This is solution of Heritage and Cultural Tourism Management assignment taken from the HND travel and tourism course prepared for UK College of Business and computing solution help.
P1 Understand the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism
1.1 Analyse the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry
In UK and northern Europe, the start of 18th century reported with stopover at resorts and spa townships. There were local journeys for enjoyment rationales, and also the people had travel basically for health reasons. As there were some of the people, who were being advised for drinking, utilising, bathing with mineral waters. So they had to travel to use these facilities. In the mid-17th century, UK had first spa resort – Scarborough (North Yorkshire), and so by the conclusion of 18th century – sea bathing turned into extra admired amongst upper division – aroused by imperial benefaction with George IV with enjoying vacations at vacationing places like Brighton and Weymouth. In 1976, the Royal Sea-Bathing sanatorium started at Margate.
There was expansion at a much faster pace after 1984. The trend was of a higher contact of the tourism, along with a decline in the prices of the tourism, with high clientele in tourism and regular modernization in creations and stipulation. The travellers have also turned into further exploratory with long-haul journey from UK to Australia or Pacific Asia. There has been intensification in intra-regional journey in areas where sightseeing is a comparatively novel commotion. There has also been enlargement of the weekend away market, primarily inside local markets other than more and more intra-regional and worldwide intentional places are challenging for the midweek break tourists.
The aspects that had a high influence on the expansion of midweek break market were larger disposable returns, political transforms permitting tour into Eastern European nations, developments in journey know-how. The United Kingdom saw a hike in demand for vacation travel amongst the effective people.
In 1901, the hospitality industry introduced the concept of holiday catalogue in which diverse locations and transport were emphasized. As in the period of 1914-1918, the tourism industry faced depression, so in the decade of 1920-1930 the industry sought the collection of the tourism information. The different participants into the industry started growing rigorously in the UK markets. In 1919, Thomas Cook started with standard London – Paris air facility and motor train tours all the way through the UK; in 1900 the Atlantic City started with 400 new hotels, second homes and villas, like vacation destinations. The People started with smaller working weeks, and the businesses also initiated the paid holiday’s system in UK. The people found it attractive to take sea voyages, annual travels to exotic places, and travels by means of their private transports. In 1939, the long distance bus facilities also served 37 million travellers.
1.2 discuss potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and cultural resources
The demand and supply of tourism has been impacted by innovative inclinations. The prolonged development stays appropriate into new millennium. In 1960s, the implication of tourism has been a noteworthy element of the nation’s financial system. In 1969, the Development of Travel and Tourism Act, hospitality provision are made, laid down a community sector arrangement in the UK creating a recognized configuration of tourist boards and fiscal instruments for motivating tourism investment developments. In 1979, it became compulsory for the tour-workers to possess an Air Travel Organisers Licence (ATOL); There were many barriers being removed by the European legislation by the way of liberalisation of air with road transportation, hotel categorization, VAT equilibrium, duty-free rules and removal of all other obstructions for easier tourism expansion.
In the 1970s the global economy saw an increase of customer culture as well as the employment in UK. During the first decade, the disposable returns just got double. With all other reasons for high travel being:
- Early giving up of work by people– that caused elevated tendency to travel;
- less significant family dimensions (deteriorating birth velocity) – outsized amount of family revenue is accessible for holidays;
This caused the independent visitors with high rate of travel, with a very less impact on the sight. As the destinations get more popularity, the revenues for the local government increase with more people getting employed. The tourism is industry that is demand-inelastic; so the factors that had an adverse effect on the demand were high joblessness, high attention rates and elevated level of price increases (economic depression);
- Political arguments can obstruct journey – 1990 cultural divergence in previous Yugoslavia devastated the nation’s tourism trade (onsets from the UK in 1990 656000, in 1992 – 22000;
- Gulf War in 1991 - $2 billion of misplaced interchange to Europe (ILG – International Leisure Group – UK principal tour-operator with brand names like Intasun, Select, Club 18-30 and airlines Air-Europe – fiscal teething troubles and insolvency;
- 9/11 assaults and revolutionary vigilant – stay away from of air travel.
P2 Understand the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the travel and tourism sector
2.1 assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers
Cultural, heritage and historical tourism makes clear all tourist excursions that embrace enlightening performances (e.g. the stopover at memorials or locations), in addition to know-how and interface with local populace. The tourism scheme is a construction which embraces the whole tourist destinations . This kind of structure facilitates one to comprehend the on the whole procedure of tourist tour from both the trader’s and the customer’s (traveller’s) viewpoint (supply and demand) at the same time as identifying the businesses which authorize and control sightseeing. This approach emphasizes the significance of:
- The sightseer
- The essential affiliation in the by and large tourist understanding
- The consequence of transportation troubles on museum vistors’ insights
- The traveller’s obligation for protected, reliable and well-organized forms of transport and service stipulation
Purpose of Science museum, UK.
The Science Museum in UK is the most visited science and technology museum in Europe. There are in excess of 15,000 purposes on exhibit; with world-renowned articles for example the Apollo 10 directive shell and Stephenson’s Rocket. The visit to its interrelated galleries conveyed to existence primary scientific standards and modern-day science deliberates. In addition, we were also able to practice what it’s akin to flutter with the Red Arrows or explosion off into space on an Apollo space assignment in the eye-catching 3D and 4D simulators or observe a movie on a display higher than 4 double-floor buses in the 3D Cinema. (Also Read: Marketing in travel and tourism)
Purpose of VA museum
V&A Museum in London is the country’s most important voice of safeguarding; being part of the National Trust for Historic conservation is centred on saving the historic places. These are the spaces that let know our stories, offer exceptional and unforgettable understandings at present, and undertake a vivacious prospect for the inventions of tomorrow.
The visit to V&A museum made clear- the way on-the ground act to conserve momentous buildings and sites when they are endangered. This museum has a purpose to support on Capitol Hill and in statehouses and municipality corridors countrywide for legislation that defends historic lands.
Needs and demands of visitors to both the museums
The Science Museum is the most stayed science and technology museum in Europe. There are more than 15,000 items on exhibit, together with world-famous articles like the Apollo 10 command capsule and Stephenson’s Rocket.
V& A Museum aims at preservation and saving momentous locations, with voyage to momentous locations and made us aware of the history around them. This museum supports the local societies and also fulfils the needs and demands of the travellers to the V&A. The museum tries to imagine concerning the sightseers in heaps of dissimilar techniques, from plenty of diverse viewpoints. The different visitors also accompanied us to the museum. These included the school groups, adults from various creative fields, families, educators, and some people who just wanted to relax from their daily hectic schedules.mid
P3 Understand roles, responsibilities and ownership of organisations in the heritage and cultural industry
3.1 evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites
Two different types of ownerships’ examples are as below:
ICOMOS - international council on monuments
ICOMOS workings are for the preservation and safeguard of cultural heritage places. It is a global non-government organisation that is devoted to endorsing of the relevance of supposition, line of attack, and technical practices to the protection of the architectural and archaeological inheritance; its exertion is founded on the standards preserved in the 1964 International agreement on the maintenance and reinstallation of Monuments and Sites (the Venice Charter). ICOMOS is a system of professionals that profits from the interdisciplinary switch over of its affiliates, amid which are anthropologists, engineers, historians, geographers, archaeologists, art historians, and town connivers.
ICOMOS, like any association interrelated to UNESCO's task is the understanding of individuals and cultures - it shaped the account in 2003 Victoria Falls which makes possible the mobility of affiliates from deprived nations. In accumulation, throughout the immense innate tragedies, ICOMOS offers specialists and professionals in the expansion of emergency process for the conservation, protection and reinstatement of heritage.Association of World Heritage Cities (OWHC)
Similarly, another kind of ownership example is OHC. Main role of both the organisations is to conserve and augment culture and heritage in the travel industry. A worldwide non-profit non-governmental association, the Association of World Heritage Cities (OWHC) was generated to help out affiliate cities acclimatize and recover their association process proportionate to the precise needs of owning a site engraved on the UNESCO World Heritage catalogue. Consistent with its universal by Laws, the OWHC has the subsequent objectives:
- Supply to the functioning of the Convention regarding the safeguard of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage and the worldwide Charter for the safety of momentous Cities;
- Support, on both regional and global stages, collaboration and the switch over of information and skill among extraordinary cities all through the globe in close association with other associations trailing analogous targets while encouraging the efforts of the cities in developing nations.
- In collaboration with dedicated associations, guarantee improved connections among examine assumed by authorities or specialists and the necessitates of local administration;
- Sensitize the inhabitants to heritage charges and their defence
3.2 Analyse roles and responsibilities of organizations in the heritage and cultural industry
The primary responsibilities of the Businesses include:
- a) Implement customs control on the business decision making.
- b) Measure and accumulate customs duty and taxes which is calculated at the State's border (VAT, excise)
- c) Combating against illegal movement and offset customs scam.
While executing these responsibilities, the Businesses are accomplishing a series of tasks, the most significant of which, definitely apart from the fiscal function, include safeguarding of:
-National business - against an operating in goods which would influence badly the surroundings of competition in the country,
-Natural surrounding – has to be safeguarded against unsafe materials and micro-organisms,
-World fauna and flora - to be protected against unlawful grasping transmission of in danger of extinction species,
-Consumers – Entry needs to be stopped in the goods markets which are unacceptable against Polish norms or the expired products.
-Society - against the entry of goods, items or piece of equipment which are unsafe to life, wellbeing and protection of citizens or harming the safety of the country (e.g. weapons, paralysing gases etc.),
-State - cultural heritage to be protected against goods of the enriching values sold overseas.
-Writers, performers, trade and industrial rights proprietor - against breach of intellectual possessions rights, brand, copyright rights etc.
- d) To be in command of in the area of State's customs procedure mechanism regulating the objective and capacity of global business (e.g. supervising the implementation of customs shares),
- e) put into effect system of national and international relating to prevention and limitations in the global business, enforcement of system regarding allowable weight of vehicle to ensure appropriate use of roads by shipper, improvement of concurrence relating to customs deterrence with Poland being a party,
- f) Foreign exchange controls, including fighting the so-called money laundering.
The current slump in the financial system has an important impact on many segments of the cultural and tradition tourism business environment . The news over the past few years includes a number of losses – closure of heritage location and museums, state programs abolished, reduction in the budgets of the tourism agencies, and functions been cut under the heritage tourism package.
In the midst of the bad news, however, there have been beam of optimism - attraction and advertising associations accepting the challenge and find ways to stay alive if not thrive -- despite the financial slump. Many of these cultural and heritage sites have found artistic ways to stay factual to their association’s task while realization for new prospect.
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P4 Understand the role of methods of interpretation within the heritage and culture industry
4.1 Evaluate methods and media used for interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry for tourists
Understanding is a communication device that is used to smooth the progress of the way guests connect with the places they visit. It was depicted in the way we got connected to the Science museum and the V&A museum. It has been illustrated as ‘an educational activity’ (Tilden 1977), ‘a communication process’ (MacFarlane 1987), ‘a management tool’ (Sharpe 1982) and ‘a process of stimulating and encouraging appreciation’ (Carter in Wearing & Neil 1999). As a communication tool it spotlights on constructing alertness and developing suitable approach and performance. To attain this it describe on a variety of regulation including education psychology, sociology and philosophy to enlighten its practice. A trait of explanation in protected areas is that it is done on site; an aspect that substantially boost the ability of visitors to make associations, and form connection to, that particular park.
Knudson, Cable and Beck (1995, p. 13) list six objectives for interpretation, indicating the wide scope of activity inherent in the concept:
- To increase the visitor’s perceptive, alertness and pleasure of nature, of heritage, and of resource of V &A Museum in London and Science museum.
- To converse messages recitation to nature and culture, including natural and historical procedure, natural associations, and human roles in the surroundings
- To involve persons in nature and history using their personal familiarity with the natural and cultural surroundings
- To affect the performance and approach of the public regarding the wise use of natural possessions, the safeguarding of cultural and natural heritage, and the admiration and concern for the natural and cultural surroundings
- To give a pleasant and momentous experience to the visitors of V &A Museum in London and Science museum.
- To boost the public awareness and support for an agency’s role, its management objectives and its policies.
The first two objectives V &A Museum in London and Science museum organization purposes related in particular to safe guarding of both the museums and the tourist. The last four imitate visitor experience objectives linked to the understanding, consciousness and approval of the museums. Even though there is some amount of overlap among the two types of objectives, this study spotlights the role understanding plays in tourist knowledge objectives. Read about Finance and Funding in Travel and Tourism Sector.
V &A Museum in London and Science museum
Each organization has a memo to express and, if well-cooked, understanding can improve the picture of the organization. Though if overcooked the communication will be considered as misinformation relatively than as understandable or as community data (Pearce, 2005). The unfortunate interpretive amenities in addition to services can be very severe and can actually lessen the natural resources of an area as, for example, no-one who visits a wilderness area or nautical diffidence acknowledged for its accepted beauty requirements to be tackled with a succession of unpleasant and uncontrollable existing indications transmission information in relation to the vicinity.
The encouragement and development of the sightseeing meaning of museums has supplementary highlighted the responsibility of understanding in adding to sightseer know-how. For instance, the Tasmanian Tourism Strategy conditions that remarkable vacation knowledge's connecting sightseers with a grouping of position, transportation, overhaul and explanation. Analysis can approach in numerous shapes, and offers the commitment that revolves a vacation into an unforgettable incident.
The methods for interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry for tourists
A) SIGNS AND LABELS
The mainly widespread–and characteristically most inexpensive–means of depicting interpretation at out-of-doors locations is by the employ of everlasting symbols and placards. These permit tourists of the museums to move about at their individual swiftness all through the location, do not necessitate added personnel or hardware, and can be contacted at some occasion.
On the other hand, the drawbacks of this scheme are plentiful. Signs can be artistically unpleasant and destroy the momentous environment of the museums. They must be preserved if they are to be of whichever assistance to tourists: climate and disfigurement can compose them ineffective (Quiroga, 1990). The quantity of substance every sign can reflect is furthermore imperfect, characteristically permitting merely single facet of the location to be obtainable. At the out-of-doors places the heritage employs understanding boards that differ in dimension from 85- 230 phrases; the description have to be cautiously drafted to be in shape inside this boundary, and main matter is over and over again debarred. Jenni Calder at the Museum of Scotland equally utilizes four stages of inferring manuscript, in the range of a highest of 30 phrases for article tags to 200 phrases for manuscript commencing a theme.
At interior locations in the case of V &A Museum in London and Science museum, it is tags that abide the impact of interpretive substance, however their exercise is contentious, with universal understanding depicting that tourists characteristically do not interpret display tags.
On the other hand, such tags in V &A Museum in London and Science museum displays are characteristically planned to be contacted in a scrupulous progression (e.g. sequentially for archaeology) or by every display causative element of a portion of information to the by and large notion custodians desire to communicate. Nevertheless loads of tourists do not sight the reveals in the instructions proposed, counterfeiting their own familiarity at the expenditure of interpretive intend.
B) LEAFLETS AND GUIDEBOOKS
Another widespread printed foundation of information can be established in guidebooks and leaflets that the tourist bears with him all the way through a location. Even though this agrees to the tourist to shift at his or her individual velocity and has no surrounding brunt on the location (Shah, 2000). The guidebook is over and over again sighted as a memento, to be sighted subsequent to the location stopover.
As a realistic feature, an important person has to be accessible to put up for sale guidebooks to tourists and maintain leaflets supplied; this aspect prevents them from being utilised at a number of the out-of-doors locations. Another inadequacy is that guidebooks and leaflets—as through all written or in print media—are stiff to transforms and renewals, and necessitate reprinting if there are some modifications.
Even though such systems may occupy persons who if not have no curiosity in archaeology or inheritance, they have been blamed of “Disney-fication”, i.e. showing a principled observation of the history or performing as a manifestation more willingly than a technique to notify (Goodwin, Kent, Parker, and Walpole, 1997). In accumulation, this process of interpretation is perceptibly incredibly incomplete in its position and request, and the significance of being in the place where an incident transpires red can be invalid: the technique turns out to be the desirability and the archaeological left over or chronological implication of a location develops into derivative.
C) TOUCH-SCREEN STALLS
Touch screens are an extremely go-ahead process of interpretation, contributing towards visitors a superior level of selection than up till then conversed. Depending in the lead of the substance utilised, they can request to dissimilar knowledge approaches: those who have a preference to understand writing can be abounding with manuscript; this permits for manifold interpretations to be accessible, in that way serving to counteract the manifestation of stiffness. On the other hand, there are shortcomings to this process as well, the majority understandable being that stalls can only be contacted by one individual or family unit at an instance, and adult tourists can be cautious, showing the way to imperfect spectators. On a realistic echelon, utilising resonance with such tools is habitually tricky; in a multitudes corridor, the explanation cannot be listened to fine by the customer but for headphones are utilised, in addition to, on the other hand, it is not unavoidably attractive to transmit echoes to those in a colonnade who have a preference of a silent indication.
In accumulation to touch-screens, erstwhile outlines of multimedia have grown over the precedent 20 years. Solitary of the most indispensable is the exercise of a video cartridge to participate a tiny foreword to a location or subject matter. At the last part of the gamut is know-how like holograms, utilised in cooperation to elucidate and to keep amused. This kind of process can merely be practiced at interior locations, and, depending in the lead the difficulty of the knowledge, are not monetarily practicable for slighter heritage sites. As with the dim journeys, it is promising for the intermediate to intrude ahead the memorandum the explainer desires to pass on.E) AUDIO GUIDES
Audio guides have survived in a variety of arrangements for over half of the century. The foremost was started in 1957 utilising tape-to-tape performers. Two years after that, the Phoenix Museum of Art exercised a comparable organization to endow with explanation of their enduring compilation (Ashley, 2000).
At the international stage, denotations of heritage and culture are fashioned by ethnic and social arrangement, and at a micro stage they are persuaded by family know-how, training, fellow citizens, and a lot of other daily incidents (Belau, 1989). Concepts like expansion, culture, academic and visual instruction, communal appearance, and flavour are amongst the connotations that the words “culture” and “heritage” cover.