This Understand Specific Needs Assignment describes about health and social care concepts and services.
Different Concepts related to Health –
Health – This is wellbeing or natural state of a human being or the tuned up state of an individual’s body. It is also considered as functional or metabolic efficiency of an individual human being. According to Ayurveda from India, it is the harmonious state between mind, body, soul and external environment.
The term “healthcare” is a combination of two words, “health” and “care”. The term “health” refers to the physical and mental condition of an individual. In the same context, the term “care” defines the processes in which the physical and mental condition of an individual is constantly monitored and analysed to ensure the individual to be the best condition. The combination of both of these terms generates the term “healthcare” which basically defines all the processes and procedures used by the professionals to take care of the health of the individuals. Each and every country in the world has a number of dedicated healthcare service providers who are responsible for providing a wide range and types of healthcare services to the citizens of that country. Generally the healthcare service providers are also concerned about the health and social care services also. The social care services provided to an individual basically consists of a number of activities which ensures the fulfilment of all the basic social needs of the individual. These basic social needs include food, shelter, rights, clothes etc. There are a large number of service providers in the world who provide both healthcare and social services in a combined way (Helman, 1990).
The term “illness” generally defines a state of an individual in which he or she is not feeling the same as per usual conditions. The condition of illness defines the deteriorated physical and mental condition of the individual which causes him or her to feel bad, weak and perform less.
The term “symptoms” defines the hints or the conditions which allows others to understand and observe the illness of an individual. These are small actions or events which confirms the state of illness of an individual. There are a wide range of illnesses in the world and some of them have similar set of symptoms. Some of the other symptoms are not so common and defines the presence of specific illnesses.
The term “disability” defines an individual’s inability to perform certain basic and regular actions. This term defines the condition of an individual in which he or she is unable to perform some of the basic actions or events. This is generally caused by any limb not working properly (Kleinmann, 1988).
Behaviour – Behaviour is said to be a set of activities, actions or mannerisms performed by any individual human being in any context or settings. Behavioural activities are generally biased actions based on social, cultural, ethical, emotional, values and personal traits factors. They generally fall in two major categories of acceptable and non-acceptable based on these factors only, which give birth to any specific behaviour.
The services of healthcare includes a number of activities such as understanding the emotions of the patients, understanding the needs of the patients, preventing diseases, increasing awareness regarding a number of deadly diseases etc. All of these activities increases the effectiveness of the healthcare activities and services, which in turn leads to the increase in the physical and mental condition of the patients (WHO, 2007).
Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case – In Luke Dobson’s case, he was suffering from childhood disability of learning, which was the resultant of his genetic disorder Epilepsy (illness). Mr. Luke’s overall health was normal and pretty tuned up. Though faced with difficulties to communicate and learn, it was pretty time taking for him to get socially acclimatize and make acquaintances. Assisted with series of health service carers, Mr. Dobson was doing fine with new learning abilities like sign languages and making friends etc. His behavioural environment was just quite perfect, with him being content and happy and being totally cared for (WHO, 2004).
The patients receiving health and social care services have a certain types of needs which are generally generated through the conditions of illness. This in turn requires the health and social care professionals to understand these specific needs so that they can satisfy these needs of the patients. The fulfilment of these specific needs of the patients allows the health and social care professionals to understand, observe and analyse the condition of the patients in a better way. This leads to the increase in the effectiveness of the patients. All the health and social care services maintain the patients at the centre or core of the service which allows the professionals to focus on them (Pennebaker, 1981).
Perceptions are the general preview or mind-set anticipation of an individual or a group of human beings against or for an event, person, status or activity/process/procedure.
Perceptions about an individual’s health and illness have been since time immemorial being dependant on the social, cultural, emotional and value based in almost all the geographies of the world.
To understand it in little detail, we can break down the general perception build-up and changeover of the society at large across the globe in time-zones and dependant on factors mentioned above.
Early History – Disability or a certain type of inherent illness were seen in different connotations like being possessed by evil spirits to being punished by gods to being bearing the brunt of one’s own fate to being not healthy and socially outcasts. Disable or people with specific needs were not treated equally and were subjected to many discriminations across countries. Some of the economies were comparatively more sensitive to identify their specific needs and include them in mainstream society.
Middle-ages to pre-modernity – This was the time of scientific and technological advancements and hence medical science being upgraded and updated at a magnificent pace. Causes, reasons and cures of many disabilities and illness were discovered and propagated. Conditions improved comparatively and hence the perceptions and sensitivity towards specific needs and patients with disability.
Modernity and 21st century – This is the age of inclusion and advancement of cutting edge technology and knowledge enhancement. Almost all known human ailments, disabilities and illnesses are discovered with their root causes and their cures. Social, cultural and legislative norms in almost all the countries have evolved and matured their overall models for inclusion of persons with specific needs to mainstream society. Sensitivity and perception has changed and behavioural change pattern has emerged (Wright, 1960).
Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case – Patients with genetically sworn diseases or disabilities like epilepsy have been accepted as persons with specific needs, their learning and other handicaps are being realized and accepted. To address the issues, the legislation and statutory framework of governments in various economies have setup provisions for facilities like service homes, education and learning facilities for patients with specific needs etc. similarly like the one where Mr. Luke Dobson was lodged with utmost care of qualified staff (NVQ level 3 qualified) since last 10 years (Wright, 1973).
Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case –
The cultural background of an individual generally defines the key behavioural traits of the individual. The cultural background of an individual defines the beliefs, perceptions and habits of the individual. All of these factors of an individual character also affects the health and social care services.Patients like Mr. Luke Dobson with learning disabilities which are part of their epilepsy syndrome are treated with extra care. Health Service Care homes are quite prevalent in many countries for talking care of these patients. They are no longer considered to be any taboo or stigmatized, rather the root cause problem is addressed and alternative course of measures are taken.
There are a number of social factors which are also responsible in the changes in the health and social care services. Some of these social factors are the occupation, economical status, social status, religion, race, background etc.In Luke Dobson’s case, he had been admitted in Service Home and was taken care by a series of well qualified care takers. These kinds of arrangements have been socially accepted norms where patients can no longer be taken care at their respective homes and are shifted and taken care at specialized living areas.
There are a number of legislations and frameworks established in each of the countries to focus on the health and social condition of all the people living in the country. All of these legislations and frameworks have a common objective of strengthening the health and social status of the citizens of the country. The legislations and frameworks are responsible for managing the activities of the health and social care service providers working in the country, setting the procedures to raise concerns and complaints regarding the health and social care services, providing all the stakeholders along with the patients with minimum rights etc.
Some example of models and frameworks for regularizing specific need cares are –
As mentioned earlier, there are a number of specific special needs each of the patient with some specific illness requires. Some of these illnesses are chronic diseases, disability etc. The healthcare and social service providers ensure that all the specific needs of these patients are satisfied. All of these specific needs are included under the procedure of special care provided to the patients in the smooth operation procedure followed by the service providers.Mr. Luke Dobson needs some of such special care as mentioned below.
- The culture of the healthcare and social service has to be changed to define the service to have the objective of enhancing the patient’s life
- Learning and understanding needs to be fulfilled by specially designed training courses and modules
- All of the healthcare and social service has to be implemented based on efficient and effective design and framework
- Speech and behavioural therapies
- Medication regimes with strict adherence
- Public and social manner and etiquette trainings
- Capability and efficiency enhancement modules
- Friends and acquaintance building communication exercises
- All the communication techniques used in the healthcare service should be improved
- All the services should be divided efficiently among proper teams
- The patient should have a good and positive experience(DiMattteo& Martin, 2002)
As mentioned earlier, a number of patients require a number of specific care which can be defined as special care. All of these special care is provided to these patients through the efficient and effective implementation of proper frameworks and smooth operation procedures. There are a number of legislations which ensure that the smooth operation procedures is followed by the healthcare professionals while providing such special care. Some of the healthcare and social services provides are including a number of reward programs in their services. These rewards and recognition programs are focused on both the patients and the people providing the services.
There are a number of roles which are responsible for the effective and efficient delivery of the special care to such patients. Some of these roles are the family of the patient, friends of the patient, doctors, government and last but not the least the patient himself or herself.
Ecosystem as a big picture:
The various roles are described in this section.
- The consultants are basically the doctors with expertise in a particular field in healthcare (Curtis, 2012).
- They are responsible for identifying the diseases and the cause from the symptoms according to their speciality.
- They are also responsible for documenting the diagnosis tests done in their field of expertise.
- They are responsible for treating patients within their field of expertise. So they have to more focused on identifying and treating the disease.
- They are also responsible for providing the patients with the special care according to their requirement.
- Unlike the consultants, the doctors treat patients for the generic diseases.
- They serve as the first point of contact or first point of service for the patients.
- They are responsible for identifying and analysing the symptoms present in the patient’s body.
- They are responsible for prescribing the generic medications and referring to the consultants according to the severity of the condition of the patient.
- They provide the doctors and consultants with all types of supports from their end.
- They ensure the cooperation of the patients.
- They ensure the successful completion of all the tests.
- All the family members and friends of the patient are responsible for cooperating with the service providers and encouraging the patient.
- The family members should also help the supporting staff with the special needs required by the patients.
- The implementation of the effective and efficient frameworks and procedures to ensure successful completion of all the activities in the healthcare services.
Facilities available for Mr. Luke Dobson at Service home –
- Dedicated full time nurse and other support staff
- Full trained and NVQ level 3 qualified support staff
- Various specific care mentioned above being taken care of
- Proper medication and timely adherence regime
- Various training, learning modules and exercises being implemented
- Socially acceptable and compliant behaviour being imparted
- Capability enhancement
- Making patient content and happy
Facilities available for Mr. Luke Dobson at the general ward of the Hospital –
- Multidisciplinary team of doctors, nurses, support staff and physiotherapists
- Allowance of his service home support staff to visit and assist in therapy
- Multipronged approach for disease prognosis
- Visits by specialist and trained nurses and other staffs from community services
There are a number of techniques which are used to ensure the successful delivery of the special needs required by some specific patients.
- The generic doctors and the consultants i.e. the specialised doctors should provide palliative care to the patients who require certain special needs.
- The patients or the healthcare service providers who need some special care should be helped by the support staff and the doctors for a number of physical activities.
- Difficulty to communicate with other people is the biggest of the challenges faced by patients like Mr. Luke Dobson, communication exercises and modules for increasing his efficiency has to be implemented
- Speech therapies and expression exercises help them with ability to speak up and express their feelings and desires in a proper and effective manner
- Inclusion of family and other specialist therapists for increased involvement and adherence by patient by making him feel comfortable
- The involvement of the family members and friends to ensure the constant engagement of the patients in various exercises and physical activities.
Some of the prior requirements are
- Proper implementation and usage of the communication techniques used to interact with the patients.
- Effective implementation of the complaints and escalation services.
- Effective implementation of various guidelines to be followed in the healthcare service activities.
- Proper implementation of the training frameworks
- Proper maintenance of the workplace for the healthcare service professionals.
- Proper implementation of the standard operating procedures in the healthcare services facilities.
Some of the advantages that the patients experience are
- Effective motivation for the daily activities
- Efficient communication and interaction with the healthcare service professionals
- Better understanding of the standard operating procedures followed in the standard operating procedures.
Effectiveness of the various intervention techniques being involved could have been gauged by the following symptoms or outcomes –
- Change in Mr. Luke’s behaviour and emotional outcomes
- Happiness and content attitude developed
- Enhancement of capabilities and learning abilities
- Making friends and acquaintances
- Proper medication regime being adhered
- Peaceful and cohabitation for last ten years in the service home
- Coordinating and facilitating with support staff at the service home (Marinker, 1998)
There has been a series of developments and emerging technologies which have come to rescue and help for the support of servicing the specific needs of patients like Mr. Luke Dobson. Some of the benefits of the emerging developments are stated as –
- The more effective and efficient implementation of the standard operating procedures along with the specific treatments has increase the quality of the overall service
- The patients can be treated at any place according to their convenience now.
- remote testing and diagnosis with treatment is possible now
- treatment times are reduced
- Clinicians are now being enabled to treat more patients more effectively (Wanless, 2002).
There are a number of types of disabilities from which a number of patients are suffering. The recent developments in medicine and technology is making the healthcare professionals to treat the people with any kind of disability in a more efficient and effective way (Leonard, 2000). The advancement in the sector of medicines and technologies is heavily dependent on the attitude of the society along with the cultural background of the society. In recent times, the number of children treated for disability by the usage of the advanced medicines and technologies has increased a lot (Woolf, 2007). The people going through the condition of disability are effectively treated because of the advancements in the technologies and the medicines.
Generally there is low awareness regarding the advanced medicines and technologies available in the healthcare sector in the society. Along with the awareness another issues persists in the sector of healthcare, which is the cost of the advanced technologies and medicines. Most of the ordinary patients are unable to avail any of these technologies or medicines for their disability. Some of the technologies such as speech therapy and assistive technology are currently allowing a number of patients who are physically disabled to perform regularly without any issues (Walker, 2003).
The advancements in the healthcare sector can be defined as technological advancements in all the modules (Fleisher, 1998). This again can be defined as the advancements in the medicines prepared for a number of diseases, the delivery procedure of the drugs, the advancements of the equipment and the advancements of the method of the treatment done for the patients requiring special care. All of these developments allows the healthcare professionals to treat the patients who need special care in a better and more effective way. This again increases the chances of quick recovery of the patient and the overall result of the treatment (Lundberg & Alexanderson, 2007).
Some of the main areas of technological advancements and emerging developments for catering to support of servicing specific needs are as follows –
- The procedure of surgery involving the usage of robotics
- Advancements in the molecular genetics concept
- Development in surgery processes which are done in minimum access and in a super specialised way
- Developments in the concept of biotechnology
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The term “challenging behaviour” defines the behaviour which is very intense. Such a behaviour for a long duration and frequency damages the security of the healthcare service workplace along with the physical safety of all personal and professional along with the patient(Emerson, 1995). Such a behaviour causes the patient to be restricted from a number of facilities.
Challenging behaviour of an individual can be because of various following aspects, such as –
- Mental retardation
- Learning disabilities
- Emotional turmoil
- Permanent Physical Disabilities
- Neurotic and Psychotropic abnormalities
- Neurotic and Psychotropic medication regimes
- Emotional discontent and lack of verbal communication
- Inability and frustration
Some of the aims of challenging behaviour showing patients –
- Gaining the attention of others
Some of the traits or symptoms of challenging behaviours –
- Unexplainable and sudden rage and aggression
- Risks to properties and technological equipment
- Non-compliance to the general guidelines
- Injuring self by a number of irregular behaviours and activities (Starfield, 1998)
- Non-adherence to medication regimes and not responding to treatments by avoiding dosages etc.
- Attacking or aggression towards support staff
- Indecent behaviour including showing personal parts etc. towards fellow stakeholders
Some of the main impacts of challenging behaviouron health and social care organizations are as follows –
- Fear of physical aggression and attack on the support staff by the patients
- Lack of communication and verbal speech leading to frustration in support staff
- Frustration and irritation in nursing care due to work environment may lead to inefficient service delivery
- Non adherence of medical staff to medication and other routines
- Hindered training and coaching assistance being delivered
- Impatience may lead to high turnover in staff
- Retaliation feelings may crop in physic of the staff against any previous or past incident
- Unethical behaviour shown by support staff
Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case –
- In this case, despite of many hindrances to work and challenging environment of work, support staff behaviour of the health and social care homes was pretty helpful and appeasing
- Constant vigil and support provided to patients like Mr. Luke
- Assistance provided even in the far off hospital, when he was admitted for stroke reasons
- Multidisciplinary approach and assistance to therapy regimes even when Mr. Dobson was not in the service home and was admitted to the hospital
- Inclusion of family members in every health and care future plans for Mr. Luke Dobson
- Taking help from community services and including them for better treatment when he was admitted in the hospital
There are a number of strategies and techniques which are used by the healthcare professionals to handle the wide number of traits of challenging behaviours shown by the patients. Some of the patients requiring special needs like Mr. Luke Dobson generally show this kind of behaviour. One of the most important strategy to handle such behaviours is to identify and anticipate the early symptoms of such behaviours and preventing them before such challenging behaviour starts (Rosenstock, 1988). The most important prerequisite to handle challenging behaviour is to understand and analyse the core reason behind such behaviour of the patient.
Some of the various other straightforward strategies for working with people with challenging behaviours and patients like Mr. Luke Dobson ca be –
- The implementation of the active coping skills should be successful for all the members of the healthcare service provider.
- The guidelines to remove a patient with special needs from treatment when he or she is showing challenging behaviour should be clear. The clear guidelines helps the professionals to take efficient and effective decisions to decide about the perfect course of action.
- Temporary removal of a patient showing challenging behaviour from the treatment allows the healthcare professionals to change the experience and environment of the patient which in turn allows the change in the behaviour of the patient.
- The location after the removal from the treatment should satisfy and provide all the special needs required by the patient, which in turn leads to the elimination of challenging behaviour (Leonard, 2000).
- Extra rewards and recognition can be provided to the professionals with better performance in controlling the challenging behaviour of the patients along with the patients.
- Rewards provided to the patients motivates them to achieve greater goals and control their challenging behaviour. This motivation helps the healthcare professionals to manage the challenging behaviour of the patients.
- The penalties imposed on the patients for negative behaviour in a certain way allows the patients to be cautious not to exhibit any challenging behaviour
Persons with disabilities or patients with difficulties and illnesses require special care and have specific needs to be taken care of. With limitations to keep them at home, family members and relatives take specialized helps from health and social care services. Special service homes for patients with learning disabilities and hardships legalized and assisted by legislative frameworks. Challenging behaviour shown by these patients adhere to socially un-acceptable activities and actions. Special strategies are being deployed to mitigate these behaviours in patients with specific needs and also to safely ward off and administer treatment to them at service homes by the support staff. Multidisciplinary approach has been formulated and implemented in treating such patients. Social stigma and taboo with overall mind-set has changed over the period and acceptability towards such persons has been raised, with guarantee from governments and laws.
In Mr. Luke Dobson’s case, he was suffering from epilepsy and learning disorders and was happily living in a service home, but due to sudden illness and deterioration in his health, he was shifted to a hospital, where multidisciplinary treatment was administered. But, due to some miscommunication and indecisiveness, he lost his lives. To avoid such incidents in totality in future, medical technology advancements have come to help. With latest emerging technologies to assist medical fraternity, such incidents in future can be obverted.