This is solution understand specific needs in HSC assignment, discuss the various aspect of needs of patients and all.
Health and Social Care is a term that relates to integrated services that are available from health and social care providers. Some patients perceive themselves as healthy although they are suffering from illness whereas others perceive themselves as ill although they are very well in their own terms. (Chen & Dodd, 2008)
Task 1: understand perceptions of healthy, disability, illness and behaviour
a) Concepts of health in relation to users of health and social care services and changes in perceptions of specific needs overtime
Health is defined as an individual's level of wellbeing and illness, due to the presence of biological or physiological factors, Health perceptions (or perceived health status) are determined by the health status of the person. (Mechanic, 1995)
Disease is defined as the process that is used to understand the illness and fitness of the body
Stigmatised conditions are defined as the conditions of negative images, fever etc.
- Worth of the personality
- Shame associated with a stigmatized condition
- Actual experience exclusion (schools, work, social)
Health is defined in the following ways
- Absence of illness
- Absence of infection or disease
- Body fitness
- Health is measured in terms of strength, and weakness
- health usually vary from social, geographical & cultural contexts
Definition of Illness
- Illness is a condition of deviation from the healthy state
- Illness is a pronounced experience
- Illness is a psychological concept when the individual feels not well and behaves badly
- illness has different approaches for different people
- depend upon an individual’s way of evaluation of his illness
- it is functional and relative concept
Representation of illness
- When they are not able to perform daily activities
- If somebody is having pain, loss of stamina ,nausea and fatigue
- When they just don’t feel well
- Illness is determined by of the presence of symptoms that can be affected by a patient's expectations
- Patients respond to disease symptoms in different ways such as ignoring, denying and
- If we experience diseases that are severe enough, then we feel that we are having serious disease
- Doctors are very aware of physical symptoms that will lead to professional stress
- More knowledge will lead to effective diagnose of diseases
- Number of symptoms
- Existence of physical disability resulting from the symptoms
- Recognition and identification of the symptom
- severity of the diseases
Beliefs for the healthy body of patients:
- Contribution towards understanding of patient interactions
- Contribution towards compliance and healthy behaviours
- Understanding people’s thoughts regarding the health maintenance
- Prevention of disease to increase the effectiveness of health promotion
Symptoms that lead to medical care are as follows:
- Family medical history
- Previous experience
- Loss of control
Reality of job
Behaviour of illness
- Nature of symptoms
- predetermined response patterns
- current situation
- ability to take care of the health
- Availability of decreased responsibilities)
- Americans are usually healthier and fit than other nations people(Pennebaker, 1981)
- However, Americans report feeling worse
b) Impact of social policy/practice, legislation and culture on the availability of services for individual with specific needs
Impact of culture
- Buddhism believes that the suffering of pain is relieved by the 8 possible ways that are as follows right view, right speech, right intention ,right action, right mindfulness, right livelihood, right effort, and right concentration)
- Taoism believes that the results of the pain are when some nerve is blocked. relief for the pain is by removing the blockage
Impact of the Social behaviour on the availability of services provided to users
- The high rate illness is found in lower economic groups
- The people in higher income economic groups are more aware of their health
- The Older people will never consult the doctor for their illness whereas younger people are in a continuous relationship with the doctor for the treatment of illness
The sick role is defined as a social activity used for the purpose of getting well
Advantages of sick role
- Exempt from many daily activities
- Ability to take rest
- Needs Proper care
- Social supporting power
- Disability to work
- Compensation of labour
Disadvantages of sick role
- Level of Confusion,
- Decreased level of comfort
- decreased functioning
- more stress
- Sick people will never perform their normal social roles
- Sick people don’t have the responsibility stage
- To get better as soon as possible
- To consult and co-operate with medical experts whenever severity of condition
Decision to take medicine
- Medicine description
- OTC meds?
- Age factor
- Need for medicine
Patient doctor relationship
- Orientation of doctor’s practice style
- Skills of Doctor’s communication
- Time influence
- Influence of structural context
- expectations and participation of the patients Social care needs
Task 2: To understand how health and social care services and systems support individual with specific needs.
a) Analysis of the need for care needs in an organization working with service users with specific needs.
People who had more than one long term diseases have difficult as well as complex needs, so they need to be visited by a number of doctors from different departments in different hospitals. This is because that one doctor will never fulfil the needs of patient having severe diseases.
There is continuous increase in the population of people having health and social care. This is because of continuous increase in population ages. Physical needs may be vulnerable and require continuous personalized responses from an organization .the third party organization should provide proper support and care for the wellbeing of humans.
The objective of health and social care department is
- To change the culture from ‘doing with’ to ‘doing to’ to enhance the life of the individual.
- Proper care planning process
- Proper self-management technique to improve and managing communication for patients, doctors and staff that are working within a same organization.
- Proper care management team
- Improved experience of the patient.( DiMattteo & Martin, 2002)
b) Systems and services available to support patients with specific needs
Various services and systems
- They are responsible for the health of the people. The doctor is the first point of contact if you are worried about your or your known health
- They diagnose a particular condition and according to the condition or severity of the disease if tests are needed or dementia is needed, they will suggest you to consult a doctor
- They help you in referring the other doctors refer you to other professionals,
- They help in solving problem related to the pain in feet and hence keeps your feet
- Podiatry services are maintained by chiropodists
- Theyare the specialized and trained doctors who have extensive experience in a particular area of problem specialty. (Curtis, 2012)
- the symptoms of the disease that has to be diagnosed and need to be organized determines the specialization of the doctor in the field
The types of consultant that you might see include:
- Psychiatrists are the doctors that helps in diagnosing mental health problem and who had training and experience in that field. (Hart & Bond, 1995)
- Neurologists are the specialized doctors who diagnoses thedisorders of the brain and nervous system
- Physiotherapists are the doctors who will guide the patients for exercise at all stages of the life. .they manage the home visit facility for patients
- Geriatricians are the specialists who diagnose the disabilities and diseases of old age people Audiologists
- Audiologists are the specialists who check the hearing problems of the patients and can provide hearing aids to the patients regularly.
- Optometrist’s helps in dealing problems the sight the eyesight of the person should be checked regularly and also examine the signs of cataract.
- Nurses are the community serving personalities who provide treatment, care and support to the mentally distorted people. They help in serving people at home and hence help them in improving the personality of their life .they help in managing activities such as changing catheters
Task3: Understand approaches and intervention strategies that support individuals with specific needs
a) Approaches and intervention techniques used to support service users with specific needs, along with the limitations or advantages that these approaches have provided for individuals with specific needs
Health is defined as an individual's level of wellbeing and illness, due to the presence of biological or physiological factors, Health perceptions (or perceived health status) are determined by the health status of the person.
- Palliative care is a term used for both specialized as well as generalist doctor’s .they help in providing help to the patients in their need
- Strategies and approaches used for Autism
- People having autism disease problem faces some challenges
- Difficulty to communicate with other people.
- They will face epilepsy or gastro-intestinal problems
- Difficulty for Relatives and careers of autistic people
- It is a disease that affects the communication sense of an individual who is suffering from this disease.
b) Need for development and support for individuals with specific needs
The extensive care is provided by various departments whish are as follows
- Department of multidisciplinary care
- Community for multi-agency members that have a shared workspace. These teams may generic workers. The care managers are the part of this team who will act as an intermediate between a patient and their care taker team
- Various coordinating Teams will maintain coordination among members, tools and information.
- Care taker teams will identify those people who are having the risk getting ill.
Various approaches used in the process of autism are as follows
- Restricted patterns of behaviour and activities.
- Alternative and Augmentative Communication in health and social care are used if people are unwilling to use standard forms of communication
- Before choosing an approach, you have to find information about the approach and discover strengths and potential of an approach
- Behavioural and developmental interventions includes various educational strategies such as coaching and educational strategies
TASK 4: Understanding strategies for coping with challenging behaviours associated with specific needs:
For copying with challenging behaviour associated with specific needs, we must understand what the reason is for the person for behaving in that specific manner and understand their specific needs. For example, they can be stresses, sad or angry and even violent sometimes.
Best approach is to recognize the early steps or warning signals as soon as possible. We may prevent various aggressive outbursts. (Rosenstock, 1988)
a) Characteristics of challenging behaviour
- One of my friend’s brothers is a victim of polio disorder because of which his limbs are immovable. Hence he feels very low and because of inferiority complex, he behaves weirdly many times in public and display of emotional outburst is a common symptom of such behaviour. Shouting, throwing goods here and there and disrespecting social gatherings are various types of emotional outbursts I have observed.
- One of my cousins has been suffering of psychological stress because of not getting job after completing her education. Hence her morale is so down that she secludes herself to her room and don’t talk to family members and friends and also don’t socialize. Challenging behaviour includes talking at night, getting scared frequently and remaining silent for hours.
b) Potential impact of challenging behaviour on health and social care
- Main impact of challenging behaviour is self-injurious behaviour such as hitting, head butting, biting and scratching themselves. (Starfield, 1998)
- Also there can be aggressive behaviour such as hitting others, screaming, scratching others, spitting, biting, kicking etc. which has disastrous impacts on other’s health.
- Inappropriate sexualized behaviour can be another potential impact (such as public masturbation or groping)
- Impact can be at damaging property by throwing objects, destroying and stealing things and
- Another impact can be stereotyped behaviours such as repetitive rocking or echolalia.
c) Setting clear boundaries/target time out, reward and sanctions, for working with challenging behaviour associated with specific needs
Clear boundaries/target time out –
Withdrawal to a desolated area is a form of “Time Out” from reinforcement. Withdrawal is the prompt and temporary removal of the person with specific needs from his present environment or activity so that we can prevent the outbursts and other damages to the social ecosystem around the person. Professional help can be provided within those boundaries and cure can begin.
If the withdrawal occurs without removing the person from the actual environment where they are at that moment, it is called “non-exclusionary time-out”. Non-exclusionary time out involves temporarily removing the cause from the individual. The individual remains in the ongoing environment, but the cause is removed or the individual is not afforded access to reinforce for some time. (Chevannes, 2002)
And withdrawal to a quiet area if occurs through actually removing the person from the situation, then it is called “exclusionary time-out”.
Reward and sanctions –
Parents must be involved in rewarding good behaviour – more prominently with children of younger age.
Rewards: Whether rewards have a positive or negative effect depend on the impact of using them on self-efficacy and goal orientation of the faculty. US studies have shown that strategies using delivering rewards and sanctions have been proved effective for decreasing disruptive behaviour. The symbolic nature of rewards held less monetary value, especially with children who are older and that schools can’t convince rewards with credibility.
A survey showed that one of best strategy used by people to manage pupil behaviour is praising good behaviour (91% used often); having a system to acknowledge with sanctions (85%); and using a consistent and robust reward system (82%).
Health and Social Care is a term that relates to integrated services that are available from health and social care providers. Some patients perceive themselves as healthy although they are suffering from illness whereas others perceive themselves as ill although they are very well in their own terms.US studies have shown that strategies using delivering rewards and sanctions have been proved effective for decreasing disruptive behaviour. The symbolic nature of rewards held less monetary value, especially with children who are older and that schools can’t convince rewards with credibility. Parents must be involved in rewarding good behaviour – more prominently with children of younger age. Professional help can be provided within those boundaries and cure can begin. Disease is defined as the process that is used to understand the illness and fitness of the body. Stigmatised conditions are defined as the conditions of negative images, fever etc. For copying with challenging behaviour associated with specific needs, we must understand what the reason is for the person for behaving in that specific manner. People with specific needs need to be withdrawal which is the prompt and temporary removal of the person with specific needs from his present environment or activity so that we can prevent the outbursts and other damages to the social ecosystem around the person. People who had more than one long term diseases have difficult as well as complex needs, so they need to be visited by a number of doctors from different departments in different hospitals .this is because that one doctor will never fulfil the needs of patient having severe diseases. There is continuous increase in the population of people having health and social care. This is because of continuous increase in population ages. Physical needs may be vulnerable and require continuous personalized responses from an organization .the third party organization should provide proper support and care for the wellbeing of humans.
- Chen, L., Miaskowski, C., Dodd, M., Pantilat S. (2008).Concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the cancer pain experience. Cancer Nurse. 31(2):103-8.
- Mechanic, D. (1995). "Sociological Dimensions of Illness Behaviour." Social Science and Medicine 41:1207–1216
- Decremented, R. & Raczynski, J. (1999). Handbook of health promotion and disease prevention.
- DiMattteo & Martin, Health Psychology, 2002
- Pennebaker, et al. (1981) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1981 Aug Vol 41(2) 213-223
- Curtis, L. (2012).Unit costs of health and social care 2012. Personal Social Services Research Unit.
- Hart, F., & Bond, M. (1995).Action research for health and social care: A guide to practice. McGraw-Hill International.