This Edexcel HR Management Assignment is the study of the human behaviour understanding in an organisation. Human resource management is responsible for maintaining the good relation of the employee of the organisation within the organisation, because it is very important for the smooth working of the organisation. Human resource management is one of the most essential parts of the process of management because it gives the leverage to the management of managing its people. Human resource management is a continuous process it starts with the commencement of the organisation and ends with the closing of the organisation; every organisation needs to manage its human resource for achieving its goals which are already being defined by the top management. (Management theory review, 2011)
P1.1. Differentiate between personnel management and human resource management.
Human resource management (HRM) is a broad concept. Personnel management (PM) and human resource development (HRD) are a part of HRM. HRM is dissimilar from PM both in orientation and scope. HRM provides viewpoint to people as a crucial asset or source that is to be used for the upliftment of society, employees and organisations. It is rising as a diverse management philosophy. PM views as narrower concept as compared to HRM which promotes mutuality- mutual goals, mutual respect, mutual reward and mutual responsibility. HRM cannot be handled in seclusion. It is being incorporatedinto the general strategic business management.
Personnel management has a reversed orientation and restricted scope. It considers labour as a device, the behaviour of which could be influenced for the upliftment of the organisation and substituted when it was worn-out. This becomes the reason that HRM replaces the role of PM. Currently all the organizations are following HRM due to its wider concept. (McGraw-Hill)
P1.2. Assess the function of the human resource management in contributing to organizational purposes.
The functions of human resource management are of two types, managerial function and operational functions. Managerial function includes:
Planning: It is the basic stepwhich is performed in order to attain the future goals of the organisation. This step includes the planning of requirement of human resource, recruitment, selection and after that training will be provided. This function also includes the personal needs forecasting, behaviour and attitude of the employees and impact of all these things on the organisation.
Organising: In order to attain the goals of the organisation, organizing function is adopted after planning. This function includes the formation of structure and distributes the responsibilities or tasks, based on the ability of every employee of the organisation.
Directing: The main aim behind this function is to activate, lead, motivate and command the employees in order to attain the goal of the organisation. This function basically provides the proper direction to the employees so that predetermined goals can be achieved. It helps in building proper human and industrial relations besides protecting employee assistance.
Controlling: With the help of this function, organisation can constantly improve the activities of management or administration. It is the technique by which competency of every individual and teams involved in attaining the target is evaluated. (Cite Management, 2005)
The operational functions of human resource management are the tasks which are entrusted to the human resource department. These functions are concerned with specific activities of procuring, developing, compensating and integrating an efficient work force.
Procurement: It is related with employing and securing the appropriate andaccurateamount of people vitalfor attaining the objectives of the organisation. It includes various activities like human resource planning, job analysis, recruitment, placement, selection, orientation or induction.
Development: Human resource development is the process of improving the knowledge, aptitudes, values and skills of the employees so that they can complete the current and potential jobs more efficiently. This function includes factors like training, career planning and development, performance and potential appraisal and executive development.
Compensation: It refers to providing fair and reasonablecompensation to employees for their involvementin achieving the objectives of theorganisation. It consist activities like bonus, job evaluation, and wage and salary administration.
Integrationof HR: It is the process of integration the objective of the organisation with those of its associates. Integration includes encouraging employees through different non-financial and financial incentives, handling employee grievances through formal grievances procedures, providing job satisfaction, conflict resolution, workers participation in management, collective bargaining, and employee counselling and so on. (Boselie and Paauwe, 2003)
P1.3.Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in human resource management.
Line managers are basically those managers to whom every employee or team straightforwardly reports. They are generally known as front-line managers and are placed at a lower level in the hierarchy of management. The basic responsibilities of a line manager are described below:
- Dealing with clients or customers.
- Managing operational cost.
- Managing operational performance.
- Checking quality.
- Providing technical proficiency.
- Supervising or observing the work process.
- Distribution of the work among employees.
- Day-to-day management of the people.
Line managers are also responsible for recruitment and selection of employees at lower position. They provide training and assistance to the employees. Line managers also take care of performance evaluation of employees and deals with grievance as well as discipline. (Kulik and Bainbridge, 2005)
P1.4. Analyse the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on human resource management.
Importance of HRM is heating day by day because of the global business. Every business owner desires its company to trade internationally. International business and domestic business requires the important assets i.e., human assets. To comply with the government standards of rule and regulations there are many acts which prevent the employees to exploit at workplaces. Mentions below are some of Acts which is mandatory for the organisation to follow and employees as well:
- Sex Discrimination 1995/97 Act is very helpful and provides parity among the employees they are not subjected against any gender, caste, colour, and creed discrimination.
- Race Relation Amendment Act 2000 enables the organisation to create diverse workforce. It tells that skills is not bound to any race, it is the human skill which is being utilized to achieve the target. So this act does allow any discrimination. Promotes the good relations, and equal opportunity among different racial groups.
- Equal Pay Act 1970, it is mandatory for every organisation to pay their human resource according to the industry standards and on the basis of relative worth of the job. This act eliminates the pay scale differences between men and woman and provides equal rights to both of them.
- The impact of Employment Relation Act 2004 strengthens the relation between the workmen and the worker of the organisation. To construct harmony and healthy relationships.
- Data Protection Act states about genuine data collection which adheres to legally and proper security measures should be taken in order to secure the information. Employees have the right to seek the information from the organisation and can be alter if it differs.
These acts has substantial impacts in Human Resource Management activities because the work of the HR manger is to continuously monitor these acts so that it can be applied in the organisational rules and policies so he/she have good control without any inequity. (Shilling, 2004)
P2.1. Analyse the reasons for human resource planning at Tesco. Outline the stages Tesco can adapt in planning human resource Requirements.
Human resource planning:
Human resource planning is defined as the process by which management decides the path by which an organization moves from its present manpower situation to its preferred manpower situation. Through it the management struggles to attain accurate number and exact variety of individual at exact place, at accurate time, performing doing stuffs which leads to both the company, and the individual obtaining, most of the long-range advantage.The main aim of human resource planning is to make best possible consumption of an organisation’s current and future human resources.
Reasons for human resource planning at Tesco:
Tesco is a giant company. It includes more than 360,000 employees worldwide. So, in order to manage huge amount of employees efficiently, human resource planning is adopted. It helps in reducing the wastage of manpower as well as useful in evaluating the efficiency of human resource programs and policies of management. In Tesco, human resource planning is the process of analysing company’s likely future needs for people in terms of skills, number and location and allows the company to plan how these needs can be encountered through the process of recruitment and training of the workforce.
Stages adopted by Tesco in planning HR requirements:
- Need Assessment: First step is to analyse the future needs of people in the company in terms of numbers, skills and locations.
- Person Specification: Person specification stage includes identifying the attributes, characteristics, and skills that an individual needs to perform a particular task.
- Recruitment: Recruitment is a process of inviting a large pool of eligible candidate to apply for a job in the organisation.
- Selection: Selection process includes selecting the most suitable candidate to fill the opening of the company while strictly following the employment and labour laws. (French and Rumbles, 2010)
P2.2. Compare the recruitment and selection process of Tesco with another organisation such as M&S or Sainsbury etc.
Recruitment and selection procedure of Tesco:
Tesco’s recruitment process:
Initially, with the help of workforce planning table, the company establishes the likely demand for the new staff and considers the managerial as well as non-managerial positions to be filled.After gathering the total requirements, company tries to fill it with the internal talent plan by filling maximum number of requirements internally i.e. transferring or promoting existing employees. If in any case, appropriate candidate is not found than company uploads the requirement on intranet for the time period of two weeks. After that the company advertises requirement on its website www.tesco-careers.com as well takes the help of media like radio, television, Google and magazine like The Appointment Journal and also advertises offline by accepting direct CVs in order to recruit suitable candidates. (Case Study)
Tesco’s selection process:
Selection process is carried out by initially screening most suitable applicants based on their curriculum vitae according to the requirements of the organization. Selected applicants are further called for the interview process. Preferred candidates are than sent to the assessment center where team activities and problem solving exercises are performed to assess every candidate. Successful candidates are further called for final interview, which is conducted by manager. Based on that, offer letter are distributed to the selected individuals by the organisation. (Case Study)
Recruitment and selection process of Sainsbury:
Sainsbury is one of the biggest competitors of Tesco as well as oldest and leading supermarkets in United Kingdom. The company deals in variety of products and its retail stores are situated at different cities. The HR policy of the company was very much centralised and all the decisions of the company was taken by the top management. Employees of the company were given appropriate opportunities to excel themselves as well as compensate for their involvement. The process of recruitment and selection of Sainsbury is described as follows:
The company does not accept Curriculum Vitae of any candidate directly. All the recruitment of the company is handled through its website and all its vacancies of supermarkets, store support centre, convenience stores, pharmacies and logistic depot are posted on its websites. So, in order to apply for any position, the candidate has to visit the website of the company i.e. www.sainsburys.jobs/graduates.
Initially, with the help of application form or questionnaire, eligibility of the applicants is performed. This questionnaire takes around 2 hours to complete. After that 20 minutes test is conducted in order to check numerical ability and verbal reasoning of the selected candidate. The telephonic interview of 30 minutes is conducted of the selected candidates to reveal ability, drive and opinion in order to manipulate the person. Preferred candidates are further transferred to the assessment centre which is situated at the store support centre of the company. This is performed to display their abilities with the help of sequence of tests in order to analyse the present level and future prospective of the candidate. At the end, interview of the selected candidate is performed by the Director of the company. Based on the result of the interview, offer letter is given to the preferred candidate within 2 days. (Sainsbury Jobs, 2012)
P2.3. Evaluate the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection techniques in Tesco and another organization such as Sainsbury.
Evaluation of recruitment policy of Tesco:
The biggest strength of the Tesco’s recruitment policy is that the cost of recruitment is reduced as most of the recruitments are done internally which helps in avoiding investing money on advertisement or various other recruitment procedures. Due to promotion, the existing employees get motivated; this helps in yielding better results for the company. It further increases the morale of the existing employee and strengthens their commitment towards the company. Because of maximum internal recruitments, less training and orientation is required.
Weakness of this type of Tesco’s recruitment policy is that due to open invitation via advertisement, huge number of candidates may apply which further leads to time consuming screening process of the application. Huge emphasis laid on recruitment through internal sources whereas young blood or new candidates are provided less chance to work in the company whereas Sainsbury provides more preference to recruit from external sources than internal sources. (Case Study)
P3.1. Assess the employee motivation theory and its reward structure at Tesco’s.
Tesco has adopted various approaches and theories of motivation in order to encourage their employees. These theories help in enormous ways to understand the behaviour and nature of employees at workplace. From the given case study and I examine the three theories majorly opted by Tesco to motivate employees are:
- Initially, Tesco the Maslow’s hierarchy Theory has highly appreciated because it has identified the need of the employees, able to recognize the need of different employee and offer satisfaction for the specific needs. It has taken care of providing the job security and safe environment for to work. Employees have higher level of needs and they always direct their efforts and capacities to fulfill the attainment of higher level of need to self-respect and esteem from others. They get the same environment in Tesco and constantly striving to fulfill their higher level of needs after satisfying the previous.
- Two- factor theory relates with the working setting of Tesco. Tesco has maintained those factors where the morale of the employees never goes down and provide the chance to get the promotion internally. Continuous appraisal and enables them some specific task to monitor the performance where employees learn to attain the higher position. It regularly maintains the hygiene factors through monetary rewards and motivational factors the job enrichment. It has able maintain the relationship between satisfaction and productivity.
- Evaluation of ERG theory stands for existence, relatedness and growth. This theory is focused on the human needs in the organisation. Tesco identifies the need of employees on store and non- store functions. According to the theory Tesco do not follow the rigid hierarchy system and it has the flat structure but with the clear-cut guidelines to avoid the confusions and disputes. (Case Study)
P3.2. Evaluate the process of job evaluation and other factors determining pay.
Job evaluation is the process where the worth of the jobs assesses according to the organisational requirements. Job evaluation justifies in making the wage differentials as per the need of job. Job evaluation is the next step in determining the pay and establishes the relative worth of the job. Job evaluation is the major component of job analysis. Job analysis is the process of collecting the information of the job. Job analysis is categorised in the two sets of data are:
- Job description
- Job specification
Job Description provides the description of job related activities. It includes the roles and responsibilities of job. It contains the information on job title, duties, job summary, location, to which the supervision given and received, working environment, machines & tools, and safety and precautions at workplace.
Job Specification enables the requirements of candidate’s capabilities that will be the part of job or job-holder. It is the statement of requirements like education of the applicant, skills (technical and behavioural), qualification, way of communication, sense of responsibilities and traits (Aswathapa, 2008).
Attractive remuneration enables an organisation to attract, retain, and motivate competent people. Retaining competent workforce and longevity of their services in the organisation is depends on the attractive remuneration packages. Employees set expectations about rewards and compensation to be received.
Factors of determining the pay are:
- Cost of benefits
- Ability of employer to pay
- Industry significance and standards
- Skills and competencies of employee
- Organisational policy and procedures
- Tax benefits of organisation and employee
- Labour legislation and Wages Act
- Profit and loss of the company
P3.3. Assess the effectiveness of reward systems in different contexts in Tesco.
In Tesco, those employees are considered as Customer Assistant got the 2.7% pay rise and take their pay above £7 per hour. Other than the Customer Assistant got the 2.5 % pay rise (BBC News, 2014).
Tesco follows the non-financial rewards and edge to get the better knowledge which helps in making the career progression. Tesco Express selected the ten members to get the exposure and better knowledge in six weeks training so as to get the career kick-start in the field retail. This training is collaborated with The City of Liverpool College, it deals with the business and provide desirable workforce (Smith, 2104).
This is the glimpse of the reward structure of Tesco where the first priority is given to the customer much more related to the services but those who are offering their best services to the customer, Tesco in not behind and delayed to give the rewards quickly. Above mentioned structure is not the end rather it contains more and more systems or rewards that is the reason employees always flatter this organisation in number of ways.
P3.4. Examine the methods at Tesco that is using to monitor employee performance.
The giant supermarket grades the employees to give the financial anon financial rewards. The Tesco workers are given the electronics armbands to mangers to provide the grade according to the hard work. So, on the basis of their massive efforts given marks and this also implies to improve the productivity of the employees (The Independent, 2014).
It becomes very important for the organisation to evaluate the performance of organisation and employee as well. In the dynamic world organisation has to keep the track of work and business operations. This gives sustainability for the longer period of time and opportunities for continuous improvement.
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P4.1. Identify the reasons for cessation of employment with an organisation in General.
Earlier the relationship between employer and employee was much unregulated. The relationship was mainly based on the bargaining and negotiation of contracting the worker. Workers were independent to and free to leave the organisation and the similarly with the employer where they were free to fire the workers. That was the time when these became the reason of cessations of employment. Now the time has changed the relationship of employer and employee has due to the increased scale of production, specialised team of workforce has increases, and division of the work on the basis of job (Reyes, 2010).
- Many times organisation faces financial loss due to which it has to measures to reduce the cost and prevent them from the loss so company decides to give the layoffs to the employees. Layoffs become the main reason of cessation of employment.
- Termination of the contracts becomes the cause of the employment cessation. Companies hired those workers on the season basis or temporary so they provide the employment for some specified period of time with accomplish the definite task. After completing the task and time employment of the worker stops.
- Disputes are one factor which provides the worker or the employee to leave the job so it states that who causes the disputes and become detrimental. To avoid those conflicts and occurrence in the future.
- Violation of company’s law makes the employer to take the action against employee to fire from the workplace.
- Resignation is the mode of cessation of employment. The decision is taken by employee due to many reasons.
4.2 Describe the employment exit procedure by research in General
Employment exit procedure plays the crucial role for the company. It tells about the company reaction and employee reaction. It not only helps the company to understand the needs of the employees but also it helps employee to understand the weakness and lack of areas.
Exit policy contains the several steps. It is a planned activity of the organisation to show the cessation of the employee employment (Human Resources Management Policy)
- Resignation is the preliminary step of exit procedure.
- Exit Questionnaire is the secondary step. It is used to collect the information from the employee’s reason to leave the company.
- Exit interviews help the company and employee to understand the reason and help in retaining the other employees of the firm.
- Filling for return of retirement system and employee provident fund.
- Clearance refers when the employee get the termination letter.
P4.3. Consider the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation arrangements by research in general.
The company has to make the employment cessation arrangements according to the legal and regulatory framework. The impact is major in the organisation it keeps the organisation under corporate governance and persuades to follow the code of discipline. There are many reason due to which the company has to take action of employment cessation and under legislation these reasons should be mentioned.
- Breach of the company policy and disclose fake information which hampers the organisational operations.
- Any conflict result the slowdown and stoppage of the production leads to the termination.
- Any employee who has criminal background
- Bankruptcy of the organisation becomes legal framework of dissolution of the company and employee termination.
Organisation is ready to take challenges thrown by the market economy. To survive in the competitive scenario every organisation has to make all the attempts to reduce the inefficiencies. Human Resource is such an attempt form the side of the organisation. So the scope of HRM is vast, it includes all the activities and functions like HR planning, recruitment and selection, remuneration and reward system, employee motivation and various act. We have seen the practical implication in Tesco of HRM with the help of case study.
ReferencesAswathapa, K., (2008), Human Resource Management, 5th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill,, BBC News, (2014), Tesco staff to get 2.5% pay rise, , Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-13807266 Boselie, P., Paauwe, J. et al. (2003). "Human resource management, institutionalization and organizational performance: a comparison of hospitals, hotels and local Government." International Journal of Human Resource Management 14(8): 1407-1429. Cite Management, (2005), Managerial functions of HRM, , Available: http://www.citeman.com/22-managerial-functions-of-hrm.html
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