Icon College Unit 29 Health Promotion

This is a solution of Icon College Health Promotion assignment written for HND Health and social care course discusses the smoking impact on UK professionals.


The entire assignment has been divided into three tasks and based on the case study of Mary. Task 1 would discuss on the effects of social economic influences on health of Mary. The various reasons and the possible barriers for accessing of healthcare for Mary would also be revealed. Task 2 would also use the same case scenario and discuss on theories of health behaviour and potential effects of conflicts. Task 4 is a health promotion campaign for any of the selected choices given. The entire assignment is discussing on the health promotion and its relevance in Mary’s case and a communication to the public on the significance of health and related promotional programs and activities.


Mary is a smoker and two months pregnant. She is residing with her parents in East London. She has been working for a supermarket for a longer time of 16 hours per day.  We will discuss on Health promotion, causes of problem on socio-economic front and also the barriers that are faced while doing health promotion. A discussion would continue on various initiatives and the strategies that have been or could be adopted by the government with relevance to health promotion and related programs.

A. Using the case scenario, you must include the following into your report and discussion to demonstrate an understanding of the effect socio-economic circumstance can have on health.

The effects of socio-economic influences on Mary’s health

Socio-Economic conditions of an individual affect the health of an individual in all ways. Economic conditions are related with the financial situation of a person. On the other hand social are the ones related to family, colleagues, workplace, society and the community where an individual lives.  As per the case scenario, Mary has been residing with her parents. She is two months pregnant and working for the supermarket and that too for 16 hours each day. This shows that she is having problem on economic front and she has been residing with her parents also working for longer duration so that she could support herself and even her parents. This has been living in society and is pressurized this is shown that she is smoking. Smoking must be helping her in reducing stress. She must be facing marital issues as being pregnant also she is residing with her parents. The case scenario shows that Mary has been extremely under financial and social distress. She has been working for 16 hours every day so that she could earn a livelihood for her parents. Sometimes the economic conditions are such that people have to forget everything and work for long hours in order to earn for their living. She must be in company of friends who are also smoking that is the reason she is unable to quit the habit of smoking even after she knows that she is pregnant. She will be deteriorating her as well as her baby’s health in case she will not quit the habit of smoking. It has been researched and proved that these are the social as well as economic conditions that give stress and tension to an individual. These forces even give an impulse to an individual to even get on the wrong track or the path. In order to attain a good living that has money and removing financial distress Mary may be working for longer duration (Stokols, 1992).

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An Assessment of the importance of government resources such as reports/research on inequalities in health in relation to the case study

Each and every individual does not get equal importance in terms of the governmental and as general the benefits of the health and social care. It all is dependent on the financial situation of an individual that the level of the health benefits and the promotional programs that he could avail. Due to constraint of money people cannot go for expensive treatments, tests and benefits of the health promotion programs. Mary has been in financial and social distress as per the case. She may not be able to avail the benefits of the health care and promotional activities. On the other hand various other people who have been earning well may be going for expensive health treatments and the programs. Based on the various reports and the researches done on the national and international level by Governmental sources, it could be inferred that there has been a lot of inequality among people in regard to the health promotion and its benefits among people. Due to the factor and parameter of money and affordability people are getting unequal treatments and benefits. Government has been taking several initiatives in this regard but still the condition has been almost same in the country (Catalano et al, 2004).

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 Identify and discuss the reason and any possible barriers to Mary accessing health care.

Mary works for a longer duration of 16 hours a day. She has been smoking and living with her parents in a council flat. She is two months of pregnancy. All these situations show that Mary has been in condition of extreme social and economic pressure. She has been facing money or the financial constraint. She is not living with her husband. There could be a reason that he may not be supporting her. She cannot afford to buy or live in her own flat that is the reason she is living with her parents in their flat. She is not able to get enough resources for her livelihood and in order to get them; she is working for 16 hours a day in spite of being 2 months of pregnancy. She may be facing a lot of issues as per my judgment like: unhealthy relations with spouse, no support from in-laws, financial distress, ill health and even social limitations that are forcing her to work longer and smoke for getting relieved from stress and pain.

B. Using the case scenario, you must demonstrate in this section of your report your understanding of models of health promotion by:

 Identifying and analysing the links between government strategies and models of health promotion in relation to the case study

There has been a lot of population in UK who are smokers. The graph has been taken from one of the governmental sources as a report generated (Labonte & Laverack, 2001). The second image shows that government has been quite serious on the issues of smoking as it has a larger and complex hierarchy in terms of its promotional team for doing a lot for the anti-smoking programs. Mary as discussed above is facing economic, social, societal and various other constraints. She has to work for longer duration and even generate money so that she could arrange money for her pregnancy treatments and even her livelihood. The hierarchy shows that government has formed various levels. At these levels there have been a control team that is taking care of the various anti-smoking programs. Although it may be doing a lot in regard to control smoking and supporting people so that they could quit smoking but the effectiveness of the initiatives may not be large. The different units show that government has been taking measures like: organizing anti-smoking campaigns, circulation of smoking related brochures and the information pamphlets so that people may get aware of the ill effects of smoking, arranged for the anti-smoking centres where people can avail benefits etc. Government may not be encouraging it on public places but people who have to do it will even do it sitting at their homes or remote areas. Even after writing on the cigarette packets that smoking is injurious to health still people may be smoking. Mary has been smoking as cigarettes have tobacco that releases tension by stimulation of the mind. It controls the mind movement and restricts it this way she may be thinking that by smoking she is able to control her mind and body and get relieved from tensions and stress surmounting her.

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Explaining the role different professionals in health and social care have on meeting health promotion targets by set by government in relation to the case study

It is not that only government takes the necessary steps and initiatives towards the health and its promotion related to the public. There are various levels and categories of people who are involved with the government in making the program a success.  It is a level and combined efforts of the people that decide on whether a program would be successful or not. Every person involved in team of governmental initiative plays a key role. There are doctors, nurses, health care professionals, ministers, assistants and various other professionals who give their equal contributions. Doctors and Nurses together assistant consult and discuss the problems with the patients and help them in getting relieved from them. Health Ministers and the governmental teams develop the mission, values and the objectives of the health promotional campaigns. They are designing the material and resources for the organizing of the campaigns. It also ensures with its ministers and team that program should be a success. Based on the entire discussion, it could be concluded that a health care program or an initiative could be successful only if it has been developed with equal and combined efforts of the people (Green & Kreuter, 1990).

Discussing the role of routines in promoting healthy living with respect to Mary in the case study

For the promotion of the health and care, there has been a significant role that routines play in the life of an individual. In the case of Mary, in case even if Mary decides to quit smoking and join the anti-smoking program then also she is entangled in her routines and life a lot that she would not be able to join it. Whereas on the other hand in case her financial situation is taken care of then she would join the regular centre program of anti-smoking and reduce on the number of cigarettes that she has been consuming each day. With the routines and regular programs, she may be cutting on her cigarettes and then finally quit smoking every day. Routines play a role in developing a schedule or the plan based on the time table that makes an individual to follow it has it comes to his biological clock that is set in our minds. Even if a person is forced to do certain activity that is out of his routine then due to his time table and biological clock he ends up following his routine that he does every day.

Mary has been facing socio-economic troubles and these are the reasons for her smoking in order to relieve her stress. Her condition of working for longer hours and staying with her parents reveal that she has troubled times with her husband as well. Hence she is trying to overcome her issues by earning through medium of superstore (Resnick, 2000).

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Identify the theories of health behaviour and explain how health beliefs are translated into behaviour in relation to Mary and the case study.

The theories related with the health behaviour and promotions are: Health Promotion and Behaviour Change, Descriptive Midrange Theory and Integrated Theory of Health behaviour change. These specific theories have been laid down based on the research project and analysis done on the behaviour, socio-economic conditions and the experiences of the various people suffering from illnesses. The theories say that people try quitting the bad habits like smoking and drinking when the live picture of their ill effects are discussed with them either with face to face interactions, pamphlets, brochures, video programs and activities. The only essential factor and the point that has to be placed in the mind of the individuals are developing or creating the fear factor of their deaths and the problems their families have to face after them. These theories are explaining that unless the potential threats and problems are known to the individuals, they will not quit or remove their bad health deteriorating habits. These beliefs are converted into reality and human behaviour in the following ways:

  • Sharing of experiences, beliefs and the real life horror stories associated with the acquainted people. By observing, discussing and analysing these situations, people get adapted to these situations and try quitting their bad habits. The major threat and terror that they will have when their habit would be result of their family problems and children issues (Bandura, 1998).
  • The researched and data that has been analysed shows that people have been in the consistent routines of their bad habits as they are having lack of information and proper educational programs. When they are educated and told on the severe problems and disturbance in their families then they surely take up the initiative to remove the bad habit.

Mary has to be made aware by the health professionals that her smoking habit would result in the illness of the baby in her womb. She has to be shared with various experiences and the real life stories on what has happened earlier with various people when they did not leave their smoking habits (Gillies, 1998).

Identify and discuss the potential effects of conflicts with local industry on health promotion with respect to Mary and the case study

When the health industry would itself have problems and conflicts then the health program or the promotional campaign would never be successful. It is essential that all the team members of health promotional program and even the society should join hands in order to make a campaign successful. All health and medical professionals irrespective of their levels have to join hands and contribute equally in order to make their program successful. Conflicts could be avoided by joint initiative, support and the growth plan of the individuals (Rychetnik et al, 2002).

Explain with examples the importance of providing relevant health-related information to the public with respect to the case study.

It is always advisable that relevant and appropriate information on the health and safety of the individuals should reach them. When the relevant information would reach them they will be able to take up even the precautionary measures and essential steps. They will try avoiding and eliminating the factors that may cause harmful effects to their as well as their family’s health. As per the case scenario, there is nobody to guide Mary. She has to be guided and counselled by the health professionals and her colleagues that smoking will cause problems in her pregnancy and even cause death of her baby. She has to be shown on various real life examples. She has to be given information on the health and safety and problems related with smoking.  She could be given information through brochures, pamphlets and the programs that government has already started. She has to be told on all the problems like breathing issues, skin related infections and various other diseases that may be caused due to bad habit of smoking. She may be given data, facts and figures that may change her point of view and mind on the habit of smoking and quitting it.

Through the means of health related information and the figures, she will get to know on the problems of anti-smoking campaigns. Based on this; she may change her behaviour and attitude towards the habit of smoking. All that is required is the combined initiative and effort that health professionals have to take up in regard to the health of people.

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Health campaigns and programs help in spreading the rightful and essential information among the public on the significance of keeping a good health and safety for the individuals. These campaigns help in getting people know about the harmful effects of their smoking and drinking activities. They get the enlarged view in the form of various experiences, video stories and the histories of the people who have died because of the ignorance and lack of programs. Although there are a lot of initiatives and programs that have been taken up by the government yet their frequency and occurrences have to be controlled and evaluated for their effectiveness and efficiency in enforcement (Catalano et al, 2004).

These programs are the tool and the way in which the essential and relevant information reaches the target audiences. In case these programs have to be successful then their effectiveness has to be measured and evaluated. Health Promotional campaign was organized by me last year and I was the head of the campaign that was to be organized. The name of the Program was “SMOKING KILLS”

risks from smoking

Health care Campaign for Community based health promotion in health care settings


The program was for the entire community targeting East London where the people have been smoking a lot. It was made that in case people would be found smoking at public places then a fine of around 100 pounds would be levied on them immediately. The tagline given to the program was “SMOKING KILLS”.

Risks of Smoking

  • Cancers of Lung, mouth and entire body.
  • It is a habit that kills.
  • It is a silent killer.
  • Smoking causes respiratory illnesses.
  • Helps in causing blood related disorders.
  • Reduces the average life of an individual.
  • Disturbs the family life.
  • Makes the indirect or passive smoking among members of family.

It was a community health promotion program against the smoking. I was made the head of the program and was given the team of 5 people. I delegated the responsibility to all. Various health care professionals and the experienced people who have quit smoking were called to share their experiences (Kreuter et al, 2000).


There is an immediate need of making people aware through the health care programs and the initiatives so that they transform their behaviours and ill habits of smoking. Although government has taken up various health initiatives and programs, yet there is a necessity of organizing them by targeting the right set of people with right approach on regular basis.

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United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General, Centres for Disease Control, National Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention, Health Promotion (US), President's Council on Physical Fitness, & Sports (US). 1996. Physical activity and health: a report of the Surgeon General. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Gillies, P. 1998. Effectiveness of alliances and partnerships for health promotion. Health promotion international13(2). Stokols, D. 1992. Establishing and maintaining healthy environments: toward a social ecology of health promotion. American Psychologist47(1), 6.

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