Icon college Unit 29 Health Promotion 2

Executive Summary

The assignment is based on the case study is about Mary, who is two months pregnant and is a smoker and a drinker. She left her studies at the age of 15 and is currently working in a supermarket for 16 hours in a week. She currently lives with her parents in east London. This is a part of Icon college health promotion assignment help, discusses about health issues. The assignment includes the effects of socio economic circumstances on her health and barriers in accessing the health facility.

Further assignment contains government strategies, different partners and models of health promotion. The last part of assignment contains the self-evaluation.

Task 1A

1.1 Effects of Socio Economic Circumstances on Mary’s Health

Mary is two months pregnant and is a smoker. Smoking has the very bad impacts on her as well on the health of Foetus. The Socio economic circumstances have the direct impact on her health.  People who have the low socio economic status receive the less preventive services, fewer cardiac interventions and worse diabetes care (Fiscella, 2000). Mary, in spite of her pregnancy has to work in a super market. This shows her low socio economic status.

Smoking is identified as the largest contributor to the socio economic inequalities and can lead to premature mortality. The prevalence of smoking is significantly higher among women who have inferior education, lower income and lower occupational class. In addition, specific disadvantaged groups, such as lone mothers and the unemployed, smoke more often and in greater quantities.

The low socio economic status is very complex characteristic and encompasses the quality of health along with education and income. These inequalities are unfair and unnecessary (Carson et al, 2007). This has also taken people towards the long term impairments and illness. Ability to invest in the health is also directly associated with the individual’s health.

The growing differences in the socio economic status have increased the health differences. These reasons took Mary towards adopting the bad habit of smoking. This is known as the determinant of health. The determinants include the all non – biological and non – genetic influences on the health. It covers the risk factors such as smoking, drinking etc. The entire society is built on the social hierarchies and axes of differentiation.  This is the pivotal link between the social determinants and its influence on people’s health.

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These factors have shaped the Mary’s life to the extent that she is exposed to the risk that has the direct impact on her health. The people living in the poor circumstances are exposed to health damaging environment and get themselves involved in health damaging behaviours like Mary.

1.2 An assessment of the importance of government resources such as reports/research on inequalities in health in relation to the case study.

Research Report for European countries has shown the ill effects associated with the socio economic status.  The Walness report of 2006, depicts that there are set objectives for major determinants of health inequalities and health. The objective of health determinant must focus on reducing the exposure to the damaging factors of health. This set objective is taken forward by many local and national targets such as: raising the living standards and educational standards and to reduce the overall smoking rate. The objectives are designed with the focus on equal distribution of major heath determinants. The following economic and social resources can actually reduce the inequalities in health:

  • Meaningful employment
  • Education
  • Health food
  • Adequate housing facilities
  • Accessible health infrastructure
  • Justice and safety

These were the key determinants of the policy and are set with the goal of reducing the socioeconomic incline in health. This initiative has impacted and influenced the economic environment. For example: the changes in the social security and taxation system since 1997 have helped in raising the average standard of living.

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1.3 Identify and discuss the reason and any possible barriers to Mary accessing health care

Mary is living in the east London. Poor people living in the affluent areas have more disadvantages. The area measures make the biggest impact on the socio economic status of individuals and their health due to the effect of wider neighbourhood (leventhal, 2000). This is very important barrier. This is also evident that living in a poor area with poor housing and local services takes an additional toll on the health of people. This area effect is recognized as the biggest barrier to the access of health care facilities. These inequalities are evident throughout the Mary’s life and have also lead to premature mortality.

Her low income is also a barrier to access the resources that are mandatory for maintaining the health. Her economic hardship has increased her risk of health hazards. Housing facilities also have the impacts on the health. Insecurity related to the housing is also associated with the inequalities in health (Waters, 2001).

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TASK 1B

2.1 Identifying and analysing the links between government strategies and models of health promotion in relation to the case study

Health inequalities are the result of unequal distribution of health facilities. People with lower socio economic status are more prone to health hazards and likely to get into the unhealthy behaviours like smoking, drinking, inadequate diet etc. (Aldana, 2001).

The government has made several health strategies and models for health promotion. Improving the behaviour related to health can actually decrease the health inequality. The various health strategies include:

Community Engagement: The primary responsibility for engaging and consulting with the local communities about the health and social care needs is the responsibility of primary trust care commissioner (Dean, 1996). The commissioners are expected to work closely with the local authorities, agencies and voluntary organizations in strategic partnership for developing the arrangements to improve the wellbeing and health of local communities.

The Health Promotion Strategic framework Model: This model is the structural element for the health promotion. It consists of the five approaches for community, health services and education. Its main purpose is to:

  • Achieve the objective of promoting, protecting and improving the health of society
  • Ensuring the best health promotion practices
  • Increasing the organization’s capacity to improve the health within the social gradient.
  • Developing a multi-sectorial approach for addressing the health inequalities and social determinants of the health.
  • Ensuring the value for money in the context of reducing the workforce.

The Health Promotion Strategic framework is the first national framework for promoting health in people with low socio economic status like Mary. The framework is consistent and clear with the national objective of promoting the health. It has the cohesive and integrated level of intervention.

The most important health promotion can be achieved through the approach the influences the determinants of health in equalities and health.  The health promotion priorities include the following factors:

  • Promoting the physical activities
  • Promoting the accessible nutritious food
  • Promoting the mental health’
  • Reducing the tobacco use and its potential harm
  • Reducing the alcohol use and harm
  • Promoting the safe environment
  • Promoting the sexual and reproductive health

The above factors will be effective if health promotion practice is supported by the current policy environment. The proper planning is required for effective and efficient integrated health promotion. Then, measuring the impacts of health promotion is also important and for this a proper framework is required to support the agencies and organizations (Wilkinson, 2003).  The commissioners are expected to work closely with the local authorities, agencies and voluntary organizations in strategic partnership for developing the arrangements to improve the wellbeing and health of local communities.

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2.2 Explaining the role different professionals in health and social care have on meeting health promotion targets set by government in relation to the case study.

The main partners in health are the;

Primary care trust that is responsible for providing the primary health services to people. They have the dedicated team for preventive health and social care and promoting the health. They work towards reducing the health inequalities in the local communities (Marmot, 2005).

General Practitioners: They play an important role in providing the health services. They are generally the first point of contact for people. Every person in UK has the right to register with them.

NHS Centre: They offer the quick access to the people. There are 66 centres in England at almost every convenient location. They offer the advice and information over the phone as well. They provide the self-care tips in particular health conditions.

There are many health promoting hospitals and schools that are working in this specific area. They work under the specific health promotion policy. There is designated staffs that is engaged in the health promotional activities.  They provide the healthy information to the people and also health and physical education. There is also provision for immunization at schools.

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2.3 Discussing the role of routines in promoting healthy living with respect to Mary in the case study.

Considering the Mary’s situation, these promotional activities will be helpful for her as she will be educated about the potential harms to her own health along with her child’s health due to smoking. The information will be provided to her regarding the specific health issues.  She can also avail the QUIT counselling services for getting rid of smoking. This will help her in making the routine and improve her health conditions. Along with these, the manager at her workplace can also help her in maintain the good health by providing the good working conditions.

There are many external agencies that run the scheme to help the people like Mary and promote the health and wellbeing in the society. They try to stimulate and sustain the proper work environment with health care partnership. The aim behind this partnership is to provide the support to people who are low in socio economic status.

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TASK 2:

2.1 Identify the theories of health behaviour and explain how health beliefs are translated into behaviour

The behavioural change theories explain the reasons behind certain health behaviour. The theories examine the precursors and predictors of health behaviours. The theories have the common elements like motivation and self-efficacy. The self-efficacy reflects the amount of effort made towards the change (Bandura, 1977).

Health Belief Model

This model was developed by Irwin Rosenstock.  This is the most influential model of health promotion. The model is based on four pillars:

  • Perceived susceptibility
  • Perceived severity
  • Perceived barriers
  • Perceived costs

The model includes the preventive health measures, health screening and illness behaviours. As per the theory the socio economic status is the biggest factor behind health motivation (Becker, 1975). The theory has classified the health behaviours as positive health behaviours and general health behaviours. The health related actions based on these behaviours have the positive outcome in the modern society.

Mary’s condition is related to the low socio economic status. That is why she is not motivated towards her health and has the harmful habits like smoking. She is not able to adopt the desired behaviour, and as per this the health related action is required for her.

Reasoned Action Theory

It was developed by Martin Fishbin and Icek Ajzen. The theory is based on the assumption that people consider the consequences of their behaviour before engaging into them. The three constructs based on these are – attitude, subjective norm and behavioural intention. The behavioural intention shows the individual’s towards the subjective norms and behaviour. Subjective norms in the theory are explained as the expectations of the significant individuals like family, parents, co-workers and experts.

Theory of Planned Behaviour

This is developed by Icek Ajzen and is the extension of reasoned action theory. It has the additional element of perceived behavioural control predictor. This is evolved from the concept of self-efficacy and is effective when people don’t have the conscious control over their actions.

In Mary’s case this theory is useful as she is influenced by the socio economic status and do not have the conscious control over her smoking habit. The three main factors that influence her condition are:

  • Attitude towards the behaviour
  • Self-evaluation about the impact of behaviour on others
  • The degree of perceived behavioural control

2.2 Identify and discuss the potential effects of conflict with local industry on health promotion

Prevention is always better than control, but the educational and behavioural factors are the biggest barriers for achieving that. For example: the ignorance of risk, cultural pressure etc. Mary’s case is related to smoking. Since she is pregnant, she is on the risk of spontaneous abortion and the baby also has the substantial health risk.

The Department of Health has laid down the responsibility of producing the health guidance on smoking and its harmful effects to national Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. They are required to work with primary Care Trust and Strategic Health Authorities (Lorenc.et.al, 2004). There services have helped many people to quit smoking. However the conflict due to policy intervention has made it inappropriate for smoking termination. The pregnant women should be encouraged to quit the smoking as soon as possible. The taxation and cost issues among them have also reduced the quality of immunization program. The administrative barriers are also a major cause of conflict between them that leads to unachievable targets among them.

The local industry must overcome the entire barriers of health promotion and continue to help the people like Mary so that she can quit smoking and lead a health life.

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2.3 Explain with examples the importance of providing relevant health related information to public

Mary is not mush educated and also she also have the low socio economic status due to which she don’t have the access to basic medical facilities. Health information is fundamental in health care.  Mary needs the relevant health information, so that she could understand the ill effects of smoking for her and the child.  The health related information is very important and must include:

  • Ensuring the transparency of the medical product agencies that guarantees the complete public access.
  • Developing the effective sources of unbiased and comparative sources of treatment choices available.
  • Communication between the health professional and patients
  • Enforcement and implementation of European regulation regarding the promotion of drugs.

Health information is the fundamental need of every citizen and this can be achieved through public health promotion (Green, 1999). Good information has the direct and indirect outcomes related to public health. Its main objective is to gain the control over the health determinants. The people of low economic status like Mary require this health promotion the most, so that they change their lifestyle and improve on their health conditions. Health information will also influence their behaviour towards positive outlook.

Health education is part of health promotion, with appropriate political and social actions that aims at achieving the accessible health facilities (Daniel, 1999). Effected people must get the proper information so that they can raise the quality of life.

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TASK 3

Explain how your health promotion campaign supports government health promotion strategies (Self-evaluation)

From the above information, this is clear that we must work towards the health promotion in various sectors of life. Health promotion is significant to help the people like Mary who have the low socio economic status. They lack the proper education and general health facilities, that is why it becomes important for them get the fundamental information about health. The information about health can be providing through the health promotion.

There are many public health strategies developed by the government for health education and promotion. This will help the people to gain the control and maintain their daily life in a healthy way. Mary has an awful habit of smoking that is very bad for her health as she is pregnant. She should be properly informed about the harmful effects of smoking and motivated towards quitting this habit. There are many external agencies that run the scheme to help the people like Mary and promote the health and wellbeing in the society. They try to stimulate and sustain the proper work environment with health care partnership. The aim behind this partnership is to provide the support to people who are low in socio economic status.

The main health promotion areas are: school health promotion, workplace health promotion, rural health promotion and community based health promotion. From the Mary’s case, it is important to create a campaign for health promotion at community level as there are lots of health inequalities there.

The growing differences in the socio economic status have increased the health differences. These reasons took Mary towards adopting the bad habit of smoking. This is known as the determinant of health. The determinants include the all non – biological and non – genetic influences on the health. It covers the risk factors such as smoking, drinking etc. The entire society is built on the social hierarchies and axes of differentiation.  This is the pivotal link between the social determinants and its influence on people’s health.

References:

Aldana, S. G. (2001). Financial impact of health promotion programs: a comprehensive review of the literature. American Journal of Health Promotion, 15(5), 296-320. Bandura.A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Towards the unifying theory of behavioural change, Psychological review, 84,191-215 Canning, U., Millward, L. M., Raj, T. and Warm, D. (2004). Drug use prevention among young people: a review of reviews. London: Health Development Agency Carson, B., T. Dunbar, et al ‘Eds’. (2007). Social Determinants of Indigenous Health.  Crows Nest, Allen & Unwin

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