them achieving the business objectives.
Task 2 – Approaches to management and leadership
Question 1: Effectiveness of leadership styles used by the CEO’s of ASDA and British Airlines
Introduction: Even though they are not the same, leadership and management are two inseparable portions of the organization and follow a complementary relation with each other. The job of the manager is to organize and coordinate organizational activities with prior planning while that of the leader is to motivate, inspire and thus lead the organization. The leader leads through novelty while the manager administers by adopting the styles of the leader which make them attached. On the whole leadership styles affect the management and the company as a whole (Hester 2010).
Underpinning knowledge: The CEO of ASDA, Andy Clarke, has used a predominantly visionary style of leadership for the organization at all times when he has assumed important positions in the company (Sonny & Bill 1996). This style marshals people towards building a goal and vision but is effectively weak because it does not guide them through the path to achieve it. Alternatively, Keith Williams at British Airlines adopted a palliative and soothing style of managing the employees. His approach was more of a psychological manner to dealing employee issues that involved dialogue and discussion (Paul & Barry 2007).
Applied knowledge: The evaluation of both the styles establishes that Clarke was more oriented towards the mission and vision of the organization through which he dealt with the management of employees. His leadership was more commanding than Williams who was able to maintain a balance between the safeguarding of the employee and the organizational interests. Williams can be considered as more affiliated to the employee by focusing on their emotional needs as well (Patrick 1988). The absence of a mentoring attitude was evident in the overall work culture at ASDA which was eminent in British Airlines.
Recommendations and Conclusion: Management is an offset of leadership that is critical to the success of the organization. The effective management of the people and leading them through example sets their work standards high. From this there is no special need to emphasize on the employee when they are considered a part and parcel of the business model. Hence it may be suggested that leaders of organizations should be more open and advisory in their role.
Question 2: Organizational theory at ASDA and its reinforcement on management
Introduction: Change is evident in any organization and is bound to occur at any stage in its progress and decline and sometimes may require only a minor operational change and at other times probably a total organizational revamp. At ASDA considerable organizational change occurred when it was taken over by Walmart. The aim of Walmart was to strategically expand into the European market and was meant to remodel ASDA in line with its business goals (Sue 1986).
Underpinning knowledge: In its concerted efforts to cope up with the rapidly fluctuating market conditions, ASDA has ventured into its acquisition by a global retailer. The strategic move of the organization required it to bring about quite a lot of change and that managing this change was a bit challenging. Change in organizations is to be viewed as dynamic but has a great deal of positive as well as negative aspects. The negative aspect was the replacement of many people on the board but the positive feature was the similar work culture that smoothened the transition.
Applied knowledge: The organizational theory of dynamic change and change management has evolved over time and has presently many elements in it. The theory states that the organization which is ever in a frozen state has to be unfrozen, then applying the change model and further freezing the model again. When change involves the amalgamation of multiple cultures, culture itself is an important element of the theory. ASDA during its change was also able to boost up its technical expertise by partnering with Walmart which thereby means that change influences the business model, the strategy and thus the management.
Recommendations and Conclusion: Change is the most cumbersome and thought-provoking task of any business since it involves a complete restructuring of the structure, culture and management of the organization. However change is necessary when the organization has identified the need to do so. As a result it is recommended that change needs to be radical and affecting all layers of the organization over time for it to transcend from a static to a dynamic one and hence make it more responsive.
Question 3: Approaches to management – ASDA versus British Airways
Introduction: British Airways has always been using a lean management approach in its structure and culture and continues to follow the same methods even today. Lean managements also emphasize on lean thinking which imply that they are not only result-oriented but are also receptive to refine and streamline processes and structures and thereby the culture. In contrast, ASDA adopts a sustainability approach which is more or less result-based. The concern here is to always make the business better in numerical terms.
Underpinning knowledge: At British Airways the leanness in the management structure brings in free diversity, innovation and inclusion that welcomes and promotes differences. The variances is not meant to create conflict but to nurture dignity, healthy relationships and respect for each other, thereby creating a positive work environment resulting in more productivity. On the other hand ASDA emphasizes only on growth and sustenance which is not a negative factor for an organization, that being their primary motive. However this approach has certain shortcomings because of its continued stress on performance.
Applied knowledge: Lean management are thin in structure where in the reporting is less complex and the responsibility for people are more. It may be a known fact that people at a workplace deliver better results when they are empowered and encouraged to adopt their own style of working and the management just overseeing their activities, a kind of macro management. However sustainability approach may create a wind of negative or depressing air within the organization as ultimate results are the only point of focus.
Recommendations and Conclusion: Being focused on performance and results is not an evil for the organization but is quite important. Yet just emphasizing on results without being able to create the path to it is the failure of organizations. It is suggested that while organizations carve their mission and vision they also need to frame the paths and routes that shall help the team attain them. From this the employee may be delegated responsibilities and they may choose their method of traversing through the path which is a mutually beneficial situation for both the employee and the management.
Task 3 – Application of motivational theories in organizations
Question 1: Impact of leadership styles on motivation under periods of change in ASDA
Introduction: ASDA has changed a considerable bit in response to market conditions and growth in the retail industry to include changes in its business model and style of functioning. The most significant of this is the takeover of the brand by Walmart which was done with an intention to expand into new waters and emerge as leaders in global markets. It is obvious that ASDA would then subsequently have to mirror the strategy and culture of Walmart which promoted a friendly, creative and risk-taking style of leadership.
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Underpinning knowledge: ASDA along with Walmart have expanded in a rapid manner amidst tough competition and fierce antagonism. There is certainly a great deal of motivation that has gone through the employees to perform in the manner they have (Christopher 1997). It was mainly because the leadership styles at ASDA Walmart were significantly different from the ASDA group. It is to be understood that change may be embraced successfully and easily when the approach to the change is effective (Paul 2001)
Applied knowledge: The performance of an individual at the workplace is influenced by personal motivation and the style of leadership that exists. Significant studies have been undertaken to assess a scientific relation between motivation and leadership which reveals that as the leadership styles get more flexible, the persistence of the employee to work better towards the goal is more which indicates that employees get highly motivated by informal work cultures (Anatoliy & Jamie 2009). As from the Maslow’s theory we may understand why some people consistently try to excel in their performance and rewards beyond some others.
Recommendations and Conclusion: It is thereby recommended that the leadership in an organization should not be directed only towards end results but should have a primary focus on the employee and their motivation. A much more free and participative style of management promotes a free work environment that motivates the employee and their commitment to do something better than what they can generally do or are able to do. The case with ASDA was similar during its acquisition by Walmart and it was only because of the open culture that Walmart brought in that they were and are able to taste success continuously.
Question 2: Application of motivational theories to employees of ASDA
Introduction: Maslow’s theory states that humans have five levels of needs that are hierarchically arranged and that they transcend from one to the other once they satiate a need in the order of basic to the most fulfilling, finally resulting in the ultimate goal of life. The Vroom’s expectancy theory states that individuals choose to behave in a certain way on account of their motivation to do so because they assume that a specific behavior is expected to result in a certain way as compared to other behaviors. McGregor’s theory focuses on the attitudes of a person and the perception that managers have on their team of employees (Lyndon & Denys 1987).
Underpinning knowledge: For the kind of business that ASDA is in to there is a high need for customer interaction and hence the workforce needs to quite sensitive in dealing with the customer to provide service of impeccable quality. Moreover when they claim to be a customer-centric organization this need is more apt as the employees need to be highly dedicated to customer service and their requirements (Maria 1999). A demotivated employee shall on the contrary produce adverse results.
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Applied knowledge: In customer-centric business with high multiple points of contact with the customers, the employees need to be always kept in high morale since the results shall be detrimental if deterred from doing so. It is not bare that employees shall behave in the manner they are expected to but they shall do so only when they expect that their behavior shall results in certain rewards and benefits.
Recommendations and Conclusion: The performance, efforts and the motivation of an individual at work are highly linked variables. The expectancy theory stresses that motivation is a result of the expectation that performance shall lead to the rewards which is backed up by the efforts. This is the typical case in ASDA where the employees deliver the best of their customer service anticipating themselves to be smartly rewarded and hence their levels of motivation are kept high. Hence the Vroom’s expectancy theory is the most relevant to the employees of this organization.
Question 3: Usefulness of motivational theories for managers
Introduction: Managers need to deploy motivational theories in order to keep their team motivated and engaged. When employees fail to be self-motivated, the managers need to act as mentors and guide them in understanding their needs and learning what each employee requires. As a result they need to keep and utilize many theories of motivation as per the need. The Herzberg’s two-factor theory is of quite common relevance since it states that employees are stimulated to perform better when the basic levels of hygiene are positive and high (Robert 1993).
Underpinning knowledge: Hygiene at the workplace includes the basic working conditions like work environment, pay, benefits, work culture, stability of jobs and most importantly status and respect (Keith 1997). When each of these factors is at just sufficient levels or positive, employees are neutral in their performance. In order to motivate the employees to deliver more the factors for motivation like recognition and personal growth also need to be high. On the whole a highly rewarding workplace shall induce more of commitment from the employee.
Applied knowledge: It is quite obvious that managers need to keep their employees always engaged in work for which they need to be encouraged to deliver more which shall in turn attract more rewards. Even though a manager might not formally put a single theory of motivation into application, the knowledge of wide range of theories will help in managing the team of employees. The managers of ASDA requiring to keep their employees in high spirits at all times will require theories like the Herzberg’s two-factor theory (Songshan & Cathy 2009).
Recommendations and Conclusion: Motivating an employee is not an easy task and the basic way to keep them committed to work is by satisfying their basic needs which creates a feeling of security within them and they begin to consider their workplace as hygienic which results in the instinctive stimulation of motivation within them.
Task 4 – Effective teamwork in organizations
Question 1: Various groups within ASDA and their influence on staff behavior
Introduction: ASDA has not been any different from any other organization with respect to the emergence of multiple groups and associations within the workplace of which the trade unions have been the most influential. Being one of the largest trade unions in coalition with the Walmart Group, they have represented all of their shop floor workers and distribution center workers. Hence this may be considered as the most impacting of the groups within ASDA that has both positively and negatively impacted the staff and their behavior.
Underpinning knowledge: The existence of the union at ASDA is not very archaic since they did not have any formal trade union during their formative years. Over time, the requirement of the workers and other employees to have a common forum to express their concerns and needs at work led to the formation of unions. This led to the use of the union for both legal and illegal campaigns and agitations (Christopher 1995). Since it tended to influence the behavior of the workforce quite adversely the management was also required to resort to certain stern measures.
Applied knowledge: Anti-union campaigns have been more effective in ASDA in relation to the formation of unions and the membership of the employees with them. The labor laws and the unions were ultimately not able to sustain themselves which led to the decline of the trade unions. This triggered in many agitations and discussions that affected the performance of the employee. Labor laws state that no management has the right to coarsely curb the formation and propagation of unions (Guvenc & Carroll 1995).
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Recommendations and Conclusion: In conclusion it should be stated that the existence of various interest groups with organizations may sometimes be for a noble cause and at many other instances to demand the unworthy. On the whole it is bound to affect the delivery and morale of the employee with reference to the fact that employees may choose not to work under the shield of the union.
Question 2: Factors promoting or inhibiting effective teamwork at ASDA
Introduction: Even though there are a range of factors that impede the efficient and friendly functioning of teams in an organization, there are a deal of other factors that also positively affect the employees to promote team-friendliness and collaborated work. Diversity, communication, leadership and team-building are promoters of teamwork while conflict, compensation, divergence of goals, conflict and ineffective communication are the main inhibitors. The absence of the promoting factors as may be the presence of the inhibiting factors (Jasmine 2010).
Underpinning knowledge: Effective teamwork and members are always known to welcome diversity in the form of culture and talent that is able to augment the performance of the team through creativity and respect for others. This also paves the need for clear and concise communication failing which shall result in communication being an inhibitor of teamwork. Further while all team members need to be treated equally there is a need for an emergent leader to monitor the team which is best suited when from within the team itself. Additionally there should not be a disagreement on the goals of the team or else they are bound to collide with each other.
Applied knowledge: Experience and practice is always bound to result in a positive environment and strengthen teamwork and hence team building may be promoted by the sharing of skill and knowledge between the team members. Furthermore to promote teamwork negative factors like conflict and dispute due to difference of opinion should be attempted to be kept away.
Recommendations and Conclusion: It is a commonly known reality that unity within teams is the best and beneficial work culture for an organization and that the results of a team shall be better than when each individual works separately. As a result it is suggested that teamwork should be popularized in organizations in the form of formal and informal teams keeping in mind the negative factors shall also work unfavorably.
Question 3: Impact of technology on team functioning at ASDA Plc
Introduction: The functioning of people in teams at the workplace promotes a highly cordial culture and friendliness amongst the employees that shall involve a range of meetings and discussions. However as technology creeps into the organization, in-person meetings and face-to-face discussions are replaced by video conferencing and communication through mails which creates a vacuum amongst the employees (Mike 1994).
Underpinning knowledge: The impact of technology on a workplace like ASDA is highly beneficial on one dimension and sometimes challenging on the other. While it is able to attract more diversity be integrating teams across geographical boundaries, as said before it is bound to affect the interpersonal communication. Diversity shall be rewarded by more innovation and should nevertheless be avoided.
Applied knowledge: The idea is to strike a balance between the adoptions of technology within the organization and to keep up the efforts of teamwork at the same time. Efficient organizations have whatsoever been able to crack this jinx that was earlier a peril at many workplaces. The need is to assess the psychological impact and implications of the considered change across each function and suitably apply the technical change.
Recommendations and Conclusion: Technology is surely a boon to modern organizations that need to be responsive to the mounting customer base and the rapidly fluctuating market. While it is beneficial to cut through all operational procedures, as managers it is recommended that it does not replace the people and their interactional procedures. At ASDA since people, both the customer and the employee are the crux of the organization, inculcating technology into it is not desirable and should not be considered keeping in mind the long-term horizon.
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ReferencesAnatoliy, G., Jamie, P., 2009 A synergistic performance management model conjoining benchmarking and motivation, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 16 Iss: 6, pp.767 – 784 Christopher, O., 1995 Employee job performance and relations with superior as moderators of the effect of appraisal goal setting on employee work attitudes, International Journal of Career Management, Vol. 7 Iss: 2, pp.3 - 6 Christopher, O., 1997 The effects of formal mentoring on employee work motivation, organizational commitment and job performance, Learning Organization, The, Vol. 4 Iss: 2, pp.53 - 60
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