The report in the St. Patrick college Health Promotion assignment comprises of 3 Tasks in all. The 4th task is in the form of a presentation. Task 1 is based on the case study of Mary who is a smoker and pregnant lady working for longer duration in a store. Task 2 is on the same case study but has a discussion on the theories of health behaviour. Task 4 is a health promotional campaign organized in one of the communities of East London. We will study on the importance and significance of the health and safety in the modern world and importance of health promotion campaigns in helping people quit their bad habits like smoking.
Mary is the major character of the case study that stays with her parents in East London in a community flat. She is a pregnant lady who smokes a lot. She is working in a supermarket for around 16 hours a day. This task would discuss on the problems and their causes on the socio-economic front. We will also discuss on the several initiatives and the programs that government has organized in the East London Community and its effects on the health and safety of the people.
Seen living have a great impact on an individual. They can either make or break an individual. He may get into bad habits in case his society is bad. Similarly in case the individual has bad financial and economic condition then in order to earn his living he may take hard work as the option of get involved in the wrongful activities to earn money. The case discusses a lady named Mary who is a smoker. She has been working in a supermarket for a longer period for earning her livelihood as she has to feed her pregnant condition and the parents she had been staying with. The conditions show that she is facing bad times as far as her social and economic conditions are concerned. In spite of being pregnant, she has been living with her parents. This also shows that she may not have sound relations with her spouse and his family. She must be thinking that by smoking she will forget the problems and the stress that exists in her life. She is working for a longer period, she is trying to earn her living and even get engaged in some other activities and forgetting the stress and tensions that persist in her life (Flay, 1987).
·An Assessment of the importance of government resources such as reports/research on inequalities in health in relation to the case study
Although government of the country desires that each and every individual should be given equal treatment in terms of medication and facilities related to health and safety yet due to life conditions of the people, it is not possible. There are people who are so engrossed in earning for their family that they do not get chance to have the equality of health as they do not have time to spend in those activities due to their financial conditions. On the other hand due to lack of people cannot afford to travel and reach the locations where these campaigns are being organized. In the case scenario, Mary cannot afford to join an anti-smoking campaign as she is not having time. She has to earn livelihood for her family as well as satisfy her parent’s with whom she has been staying. On the other hand there are few people who have a lot of money and income and they are able to afford even the expensive medication and the treatments. On the basis of various reports and the research project activities it could easily be inferred that there is high amount of inequality in almost the entire world. Either due to money or due to lack of time, people cannot afford attending the expensive treatments, medications and the health promotional programs.
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·Identify and discuss the reason and any possible barriers to Mary accessing health care.
Mary will not get time to attend the health promotional campaign as she has been working for 16 hours a day in the supermarket. She has to look after her parents as well as her baby in the womb s has got no time to get self-involved in the various activities. There has been a great pressure on social and economic front for her that she has been facing issues related with her health and its safety. She has been living with her parents that mean she may not have good relations with her spouse. This shows that she cannot afford to buy off a flat for her personal living and is dependent on her parents. The various reasons or the possible barriers on her way to get facilities under health promotional programs are: dependency on her parents, bad relations with her spouse and his family, lack of finances, pregnancy and even the societal pressures (McVey & Stapleton, 2000).
B. Demonstrate your understanding of models of health promotion
·Identifying and analysing the links between government strategies and models of health promotion in relation to the case study
The numbers of people in UK who have been smoking have been increasing. The data and the statement have been made on the basis of the researches and their findings. Government has been taking a lot of initiatives in this regard and there has been equal increase in the number of these programs.In the case study Mary has been facing various pressures from the society and the financial perspectives. She has to work for a long hours in a day in the supermarket so that she could earn money. These could be the reasons that the governmental activities and the programs have been unsuccessful. When people will not get time then how will they attend these activities in spite of the large number of programs being organized in the community?Research shows that there are a lot of departments and the levels that the government has organized and delegated them the responsibility of taking over the illnesses, health and safety of the people. There are various associations and organizations as well specially founded by the government to curb the level of smoking among the people in East London. They have also been doing the following activities to promote the health and safety in the modern world:
- Development and implementation of Health Promotion Campaigns (Burrows et al, 1995).
- Spreading the awareness among people on the harmful effects of smoking and other bad habits.
- Information brochures on the centres of treating the smokers and drinkers.
- Imposing fines for smoking on public places.
- No advertisements and promotional activities for beverages and cigarettes.
Mary is a smoker as she thinks that cigarette helps her in forgetting the stress and the personal life tensions she is having whereas the effect is that it is causing harm to the world around her and even the baby in her womb.
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· Explaining the role different professionals in health and social care have on meeting health promotion targets by set by government in relation to the case study
Various professionals like doctors, nurses, chemists, medical representatives and various others have to play a key role along with the government so that the health promotional campaigns and the plans are a great success. It is actually said to be a combined effort and hard work that the people have been doing with respect to the initiatives that have been taken for the people like Mary. Each person is delegated with a special responsibility and role in order to make the health and safety promotions a great success. Health ministry is involved in making various laws, rules, regulations and the policies with regard to the health and safety of the individuals. Doctors and Nurses have been treating people by giving them various medicines and writing on the prescriptions. There are various authorities like associations, NGOs and the centres where the promotional programs on health and safety of the society are being developed so that society is free from the habits that spoil the health of the people. Health promotional campaigns and the promotional initiatives could only be ensuring a society free from illnesses and bad habits when all the people will join hands with the government.
·Discussing the role of routines in promoting healthy living with respect to Mary in the case study
Routines play a very important role in an individual and his healthy living. For example in case Mary decides that she wants to quit smoking then she has to develop her routine for smoking lesser cigarettes in a day. She has to ensure that she cuts on one cigarette from her routine every day. This way she will be able to cut on the number of cigarettes. She has to follow the process of routines so that she finally quits smoking (Stokols, 1996).
Although she may face a problem in following this routine but with perseverance and the desire to quit smoking she will definitely be able to treat her problem of smoking and passively harming her baby. Even if she will try to smoke then once the routine has been set she will be able to do the activities as per her regular routine. Hence Routines develop a schedule or a time table as a biological clock in an individual and he tends to do things as he has been doing daily.
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Identify the theories of health behaviour and explain how health beliefs are translated into behaviour in relation to Mary and the case study.
There have been a lot of theories on the health behaviour and the promotions:
- Descriptive Midrange Theory –This describes the human state and related health and safety (Soames, 1988).
- Integrated theory on health behaviour and change – Health behaviour and change are linked with each other. In case health is not fine then individual tends to behave and change himself.
- Health Promotions and behaviour change –This a theory that states that by the way of health promotional campaigns and spreading of the awareness on health and safety, behaviour of an individual could be changed. He tends to establish a link or an association with the things learned in the promotional campaign with his daily life and events.
These theories have been developed by various eminent researchers who have studied human psychology and the change that is observed in the behaviour of an individual with respect to his environment, his health and the society. The problems like financial stress, lack of good relations with family members have been the major reasons for the change in the behaviour of the people. These are describing the problems and issues that an individual faces due to pressures and changes in his health and safety. These beliefs have been converted into behaviour and expression as:
- Sharing of feelings, beliefs, and experiences with others.
- People get inclined to change their beliefs related with bad habits when they get to hear that they will be a threat to their family as well.
- People are in bad habits and lack the knowledge and information on how these habits may result in their failure in lives on personal and professional fronts.
- By making them aware of the potential threats and illness of self and others, they could be cautioned and warned (Kickbusch, 1989).
When Mary would be made aware that the movement she will smoke then her baby may not be able to survive as the bad and harmful smoke may go inside its body. She has to be shared with the experiences of the other people how they have faced the similar situations. This may excite her to bring changes in her behaviour and quit smoking to help her live and even her baby.
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Identify and discuss the potential effects of conflicts with local industry on health promotion with respect to Mary and the case study
When the people working on the health programs and campaigns will have conflicts and lack of understanding then they will not be able to work together for a longer time. In this way even the health programs would be unsuccessful and very far from the realization. It is of great importance that people should realize the significance and role of their responsibilities and team work. All should join hands remove all kinds of conflicts and the lack of disagreements so that they could discuss on the programs and the ways in which they could free the society from health issues and problems.
Health Promotions Campaigns are organized with the special objective of making the people aware on the harmful effects that smoking will leave not only on them but also on the people around them. The campaign was organized for attending the problem of active and passive smoking in the community of East London. The program was in the form of a presentation given by the senior leader in Anti-smoking organization and NGOs. They called a lot of people who had passed out from their centres and have permanently quit smoking. These campaigns are the ways and the techniques whereby the actual experiences shared are helping people empathize each other and support each other in quitting the bad habit of smoking. It is important that these programs and campaigns are organized on regular intervals and their assessment and evaluation could be done.
Health Promotion campaigns act as a tool or a way to control or curb the bad habits among the people by making them realize on the importance of not doing it. The name of the health promotional campaign organized was QUIT SMOKING AS IT KILLS SELF AND OTHERS.
After making this assignment it was realized that smoking is a habit that makes people think that they are leading a good life as they forget pressures and stress in their lives. Actually the scenario is that they tend to forget the tensions for a shorter duration. They actually recall it and start smoking more. This creates a chain habit of smoking thereby causing a lot of problems in them like: cancer of mouth, body and lungs, illness in respiratory organs, blood disorders, disturbance in the personal lives and even leads to the passion smoking and breaking of personal relations with others. It causes disturbance in the community we live in. People tend to maintain distances from the people who smoke as they know the harmful effects of passive smoking (Stevens et al, 2002).
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The health promotion campaign that was organized at one of the communities in East London where almost all the residents and non-residents were invited was a successful activities or a program. The authorities of NGOs and Anti-smoking centres were called as chief guests and the presenters. There were a lot of people who shared their life experiences before and after quitting of smoking which influenced many others as we tend to learn from others real life examples. When they heard how people have recovered from their bad habit of smoking, they started approaching the centre authority to fill in the form of joining the anti-smoking campaign. The most important surprise was that people actively participated and interacted with each other to express their views and opinions.
Health Promotion Campaigns help in the spreading of the awareness among the people and help them understand the harmful effects of not treating the health at priority. Smoking is the habit that kills the individually slowly and gradually. Government of London has been taking several initiatives so that they could cut on the level of smoking in the public places. They have introduced anti-smoking campaigns that help the people and support them to quit smoking.
ReferencesStevens, W., Thorogood, M., & Kayikki, S. 2002. Cost-effectiveness of a community anti-smoking campaign targeted at a high risk group in London.Health promotion international, 17(1), 43-50. Flay, B. R. 1987. Mass media and smoking cessation: a critical review.American Journal of Public Health, 77(2), 153-160. Soames Job, R. F. 1988. Effective and ineffective use of fear in health promotion campaigns. American Journal of Public Health, 78(2), 163-167. Smith, G. D., Ströbele, S. A., & Egger, M. 1994. Smoking and health promotion in Nazi Germany. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 48(3), 220.
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