The UK College tourist destinations assignment report presented the difference between the tourist destinations in developed nations with tourist destinations in developing nations.
P1.1 Analyse main tourist destinations and generators of the world in terms of visitor numbers and income generationWorld’s leading tourism destination in 2013 in terms of number of international tourism and international receipt
According to 2013 stats, UK is the eighth largest tourism destination after France, USA, Spain, China, Italy, Turkey and Germany in terms of number of visitors visiting the country. On the basis of revenue generated, also UK lies at 9th position after USA, Spain, France, China, Macao, Italy, Thailand and Germany. UK also generates 3% of the total global tourism.
The major growth in tourism sector in some of the countries is mostly because the countries invest god amount in maintaining their main tourism sites. Most of the leading tourism countries spend hugely on tourism sector. The stats are mentioned below:Expenditure incurred by leading tourism countries on tourism sector in 2012 and 2013
Thus, it can be seen that China who has emerged as one of the fastest growing country in tourism sector has been so successful because of the amount the country spent in making sure that their cultural and heritage sites are maintained which attracts more and more tourism. UK also spent a lot in making sure that the leading tourism sites in UK are well-maintained and areas around these sites are also kept in good shape through provision of good hotels and hospitality services.
The tourism sector of UK can easily be compared with that of China. Both UK and China have a rich and historical culture which attracts lot of tourist across the globe. However, the language barrier in China was something which kept it away from being leading tourist destinations in the past. However, the government realized that tourism sector needed to be lifted and more revenue can be generated. The government’s change in policies helped tourism sector in China and its considerable investment in managing their rich in culture tourism sites had shown vast improvement in this sector. On the other hand, UK has been stagnant in terms of introducing new ideas related to tourism sector. Thus, though UK has been among the top 10 leading tourism destinations in the world, it has not moved up the order.Fastest Growing and Fastest Declining markets in tourism sector world-wide from 2009-13
It can be seen from the above figure that China, USA, Australia, Kuwait and Germany has shown huge growth in the last 5 years while Irish Republic, Japan, Spain, Malta and Austria have been among the top in terms of losing tourism business in the last 5 years.
P1.2 Analyse statistics to determine tourism destination trends and predict future trends1950-2030: Stats and future prediction in terms of international tourism arrival in various parts of the world
According to the above figure, it can be seen that the Asia and Pacific will show highest growth rate from 2010 to 2030 with an increase of over 330 million visitors with an annual growth rate of nearly 4.9%. The Middle East and Africa region are also expected to nearly double their number of international tourist, while Europe will be more or less consistent with the slowest growth rate among all the regions. The main reason behind this is that most of the developing countries are Asian and African countries who are slowly improving their economy and thus, have huge amount of scope to improve their tourism sector, however the developed nations of Europe has already developed their tourism sector and hence growth rate will be slow in these places.
UK- One of the leading tourism destinations:2003-13 Statistics of UK inbound tourism in terms of number visitors and revenue generated
It can be seen from the above table that tourism sector is on an increased in UK. The number of inbound visitors has been increasing consistently apart from the period 2008-2010, when tourism suffered a lot mostly because of the economic crisis and recession during that period.Region wise distribution of inbound tourism in UK in 2013
It can be seen that London the capital city of Britain is the leading tourism site with around 16.8 million inbound visitors with approximately 11,256 million pounds revenue generated only in London.
Future trend in UK:Prediction of 2014 statistics in terms of inbound tourism and revenue generated in its comparison with 2013
It can be seen that according to the future prediction, UK will have a growth rate of 2.5% in terms of number of international visitors visiting UK while there will be an increase of 4.9% in terms of revenue generated from the amount spent by inbound tourists.
P2.1 Analyse the cultural, social and physical features of the worldwide tourist Destination selected by you explaining their appeal to tourists
Social Features: Around 2.72 million people are employed in tourism in the United Kingdom. This means that around 9-10% of the total population of UK is engaged in tourism sector which makes UK the third largest employer in tourism sector. Around 300,000 different tourism businesses are running across whole of UK, which means that 10% of businesses in UK are tourism based. Around 80% of the businesses consist of less than 10 employees. Most of the people employed in tourism businesses in UK are below the age of 30 years and are mostly college going students who work as part timers. Tourism in UK is considered to be a social event where the local people are warming and respectful towards international tourists. Tourism brings changes in the behaviour of local people and local culture as they start interacting with other tourists and learn their ways of life and behaviour. Language is another important attribute which makes UK one of the leading tourism destinations. People speaks English which is world-wide spoken language and considered as Universal language for communication, hence international tourists feel comfortable and secure while visiting places and sites in UK. The government of UK also supports over 50,000 families in through the charity from the fund raised from tourism sector. The government also sends old people who live in old age houses and trust to spend holidays so that they can enjoy better life away from loneliness, stress and boredom of their current life.
Cultural Features: England’s long history and pervasive culture makes UK one of the leading tourist destinations in terms of cultural tourism. Britain ranks 4th in terms of Heritage sites across the globe and ranked 7th in terms of cultural sites present in Britain. There are many museums, galleries, castles, churches and cathedrals which depict the long history and rich culture of UK. Visiting museums is considered as the 4th best activity in comparison to other tourist activities done by tourists. British Royal heritage plays an important role in attracting tourist world-wide who visits UK to pay visit to royal palaces and castles. Settings of houses, local festivals and various performances depicting the culture of UK are some of the attractions which attract lot of tourism in UK. Liverpool consists of many heritage sites and therefore was named as European Capital of Culture 2008. Liverpool was also awarded World Heritage Status by UNESCO in the year 2004. Liverpool in order to showcase its rich culture and being Capital of Culture promoted tourism by organizing various events based on different themes like ‘Sea Liverpool’ and ‘Liverpool Performs’. Creative Tourism which was first introduced in New Zealand as a new concept to Cultural tourism is now also being practiced in UK. Tourist from all parts of the world are given the opportunity to fulfil their hobbies of painting, photography or writing which is much more interesting than simply visiting some of the tourist places. Participation of tourist in such activities helps in developing good relations with the tourists and makes their trip more enjoyable and memorable (Richards, 2006). Tourists therefore are willing to visit such places again and again. Briton and Bath are two emerging heritage sites which are in great demand these days. As a result, Art Council England and Visit England has invested a considerable amount in the development of these two cities and also to make sure that these two cities are properly connected and transport facilities are available so that tourist visiting one place should also visit the other.
Physical features: The most common activity performs by tourist in UK is walking. Tourists like walking and enjoy the countryside such as hills, rivers, lakes, etc. There is lot of beautiful beaches in UK which also attracts large number of people. Some of the famous physical sites in UK are: Lake District national park, Peak district national park, New Forest Park, Jurassic Coast which is one of world’s heritage sites, group of 70 islands in Scotland, etc. The government of UK invests a lot of funds in ensuring that these places are looked after, cleanliness is maintained and proper renovations is done from time to time to ensure greater durability of these places as they bring lot of revenue to the government. However, on a negative side, the increasing tourism at these places leads to overcrowdings which results in lot of problems in the life of local people which adversely affects their balance in life. However, people of UK are very cooperative and warming as they understand the importance of tourism and the various benefits arising from it. The natural existing places are more in demand because of the scenic beauty and beautiful climatic conditions which helps in removing the stress in the life of many tourists.
P2.2 Compare features of a tourist destination in a developing country and leading tourist Destinations
Some of key differences between the tourism destinations of developed nations like UK and tourist destinations in developing nations like India are:
- Social: Developed nations consider tourism as a separate industry and therefore invest a lot in maintaining and managing their sites. On the other hand, developing nations consider tourism as just an additional revenue generator and therefore maintenance of tourist sites in developing nations is not up to the mark.
More and more people are associated with tourism industry in developed nations as mentioned in the previous section. More than 3 million people of UK are engaged with tourism sector. On the other hand, people in developing nations like India do not consider tourism sector as a stable source of income and hence tourist operators are less in such countries. Those who are engaged in this sector do not get appropriate wages and hence job satisfaction is low in tourism in developing nations. One of the main reasons for difference in tourism industry between the two types of nations is the language problem. While communication is not a problem between local and tourists in UK, people of India and other developing nations could not communicate with tourist because of lack of communication skills.
- Cultural features: Most of the developed countries are famous regarding their culture and rich heritage. However, in developing nations, either cultural significance is very low or people across the world in ignorant about the rich culture of thee nations. The government of those countries should make sure that proper marketing is done about their rich cultural and heritage sites so that people across the globe are aware of these places and are attracted to visit them. India also has a long history and rich in culture, however, the lack of maintenance and improper transport facilities, improper hotel accommodation, etc. has hindered tourism in these places as well.
- Physical: When comparing the two countries UK and India, there are more physical; sites in India which is rich in geographical conditions. With wide range of mountains, rivers, seas, forests, etc. India provides wide range of tourist attraction. However, these places are not connected properly. The big size of the country and developing economy has resulted in low transport facilities. Moreover, many places including beaches and riverside areas are dirty and are not cleaned. Government does not make adequate efforts to make sure that these places are kept clean (Davenport, 2006). The improper management results in lesser tourism in those places, which hampers tourism sector in developing nations.
P3.1 Compare the appeal of current leading tourist destinations with that of currently developing tourist destinations
It can be seen that the appeal for tourist destinations in developed nations is more as compared to that in developing nations. Some of the main reasons are discussed below:
- Destination: The destination itself attracts more and more people. The climatic condition, the ease to reach a place, the comfort level while travelling, the significance of place, etc. All these factors determine how much appealing the tourist destination is. For example: The climatic conditions in UK are far better in summers as compared to that in India. People like to visit places which are refreshing, but the adverse climatic conditions can make it difficult. The cultural and heritage sites hold high significance in the eyes of tourists. Tourists are also attracted more towards natural existing tourist places rather than manmade places. Activities like creative tourism which has been started in UK are also some of the important steps to increase the appeal of these places.
- Economic factor: The economy of the country also plays an important role in increasing the appeal for a particular location. The comparison between UK and India can clearly be contrasted here. UK being highly industrialized country with most of the companies and organizations are globally expanded have more international tourist coming in UK for business purposes, however in developing nations like India, business trips are very less as there are very few companies which are expanded around the world.
- Behaviour of local people: Another important factor which decreases the appeal of tourism in developing nations is the local people and their behaviour. The lack of people’s ability to communicate with outsiders often results in dislike for them (Tosun, 2000). The tourists are not welcomed by local people and sometimes are often fell prey of pick pocketing and coning activities which has reduced the number of tourist in those places. On the other hand, local people in developed countries are helpful and friendly and attract more and more tourists to visit their places.
It can be seen that satisfaction level of tourists coming from various parts of the world is less towards hotel facilities. The behaviour of front office and infrastructure of hotel in India has not been up to the mark. The rest rooms and toilets are not kept clean. At many places, there are not even proper hotels, which results in dissatisfaction among tourists. The shopkeepers also try to take unnecessary advantage as the tourists are unaware of the local language and local prices. Corruption is high at these places and therefore tourism in inversely affected.
P3.2 Evaluate how characteristics of a tourist destination affect its appeal
Some important characteristics which affect the appeal for tourism destinations are:
- Economic Factor: As mentioned industrialization and globalization are two most important aspects to facilitate business tourism in a country. A country with more number of industries spread across the world, will have people coming from outside for business purposes and meetings (Mello, 2002).
- Cultural Factor: Culture plays an important role in attracting more and more tourism. It can be seen that the massive growth in China in the last 5 five years have been because of their rich and different culture which attracted tourist in large number from different parts of the world. The cultural affect in China and their various sites is so strong that even though local people are not fluent in English, the outsiders still visit these places again and again to know more about the history of China (Crouch, 1999).
- Physical characteristics: It is important that when a tourist visits a place he or she should enjoy their vacations rather than feel uncomfortable and tired. The mood of tourist destination should be refreshing. Therefore, it is important that tourist sites are properly managed and kept cleaned and hygienic. It is often seen that famous tourist spots are overcrowded without any management with people standing in queues for hours. This can be highly frustrating for people who have travelled a long distance to visit such places. For example: pilgrim sites in India are highly overcrowded during festive seasons and management is very poor.
- Social features: It is important that the government should look into ways of increasing employment and job opportunities in places near tourism sites in their country. The local art and craft and other local talents should be promoted so that both tourists as well as local people are benefitted with the help of tourism. People should be taught how to communicate and speak in English so that language barriers are not present.
- Political Factors: Despite the fact, that UK is one of the biggest tourist destinations in terms of cultural and heritage sites present in the country, the country is still ranked 7th or 8th among leading tourists destinations. The main reason for this drawback is the political factor. The taxation system in UK is very different compared to other European countries like France and Germany. Tourism is very expensive in UK. Moreover, Visas are not easily available and one has to undergo a complicated process to get visa. All these things make tourism in UK difficult and reduce the number of tourism to considerable extent.
P4.1 Analyse issues that affect the popularity of tourist destinations
Some of the main issues which affect the popularity of tourism destinations are:
- Terrorism: Terrorism at any place or region hampers tourism to a considerable extent. Any act related to terrorism fills fear in the mind of people and stops them to pay visit to places where such acts have taken place. The famous attack on world Trade Centre which was the biggest terrorism attack on mankind in the 21st century hampers tourism in USA for not only that year but also in many years later (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2007). It is difficult to forget such deadly attacks where several lives are taken. People will not prefer to visit places where an attack has already taken place and therefore tourism suffers a lot because of these things.
- Global Warming: The increase in global warming is another issue which affects the popularity of any tourist destinations. The capital city of India, New Delhi is one of the most polluted cities in the world. People prefer cold areas with less pollution and more greenery as their tourist destinations. Therefore most people prefer hill station as perfect place to spend their vacations where there are less people, low pollution, less noise and cool climate. However, global warming is one of the biggest concerns, many automobile companies and airline companies make sure that they use engines which are made from the latest technology and are fuel efficient so that carbon di-oxide emission is minimized and pollution can be controlled (Amelung, 2007).
- Natural disaster: Another big issue with tourism sector are natural disaster. Not only does natural disasters like flood and earthquakes destroy the place and takes many lives, it is also installs fear in the minds of many people. It is a gradual phenomenon to make things back to normal once a natural disaster has hit that place. The Tsunami, which nearly destroyed the south Asia hampered tourism in many countries including Sri Lanka, Thailand, India, Malaysia and many more (Scott, 2005).
- Climatic conditions: It can be seen through the month wise tourism details in a year of UK in terms of people visiting the country that most of the people visit the country in the month of July and August, while the month of December to February usually have lesser number of visitors. The main reason for this is climatic conditions of UK. The winters in UK are considered to be very harsh and not favourable to tourism, on the other hand, summers are pleasant in UK which invites people from all part of the world especially from tropical regions where summers are very hot and people search for cold areas to spend their holidays
P4.2 Discuss the potential for responsible tourism to enhance the host community at the worldwide tourist destination selected by you
It is important that some of the leading tour operators of the country should use of some of the money in doing charity and helping the needy. In UK, many tour operations agencies are associated with various social organizations and community which looks forward to benefit poor and needy, orphans and old age people by doing charity so that their life can be improved. There are many tour operators which even use money to send poor families or old people to holidays so that they can enjoy their life and can be away from the pressure and stressful life. Responsible tourism also makes sure that they can channelize their funds to help people and place which are stuck from natural disasters. A famous tour operating company of UK, Explore, raised approximately 27,000 pounds and sent 8,000kgs of food and water supplies to the affected areas after the Tsunami stuck the South Asian countries. The company also helped India and Pakistan during the famous Earthquake which stuck Gujarat in 2001.
Thus it can be concluded that tourism sector in developed nations are mostly because of their rich culture, beautiful and scenic sites, and good behaviour of local people. The report analysed UK tourism sector in detail bringing out the current and future trend of UK. The major issues which affect the appeal to tourist destinations in developing nations were compared with that of leading tourist destinations in developed nations. Lastly, the world issues such terrorism, global warming, natural disasters which affect tourism inversely and to considerable extent were also discussed and the meaning of responsible tourism and various steps that should be followed to ensure responsible tourism were also discussed in this report.